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of the 

Early Settlement 

of Dunedin 


South Otago 


















FIKST SHIPS ... ... ... ... ... 3 















SPOUTS, PICNICS, &c. ... ... ... ... H7 


AND WAIWERA ... ... ... ... LSS 





SETTLERS ... ... ... ... ... J51 





LIST OF SHIPS, 1848-1860 ... ... 282 



AROUND CLUTHA, 1847-1859 ... 284 



AROUND CLUTHA ... ... ... 30 6 


IATION ... ... ... ... Frontispiece. 


ANDERSON, MR. ARCHIBALD ... ... ... ... 16 



AYSON, MR. AND MRS. PETER ... ... ... 149 

BANNERMAN, DR. AND MRS ... ... ... 76 

BARR, MR. AND MRS. JOHN ... ... ... ... 65 

BLATCH, MR. THOS. ... ... ... ... 47 

BROWN, MR. ALEX. ... ... ... 110 

BURNS, DR. AND MRS. ... ... ... 8 

CAMPBELL, MR. AND MRS. ROBERT ... ... ... 102 

CHALMERS, MR. NAT ... ... ... ... 70 

CHRISTIE, MR. AND MRS. ROBERT ... ... ... 149 

CRAWFORD, MR. AND MRS. JOHN ... ... ... 246 

DABINETT'S HOUSE AT WHAREPA 1856... ... ... 155 


FIRST MANSE AT PUERUA ... ... ... ... 82 

GlLFILLAN, MR. AND MRS ... ... ... ... 58 

GORDON, MR. ALEX ... ... .. ... 128 

GRIGOR, MR. AND MRS. ALEX. ... ... ... 230 

GRIGOR, MR. AND MRS. ROBERT ... ... 230 

HAY, MR. AND MRS. GEO. ... ... ... 96 

HAY, MR. AND MRS. WM. ... ... -.. ... 96 

KETTLE, MR. C. H. AND MRS. ... ... ... 16 

MANNING, DR. H. ... ... .. ... ... 58 

MARSHALL, MR. AND MRS. MATTHEW ... ... ... 32 

MCNEIL, MR. JAS , SEN. ... ... ... 110 

MOSLEY. MR. W. S. 47 



MUNKO, MR. GEO. ... ... ... ... ... 246 

PATHKSON, MR. AND MRS. JAMES ... ... ... 230 

PETRIE. MR. AND MRS. ALEX. ... ... ... 173 

RICHARDSON, MAJOR ... ... ... ... 167 

ROBERT, MR. AND MRS J. W. ... ... ... 173 

ROBERTS, MR. W. H. S. ... ... ... ... 167 

ROBERTSON, MR. AND MRS. JAMES ... ... ... 173 

ROBSON, MR. AND MRS. ROBERT ... ... ... 119 


Ross, MR. JOHN ... ... ... ... ... 128 

SHAW, MR. JOHN ... ... ... ... ... 128 

SHEPHERD, MR. JOHN ... ... ..." ... 70 


SOMERVILLE, MR. AND MRS. JAMES ... ... ... 52 

SOMERVILLE, MR. AND MRS. JOHN ... ... ... 52 


SUTHERLAND. MRS. ROBERT ... ... ... ... 128 

THOMSON, MR. AND MRS. J. W. ... ... ... 213 

WATERS, REV. JOHN AND MRS. ... ... ... 196 



WRIGHT, MR. AND MRS. JOHN ... ... ... 261 

YOUNG, MR. SAM ... 110 





WHAT event in the history of a nation is more worthy 
of notice, nay. of veneration and pride, than the 
story of that nation's birth, and of the early 
struggles of the lion-hearted pilgrim fathers men and 
women alike who did so much towards placing its affairs 
on a successful footing? 

Their remarkable foresight, their self-denial, their 
unwearying labours, and their many heart-breaking diffi- 
culties, successfully overcome, demand some hearty 
recognition at the hands of those who have reaped, and 
are still reaping, the benefits. It is to their forefathers 
and their deeds that all nations and peoples point with 
pride, and what more fitting than that the young Otagans 
should do the same? Can there in history be found a 
nobler story of the beginning, and ultimate success of a 
people, than the story of Otago and its founders? In 
the opinion of the compiler of this account there cannot, 
and future generations may point with pride to the early 
pioneers of Otago, who. to their everlasting honour be 
it said, were men and women of the right stamp, worthy 
representatives of those who have always led the van of 
Britain's march of empire round the world. 

11 is with the object of placing on record a short 
account history it cannot be called of the settlement 
of the Province, dealing more especially with the Clutha 
District and its pioneer settlers, that this sketch is 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

In dealing with the subject, it is absolutely necessary 
to exclude a great deal of interesting matter, which would 
be included if a history of the Province were being treated 
upon. Lest much disappointment should arise by this 
omission, short chapters, explanatory of the initial steps 
taken by the original founders of the Province and of their 
development, will be added, as well as an outline of the 
settlement of Dunedin, and of the country between 
Dunedin and the Clutha. 

The compiler desires to record his hearty thanks for 
assistance and information received from early settlers 
and their descendants, from the newspaper Press, and 
from authors of accounts already published. Many 
publications have been put under contribution, and their 
information has been largely used. 

of Dunedin and South Ota go. 



NEW ZEALAND as a Colony and as a nation owes an 
eternal debt of gratitude to the late Edward Gibbon 
Wakefield. who, in 1829. published pamphlets on 
colonisation, and who, in 1837. formed a New Zealand 
Association. For a time his schemes were held in abeyance, 
but in December. 1838. on returning i'rom Canada to 
England, he again set to work, and, during 1839, succeeded 
in forming a new Company, known as the New Zealand 
Land Company. 

Laud was purchased in various parts of the North 
Island of New Zealand, but disputes arose with the 
Maoris and the authorities, and, considerably discouraged 
with the progress of the scheme in the North, the 
Company turned its attention to the South Island, where 
the whaling trade was being carried on with considerable 
success, without molestation by the Maoris. 

As early as 1829 a whaling station was established 
at Preservation Inlet by a Captain Williams, who, at the 
time of the arrival of the first settlers, was a familiar 
figure in Otago. Pilot Driver often got the immigrants 
into trouble by telling them, when inquiries were made 
whether wild pigs were plentiful, that Williams 's pigs 
were wild. Some of these were shot, and Williams made 
the surprised delinquents pay up rather smartly. 

Other whaling stations were established here and 
there along the east coast of Otago. chiefly at Waikouaiti ; 
at the Taieri Mouth, where the Palmers had established 
themselves ; and at Tautuku, where Tommy Chaslauds was 
a well-known figure. Tommy was one of the bravest of a 
race famous for their contempt of danger. For some 
time he was manager for Johnny Jones, and no one 
killed more whales or got more oil than he did. It is 
related of him that, on one occasion, getting into too 
close quarters with a whale, his boat was cut in two by 
the whale's flukes. Chasland saw the danger, and jumped 
overboard. Three of his mates were never seen again, 
but Sam Perkins, another man. and Chasland clung to 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

the stern half of the boat. As a thick fog was coming on. 
Chasland offered to swim to the shore for help. Some 
time after he started his perilous journey the others were 
picked up by a passing boat and taken ashore. They 
failed to find Chasland, but the spy-glass revealed him 
coming to the station, utterly devoid of clothing, after 
swimming six miles to land. 

The Palmers were noted for their skill and daring, 
and knew all the harbours of the east and south coast 
well. When Mr. Tuckett visited Otago, it was Edward 
Palmer who piloted the vessel into the harbour from 
"Waikouaiti. In common with many other early whalers. 
both the Palmers took to themselves Maori wives, and 
many of their descendants are still in Otago. At the time 
of the founding of the settlement, a tall, fine-looking 
man. well dressed, and wearing a high silk hat, was often 
seen visiting Dunedin. That was Edward Palmer, who 
had purchased land at Otakia, where he lived to a ripe 
old age. William Palmer also settled at the Taieri, and 
one of his sons afterwards distinguished himself by his 
bravery at the wreck of the "Wairarapa," on board of 
which ill-fated vessel he was a seaman. 

Mr. John Jones (Johnny) was the first who saw the 
likelihood of the whaling industry being a probable source 
of profit, and soon he had practical control of nearly the 
whole of the whaling stations. As the profits were 
enormous, Jones soon became very rich. He purchased 
land at Waikouaiti, and it speaks well for his general 
shrewdness that all the land was of the very best 
description. At one time he laid claim to a large block, 
extending from the Waikouaiti River to Pleasant River, 
one large estate being purchased, it is said, for a bag of 
black sugar. When the Treaty of Waitangi was enforced. 
Jones had to part with a lot of his too easily acquired 
acres. At the time of the settlement he was a well-known 
personage, with his black cloth coat and silk hat. He 
had a most violent temper, and could brook no interference 
with his will. To him the early settlers were much 
indebted for assistance ; in fact, in those days of hard toil 
and little money he was the bank, his shin-plasters or 
blisters, as they were called, being the cheques current. 
Pie married a Miss Sizemore. and left a family of eleven 

Willcher and Russell w r ere settled at Port Molyneux, 
or Molyneux Bay. They were not whalers, but were 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

the representatives of a Sydney firm, who were desirous 
of establishing large cattle stations. 

Such, in brief, was the position in Otago when, in 
1843, a settlement was projected by the Free Church of 
Scotland to be founded in the territory, and under the 
auspices of the New Zealand Land Company. Mr. Wake- 
field was the life and soul of the Company, and to him 
must be attributed the honour of proposing, and ultimately 
carrying into practical effect, the Otago scheme. Looking 
at the Disruption of the Established Church in Scotland 
with the eye of a statesman, Wakefield perceived the very 
thing he wanted enthusiasm, which, in the words of 
Chalmers, " flourishes in adversity, is fearless in danger, 
and awakens to deeds of renown." It was such enthusiasm 
that Wakefield sought to enlist in the great movement to 
which he had devoted his life, and well did he succeed in 
his efforts. 

When Captain Fitzroy was appointed Governor of 
New Zealand, he carried out instructions from Lord 
Stanley to assign Port Cooper, on Banks' Peninsula, as 
the site for the Scotch Colony, provided a better site 
could not be found on the same Middle Island. When the 
arrangements with the Company were completed, Mr. 
Frederick Tuckett was appointed to conduct the prelimi- 
nary steps, and he suggested the advisability of previously 
exploring the south-eastern and southern coasts, in order 
to determine the best site. Mr. Wakefield endorsed these 
suggestions, and accordingly on March 31st, 1844. the 
brigantine "Deborah" (Captain Wing) was chartered for 
the purpose. Besides Mr. Tuckett and Mr. Symonds, the 
officer appointed by Captain Fitzroy to assist in effecting 
a valid purchase of the land", the party consisted of Dr. 
Monro, Messrs. Wither, Wilkinson, Barnicoat. and 
Davidson. The Rev. Mr. Wohlers. a German missionary, 
also accompanied the party, seeking a suitable scene for 
his missionary labours amongst the Maoris. 

The "Deborah" proceeded to Wellington, thence to 
Port Cooper, where exhaustive examinations of the land 
were made. Not satisfied, Tuckett proceeded to Wai- 
kouaiti and Otakou Harbour, being piloted in by 
Edward Palmer, already mentioned. Tuckett climbed 
the hills, and had a good look on every hand. He was 
so pleased that he ordered the "Deborah" to proceed to 
Alolyncux Bay. while he made his way overland. From 
Molyneux Bay he proceeded to the Bluff, the survey party 

6 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

meantime carrying 011 their explorations inland. Having 
made an exhaustive examination. Tuckett fixed upon the 
Otago Block as being the most suitable place for the 
settlement, and made lengthy reports thereon. Colonel 
Wakefield gave an able report, while Captain Mein Smith, 
R.A., who had examined the coast and adjoin ing lands 
in 1842. also on the authority of ]\lr. Wakefield. reported 
as to the best site for the settlement. 

After these reports had reached the Head Office, the 
final arrangements were made, the purchase of 400,000 
acres from the natives was completed, and subsequently 
conveyed to the Land Company by grant from the Crown, 
under the Public Seal of the Colony, dated 13th of April. 

Meanwhile the Otago Association had been proceeding 
with its arrangements, but progress was slow. Mr. Wake- 
field had appointed Mr. Geo. Rennie, afterwards Governor 
of the. Falkland Islands, as a suitable agent to negotiate 
with the Free Church leaders; but. through some mis- 
understanding, he retired, and Captain Wi'liam Cargill 
was appointed. Negotiations were successful, and ;m 
Association of influential laymen was formed, with a paid 
secretary and officers in both Edinburgh and Glasgow 
Mr. John McGlashan for the former, and Dr. Aldcorn for 
the latter. 

The agreement with the Company was finally ratified, 
and the Association was recognised as the party authorised 
to promote the settlement of Otago, and to carry on the 
business for five years. The Association was to have the 
right to 2,400 properties, including an area of 144,600 
acres; 2.000 properties, or 120,500 acres, were for sale to 
private individuals; 100 properties, or 6,025 acres, wen' 
to be purchased by the trustees for educational and 
religious purposes; 100 properties, or 6,025 acres, were to 
be purchased by the local Municipal Government; and 
200 properties, or 12,050 acres, were to be purchased by 
the Land Company. The price of the land was to be 2 
per acre, and the purchase money allotted as follows : 
Three-eighths towards emigration, two-eighths to civil 
uses, one-eighth to educational and religious uses, and 
two-eighths to the Company; deductions for the cost of 
the land, however, were to be made. The Municipal 
Government had to pay separately, and. until payment 
was made, the land was to be retained by the trustees, 
who had the power to dispose of the same should payment 

of Diincdin and South Otago. 

not be made within one year of the disposal of the 
remaining 2.000 properties. These the Association had 
to dispose of within five years, but it had also the right 
of refusal of the remainder of the block of 400,000 acres. 

The Company retained power to exclude lands con- 
taining in considerable quantities coal or other minerals 
from the allotments for sale. Lands so reserved were 
to be disposed of as from time to time agreed upon by 
the Company and the Association. This was done to 
prevent a coal or other mineral field from falling into the 
hands of private individuals, who would form monopolies 
injurious to the public interests. Due provision was to 
be made in the chief town for land for public purposes. 
If the Association failed to sell its 2,000 properties, they, 
or such portions as remained, were to revert to the Com- 
pany, which would dispose of them to other individuals. 
Each purchaser was to receive three separate land orders 
a quarter-acre town section. 10 acres of suburban land, and 
50 acres of rural land, the same to be selected by ballot. 
Other provisions suitable for the settlement were agreed 
on. and the whole agreement was signed and sealed by the 
contracting parties. 

During 1845-6-7 Captain Cargill and Dr. Burns were 
unwearied in their efforts to promote the settlement. In 
1846 the preliminary work of surveying the allotments 
was carried out by C. H. Kettle, the principal surveyor 
of the Company, and the surveys were completed about 
June, 1847. Maps were then forwarded to London, 
Edinburgh, and Glasgow, and the business of securing 
emigrants was proceeded with. The scheme was 
extensively advertised, and great prominence was given 
to the fact that ample provision would be made for 
religious and educational institutions. But in spite of all 
the scheme still hung fire. The Land Company required 
more tangible evidence of public interest, and to the 
exertions of Captain Cargill and Dr. Burns the successful 
issue was due. Dr. Burns spent two years travelling 
through Scotland, canvassing among his friends and 
acquaintances, and succeeded in inducing many of them 
to become purchasers to the extent required by tihe 

Vi-ry glowing reports were distributed broadcast by 
the Association, and cogent reasons advanced to induce 
people to embark in the enterprise. The following extracts 
from some of the reports may be given, as it is uuques- 

8 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

DR. AND MRS. BURNS 1848, "Philip La ing. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

tionable that they had a good deal to do with the final 
success of the undertaking. From Dr. Monro's report: 
"On the whole the east coast of the Middle Island 
exceeded ray anticipations. It offers a large extent of 
level and undulating land, while the circumstance of it 
being covered with grass is of vast importance. There 
is a great field for the production of wool, and there is 
abundance of water. The climate is particularly favour- 
able for this industry. The summers are warm, with 
abundance of warm and bright weather, and less rain 
than might be expected. The frosts in winter are sharp, 
but in the month of April we found potatoes still green 
and flourishing. Of the Block proposed for the settlement, 
the most, remarkable feature is the facility for water com- 
munication, and no section will lie far from a navigable 
river or lagoon. The southernmost portion is watered 
by the rivers Puerua. Koau, and Clutha besides many 
smaller streams, the ferfile shores of which will furnish 
an admirable series of sections. The plain of Tokomairiro 
is of large extent, and ^rass-covered. Avhile from it there 
is an almost level pass to the Taieri, which is somewhat 
swampy, but will be a valuable district. The Clutha, with 
its valley, is one of the most valuable in the Block, and 
runs from Molyneux Bay back inland as far as the eye 
can reach. 

"On landing from our craft, in front of us we saw 
the long, low beach at the bottom of the bay, with a 
large extent of almost level country behind it. On mount- 
ing to the top of some low sandhills, we came in view of 
the Molyneux River, a majestic stream about a-quarter of 
a mile broad, deep, clear as crystal, and with well-defined 
banks, flowing with a steady, gentle current. To our 
eyes it was a magnificent stream, quite capable of beinsr 
navigated by fairly large boats. Looking up. we could 
trace its course through a large extent of alluvial land, by 
the fringe of ti-trees on its banks, and by the numerous 
groves of trees, all of which produced a most picturesque 
effect. Immense quantities of fiax were to be seen growing 
in profusion in its neighbourhood. 

"At a distance inland were gentle slopes, apparently 
covered with grass and fern, and rising to a moderate 
height; behind these no mountains were visible, except 
away to the north-west, where the white tops of a far 
distant range showed themselves. The country was alto- 
gether one of great beauty and unusually rich softness. 

10 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

The Clutha Plain turned out to be of large extent, and 
had a fine growth of grass, immensely tall flax, and in 
many parts were dense tracts of bush, brilliantly green 
in colour, and echoing with the song of native birds. In 
every direction were extensive tracts of valuable looking 
land, although signs were not wanting that some parts 
were liable to floods. Away to the east, connected with 
each other and with the Clutha River by navigable streams 
were two shallow lakes of considerable size. The shores of 
these embraced long strips of fertile land, which gladdened 
the eyes of the beholders. This part of the country was 
more grassy, only parts of the hills showing any bush, 
while indications of the presence of coal were found by 
some of our party. 

''Away to the south of the Molyneux was a densely 
wooded line of hills, gorgeous in their beauty, and fringed 
with open spaces of a greenness to which our eyes had 
long been strangers. Here and there were patches of 
corn and potatoes, grown by the only white settlers, 
Willcher and Russell a conclusive proof of the fertility 
of the soil. Up the river and to the west were beautiful 
slopes, some wooded, some ferny, and others covered with 
grass and ilax. At their base flowed a stream, the Puerua. 
through what we considered a vast swamp, but the growtli 
of vegetation was so abundant and varied that it was 
impossible to say without a closer view how correct was 
our opinion. However, on topping the hills mentioned 
some time afterwards, we saw that the country to the 
west divided itself into two distinct blocks one rather 
hilly, extending in the same direction as the coast line; 
and the other, all undulating land, stretching as far as 
the eye could reach. This latter was covered with great- 
white tussocks, interspersed with flax and fern, but in 
no case was there any bush to be seen. The whole of 
this vast tract was well watered, but not a sign of habita- 
tion or the presence of man could be seen, and it appeared 
as if the traveller had been suddenly transported into a 
vast land of silence and loveliness indescribable." 

Another extract about this part of the district from 
a different source: "The sight of the district was the 
forest-clad hills, and to the eyes of the weary traveller 
they appeared as a veritable Garden of Eden. The upper 
parts were covered with fern, the lower by a dense forest 
of gigantic trees of immense height and of varieties un- 
known kowhais with their golden bell-like flowers, ratas 

of Dunedin and Sout/i Otago. 11 

with bright crimson flowers, long, waving, feathery, palm- 
like fern trees, pines with crown-like tops, and, stretching 
above all. the glittering white clematis, like stars of night, 
added to the beauty of the scene." 

Extract from Mr. Tuckett's reports: "The harbour 
(i.e.. Otakou or Otago Harbour) is thirteen miles long, 
with an average breadth of two miles, with* six fathoms 
of water for seven miles up, and three fathoms for the 
remainder. On either side the forest remains unbroken; 
good timber is abundant, and the soil appears to be fertile. 
A space of less than a quarter of a mile intervenes between 
the head of the harbour and the ocean; here is a water 
frontage of unwooded land, rising gently inland. It offers 
an ornamental and commodious site for a town, most 
suitable in every way." 

Colonel Wakefield reported: "My first impressions 
of the harbour were extremely favourable. Lying open 
to the north, it is entered with a fair wind, and this also 
prevents delay when leaving the port. Its northern aspect 
renders Otago much more agreeable than any other site. 
The sandbanks within the harbour are of inconsiderable 
extent, and would not impede shipping. The shores of 
the harbour are densely wooded, while the soil is well 
adapted for husbandry. For picturesque effect. Otago 
yields only to Akaroa among the harbours of New Zealand. 
At the head of the harbour the land lies in long slopes, the 
west side being covered to the water's edge with beautiful 
timber and copsewood. and offering space for several 
hundred sections. The site of the town abounds in wood 
and fresh water, while the harbour teems with fish. 
Beyond the first ridges lies an undulating country, the 
worst of which would afford food for sheep. Communi- 
cation with the whole of the surrounding country would 
be extremely easy from Dunedin, as water carriage could 
be employed in many parts, while good roads could be 
made without much expense." 

These reports were continually supplemented with 
those supplieol by the surveyors and others, and the results 
were commensurate with the expense of publication. 
Many inquiries were made by intending colonists, and 
to these Mr. McCilashan pictured the place in glowing 
colours, and impressed upon all that New Zealand was 
a land flowing with milk and honey. "They had," said 
he. "only to put forth the hand to gather the fruits.'' 
Tin- disgust of those who believed his tales, when, on 

12 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

reaching the Colony, they found the fruits to be a myth, 
may be imagined. 

The pilgrim fathers, however, were prepared to face 
danger and hardships for the sake of religious freedom. 
and such a prospect was to them a great inducement to 
emigrate. Many, no doubt, left with the idea of gaining 
great riches easily, and some did attain good positions, and 
became well-to-do: others left with the hope of securing 
land, which was not procurable in the Old Land ; but the 
majority knew they were coming to a life of toil and 
hardship even greater than that of the life they had 
left behind, and so acted accordingly. 

Everything being now ready, the Company advertised 
for tenders for two vessels to . convey the passengers. 
stipulating that one was to sail from London, the other 
from Glasgow. The ships "John Wickliffe" and "Philip 
Laing" were selected, and preparations went on apace. 
On the 10th November, 1847, the first ballot for order of 
choice of land took place at New Zealand House, London, 
when 104 properties were purchased and balloted for. 
The "John Wickliffe," 662 tons, sailed from Gravesend 
on the 24th November, 1847, and from Portsmouth on 14th 
December, with 97 passengers, of whom ten were bound 
for Wellington and other settlements. Captain Cargill. 
the leader of the colony, with his family, went in this ship. 
which arrived in Otago, all well, in March, 1848. after 
a fast passage of 93 days, or 116 from the time of her 
first departure from Gravesend. 

The "Philip Laing," 547 tons, sailed from Greenock 
at the end of November, and from Milford Haven early in 
December, 1847. She carried 246 passengers, all for Otago. 
Dr. Burns was on board, and the emigrants received a 
hearty send-off from the authorities. Both ships en- 
countered severe gales at the commencement of their 
voyages, henee the reason" of the "Wickliffe" sheltering 
in Portsmouth, and the "Philip Laing" in Milford Haven. 
Their first experience of sea life was not such as to impress 
the passengers with the delights of a sea voyage, and did 
not augur well for the many happy days that would !> 
spent at sea. 

Incidents on the v oyage out were numerous and 
interesting, and an account of some of them from these 
and succeeding ships will be of interest, and well worth 

of Dunedin and SoutJi Otago. 13 



OX the 28th October. 1839, Mr. Dunlop, of Craigton, 
then Lord Provost of Glasgow, and a large party, 
attended by some of the officers and the band of the 
1st Royals, sailed from Glasgow, in a steamboat hired 
for the occasion, to the barque "Bengal Merchant," lying 
off Greenock, and then chartered in London, for the 
purpose of conveying the first Scotch colony to New Zea- 
land. On board the steamer there was served a sumptuous 
repast, at which champagne flowed in abundance. On 
reaching the vessel, his Lordship delivered an appropriate 
address to the emigrants. He told them that, though 
going to a beautiful country, and to enjoy a salubrious 
climate, they must lay their account with many enduring 
hardships, and must labour hard before getting fairly 
established in their adopted country. He exhorted them 
to cherish kindly feelings towards each other; reminded 
them that, as their tenure of life was short and uncertain, 
they would derive great consolation, when traversing the 
stormy deep and when tossed by mighty waters, from 
the hopes which the Christian religion afforded. He told 
them they were going to lay the foundation of a colony, 
which in time might become a great nation a second 
Britain. On the 31st October the "Bengal Merchant" 
weighed anchor, and the emigrants bade adieu to their 
native land. 

"We left our native land, and far away 

Across the waters sought a world unknown : 

But did not know that we in vain might stray 
In search of one so lovely as our own." 

When nearly opposite to Largs, in Ayrshire, the 
passengers on board the "Bengal Merchant" received the 
parting cheers of Mr. Crawford, the New Zealand Com- 

14 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

pany's agent in Glasgow, and other friends who accom- 
panied them down the river in a steamboat. "As may 
easily be supposed," says a writer of the time, "we were 
not- slow in returning the cheers. We were full of hope, 
and anxious to see what had been represented to us as 
a sort of earthly paradise a smiling land, the sight of 
which was to have banished away all our cares and all 
our sorrows." But man seeth only as through a glass 
darkly. Within a few short months those very beings 
who were cheering and shouting as they left the land of 
their nativity were cast, as it were, upon a barren, dreary, 
and inhospitable shore. They \vere turned out in a flat- 
bottomed boat every morning for three Aveeks, nearly up 
to their knees in water, in order that they might erect for 
themselves their future habitations in the wilderness. 
After that short period of three weeks, they were driven 
out of the ship like oxen upon a Saturday night, in the 
midst of a storm of wind and rain, many of them having 
no place to fly to for shelter until the fury of the storm 
was abated. They sighed, and their feelings overpowered 
them when they thought of those peaceful shores they 
had so lately left, and on those happy days which had 
vanished for ever from their view. Many of them were 
ready to exclaim, with the prophet Jeremiah, "Weep \ c 
not for the dead, neither bemoan him. but weep sore for 
him that goeth away, for he shall return no more, nor 
see his native country; but he shall die in the plac- 
whither they have led him captive, and shall see this land 
no more." 

The "Bengal Merchant" kept to the north of Ireland, 
passing near to the Giant's Causeway early on the follow- 
ing morning, and after a splendid run of nearly 500 
miles during the first two days, got into the Atlantic 
Ocean and clear of land. With the exception of one gale 
when off the Bay of Biscay, there was scarcely occasion 
for even double-reefed top-sails during the whole voyage. 
Including cabin, intermediate, and steerage passengers, 
there were about 150 emigrants on board, including 
children. The commander of the ship was Captain John 
Ilemery, from the Island of Jersey, a handsome young 
man of good address, who, although said to be opulent, 
preferred a sea life to any other. He was sober, attentive 
to his duties, and a strict disciplinarian, somewhat haughty 
in his deportment. There was dancing occasionally during 
the early part of the voyage, and the minister. Rev. Mr. 

of Dunedin and Sout/i Otago. 15 

McFarlane. gave prayers every night in the cabin ; while 
the steerage passengers gave prayers amongst themselves. 
Those in the cabin consisted of nineteen individuals. Their 
names were: Dr. and Mrs. Logan, Mr., Mrs. and Miss 
Strang, Mr. and Mrs. D'Orsey. Mr. and Mrs. Hay, Rev. 
Mr. McFarlane, two brothers named Carruth. Dr. Graham 
Tod and his brother, Mr. Anderson, Mr. Buchanan, Mr. 
Wallace, Mr. Yule, and Alexander Majoribanks. of Majori- 
banks. Mr. D'Orsey was one of the surgeons. Dr. Tod, 
who came from Glasgow, died shortly after his arrival in 
New Zealand. 

As showing the ideas regarding New Zealand at that 
time, it is worth mentioning that Mr. R. Strang, who was 
a solicitor from Glasgow, used to drill the passengers to 
be ready in case of being attacked by the New Zealanders. 
The passengers named, with the captain and Mr. Bradley 
(the second mate) formed the daily circle at the dinner 
table. They fared sumptuously every day; in fact, they 
did little else but eat, drink, and sleep during the whole 
voyage. They had four meals per day. and at dinner had 
always five or six dishes of fresh meat, with carte blanche 
of claret and other wines, besides a dessert of fruit. The 
supply of fresh provisions, for the cabin passengers daily 
and the intermediate passengers twice a week, was very 
great, having regard to the period. In addition to preserved 
meats, they had on board 60 sheep. 21 pigs, and 900 head 
of poultry. The pigs throve best: they were at home 
at sea, whether at the Equator or in the colder zones. 
The only trouble was that when there was any restraint 
placed upon their appetites, then their noise was like 

During the voyage out there was one marriage, one 
baptism, one birth, and one death. At that time those 
born at sea had to be registered in the parish of Stepney, 
London. There were two quarrels on board ship, but they 
were nothing to those that happened on board some of the 
other ships, when duels were sometimes fought. The 
death was that of a boy about ten years of age. the son 
of one of the emigrants. The consigning of the body to 
the deep amidst the roaring of the waves, with nothing 
but a sheet for a coffin, was well calculated to excite the 
deep and solemn emotion of the passengers. On the 16th 
November they came in sight of Madeira, and entered the 
tropics on the 21st. For two or three weeks the ther- 
mometer ranged from 7"> to 82 in the shade, and the nights 
were very oppressive. 


Reminiscences of the Earl\ Settlement 

1839, "Mary Catherine." 

1840, "Oriental." 

1840, "Oriental." 

1840, "Bengal Merchant" 

of Dunedin and South Ota go. 17 

Every Sunday, when weather permitted, there was 
divine service on deck, the whole of the passengers and 
crew assembling.^ After service the first Sunday the Rev. 
Mr. McFarlane distributed amongst the passengers copies 
of a pastoral address by the Presbytery of Paisley, of 
which he had been a member, to the first Scottish settlers 
in New Zealand. The address concluded: 

<; And now, dear countrymen, we sympathise with you 
in your feelings, which are no doubt tender, on leaving the 
land of your fathers, it may be for ever, and are persuaded 
that, as Scotsmen, you are not likely soon to forget your 
last view of its rocky shores, as these fade 'and disappear 
in the distant horizon. Other lands, rich and sunny though 
they be, will, to those of you who have reached maturity, 
still want the tender associations of early life, and the 
hallowed recollections of a Scottish Sabbath, with its 
simple but affecting accompaniments. We have no need 
to be ashamed of our common country, comparatively 
barren though it be, and however uncongenial our climate. 
Scotland has proved the nurse of many adventurous sons, 
whose conduct in other parts of the world reflects honour 
on the land of their birth, and you will not forget that 
you also are now to be enrolled among her expatriated 
children, and that she expects you will be distinguished 
amongst the natives of other lands for your high moral 
bearing, your honest and persevering industry, and your 
habitual reverence for God, and the things of God. And 
now, brethren, we must bid you adieu ! Our first meeting 
will probably be around the judgment seat of Christ; 
but then we will not be as now, in the attitude of address- 
ing, and of being addressed; the world itself will then 
have passed away, time will have ceased to be counted 
by the revolutions of seasons and of centuries, eternity 
will have begun, the sentence will then have gone forth, 
'He that is unjust, let him be unjust still; and he which 
is filthy, let him be filthy still; and he that is righteous, 
let him be righteous still ; and he that is holy, let him be 
holy still.' ! 

On the 10th day of February, 1840, the passengers 
came in sight of the Middle Island of New Zealand, and 
when coasting along its shores for nearly 100 miles were 
wonderfully struck with the height of the ridge of snow- 
clad mountains which they had constantly in view. "The 
mountains, the sublime Southern Alps, more elevated than 

18 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

the highest of the Alps in Switzerland, upheaved from 
the depths of the great South Sea. in some places to more 
than three miles in altitude, and from their volcanic 
character, of the boldest and most abrupt outline, are 
perhaps unequalled in the world.'' 

The first place at which they landed was at D'Urville's 
Island, on the west entry of Cook's Strait, but not finding, 
as they expected, any of the Company's officers to give 
them directions, they remained there for only two hours. 
During that time a family of natives paid them a visit 
in their canoes, the first they had seen, and the new 
immigrants were not favourably impressed with what they 
saw of the natives. The Rev. Mr. McParlane offered a 
prize for the best poem when the passengers were off 
D'Urville's Island, and though Mr. Majoribanks composed 
one which was believed to be the best, it was ruled out 
as not coming up to the standard of what a prize poem 
ought to be, an excuse that was considered at the time 
a very ingenious contrivance, enabling the reverend 
gentleman to keep the money in his own pocket. The 
scene was, "On board of the 'Bengal Merchant.' at 10 
o'clock at night, off D'Urville's Island, Cook Strait, New 
Zealand, on llth February, 1840." and the concluding two 
of the ten topical verses read : 

"And when the cry of 'Land!' was heard at last, 

How eager all that land were to explore ; 
Though some shed tears for scenes for ever past, 

Far, far away on Caledonia's shore. 

' ' And now that we have ploughed the stormy deep, 

And anchored safely on a foreign strand, 
Let's sing the praises of the gallant ship 

That's wafted us unto this smiling land.'' 

The "Bengal Merchant" arrived at Port Nicholson 
in 113 days from Greenock, and, though exposed for a 
time to considerable hardship, yet the exemplary order 
and propriety observed on the voyage could not be con- 
sidered but as a happy omen of future prosperity, and 
at least one of the passengers offered up a prayer to the 
Almighty Disposer of all events "that He would bless us 
in this land wherein we had come to dwell, as it is 
written in the 26th chapter of Genesis He blessed Isaac 
of old. 'And the Lord appeared unto Isaac and said go not 
down into Egypt ; dwell in the land which I shall tell thee 

of Dnncdin and South Otago. 

of. Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee and 
will bless thee.' ' 

On first landing, it was observed that the heaviest men 
were the most admired by the natives. A man of fifteen 
stone was regarded as a hero amongst them, and one man 
of this proportion says it was amusing to see the delight 
with Avhich they gazed on him ; and when he walked 
along the beach, two of them, a young man and a young 
woman, insisted on accompanying him and taking hold 
of his arm. Had he been twenty stone instead of fifteen, 
he believed they would have worshipped him as a deity. 

Some of the passengers on landing found lodgings 
in the hut or hotel of a man named George Rose, from 
the County of Banff, who in personal appearance was a 
sort of a giant, being 6ft. 6 in. in height. His "hotel" 
had neither door nor window, and admitted both wind 
and rain, and native dogs, which were very troublesome. 
He had plenty of blankets, however. The "hotel" had 
neither table nor chair, plenty of packing cases; but in 
addition to being "mine host," he was also storekeeper, 
auctioneer, boat-builder, boat-hirer, commission agent, etc. 

The three islands of New Zealand were then, or just 
previously, called New Leinster, New Munster. and New 
Ulster. In England at that time New Zealand signified 
Port Nicholson, and the Company's land adjacent, where 
there were located in 1842 some five or six thousand souls. 
The natives called Port Nicholson "Port Nic.," and from 
that we now have ' ' Poneke. ' ' Even in those days the gales 
of Wellington Harbour were commented upon, but the 
climate was described as remarkably healthy, the tem- 
perature throughout the year being singularly equable. 
What is now Wellington was then called variously 
Britannia. Thorndon, or Wellington. The coast was 
shoally. and vessels had to lay off half a mile. In flowery 
language someone at Home had described Port Nicholson 
as resembling the Bay of Naples, but it was so only as 
"chalk is like cheese." 

Ships continued to be sent out from England, with 
immigrants of various sorts, some refugees of parishes, 
who were for the most part an idle set, a few rural 
labourers, and an undue proportion of shopkeepers, some 
settlers of enterprise and talent, and a specimen of your 
gentlemen adventurers, who gamble in billiards and land. 
A road was being formed about fourteen miles long to 
get at some available country, there being hitherto but 

20 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

one solitary piece of cultivation to supply five or six 
thousand mouths. Numbers of those who arrived left- 
some for Cloudy Bay, on the south side of Cook's Strait, 
others to different parts of New Zealand or to Sydney. 
More recently another Company had located an extensive 
tract of level land near Mount Egmont, called Taranaki, 
where some progress was made in cultivation. From 
a glimpse one of the "Bengal Merchant" passengers had 
of it, he described the scenery as attractive, "the lofty 
peak of Mount Egmont rising at once from the plain, like 
the Alps from the vale of Lombardy. " 

The "John Wickliffe" was nearly a month getting 
clear of the Channel, being driven back three times into 
the Downs, but after that good weather was experienced. 
When nearing the Line there was some fun, as Neptune 
with his guards paid an official visit for the purpose of 
initiating, with the ancient rites, all those who had not 
previously done the trip. The performance was carried 
out with spirit, and enjoyed by all, except the victims. 
The evening before, the vessel was hailed from the sea, 
when the mate reported that Neptune had arrived in his 
flowing carriage. He was soon stationed on the fore- 
castle, where he was handed a stiff glass of grog, after 
which he interviewed the captain, asking if any of his 
children were on board, and saying he would put them 
through the ceremony the following day. He then retired 
aft. standing for a while under the mizzen-top mast, where 
he fired a pistol, causing all the cabin passengers to rush 
up to see what was the matter. When all were collected 
round the mast, a huge tub of water was capsized over 
them, drenching them to the skin. Before leaving, Neptune 
got a glass of grog, and told them to have everything 
ready for the morrow. He then retired in his carriage 
a wash-deck tub, surrounded by blazing tar and tow. 
Next morning he again came on deck, accompanied by 
his wife (the smallest sailor, dressed to suit the part), 
his doctor, with his pills and draughts made up of goats' 
dung and muck from the pig-styes, his barber, with the 
razor made of a piece of hoop-iron notched like a saw, 
his guards, and his bear. All those to be initiated were 
kept safe below, and each, on his name being called, was 
brought upon deck, where a large sail filled with water 
had been rigged up. A spar was placed across the sail 
for a seat for the victim, who was blindfolded. The 
barber set to work, lathering him with the filthy mixture, 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

and then began to shave, talking all the time to induce 
him to open his mouth. On his doing so, the barber 
immediately dabbed the brush, covered with slush, into 
his mouth, and upset him into the water, where he was 
thoroughly washed by the bear and others, who kept 
him floundering about until they were satisfied. If the 
victim was disliked, the treatment was made very rough, 
but the others got off very lightly. The most amusing 
part to the onlookers was the shaving of Neptune's wife. 
When everything was cleared away and the sailors had 
got cleaned up, all were allowed a holiday, only those 
whose turn it was to be at the helm working. At night 
a regular jollification took place, with the grog supplied 
by those who had purchased immunity from the 

The "Wickliffe" was becalmed for three days, and 
lay beside a Dutch ship, on board of which a ball was 
given. On the next evening a return ball was to have 
been given on the ''Wickliffe, " but a breeze sprang up, 
and the two vessels parted. 

This vessel got so far south that many icebergs were 
seen, and a watch had to be kept night and day for them. 
One night in a fog she was nearly ashore on Kerguelen 
Island, and had to lie off for a day and two nights, 
becalmed. The island appeared to be covered with low 
scrub, and some of the passengers took sketches of it. 
Although the sun shone brightly, the weather was so cold 
that ever}' now and then the sketchers had to rush to 
the galley fire 'to warm their hands. 

Another vessel, the "Ajax, '" was becalmed at the 
Line for three weeks. At last the wind began to rise in 
gusts, and a straw hat worn by one of the passengers 
was blown overboard. Another passenger, on the impulse 
of the moment, sprang overboard, and, swimming out, 
brought the hat on board. He was not long on board 
before the passengers landed a 10-foot shark. 

On the "Blundell," a few of the passengers had 
telescopes, and made up their minds to have some fun with 
those who imagined the Line was an actual one to be 
seen by the eye. They arranged to place a hair across 
one of the glasses, and taking their stations with the 
telescopes pretended to see the Line One would say to 
the other. "1 can't see it; can you?" "I think I can 
see it; just wait a minute, and you'll see it too." Then, in 
a few seconds, the first would declare he saw it too. 

22 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

They then turned to the bystanders and asked them 
if they would like to see it ; but the trick soon leaked out, 
and there was great laughter. 

In the tropics the water was very warm, and a good 
many of the passengers liked to have a swim, the ship 
being almost stationary. Those who were so inclined 
went overboard, but a good look-out had to be kept for 
sharks, which were very plentiful. When one was seen, 
the cry, "A shark! a shark!" was raised, and the bathers 
swam as fast as they could to the ship, where ropes were 
hanging down for them to catch. The doctor on board 
liked a bath, but never ventured into the ocean. He stood 
under the deck of the poop, while one of the sailors stood 
above and poured water over him. 

The sailors caught some sharks, and cut some collops 
off them. These the cook fried, and the sailors pronounced 
them excellent; but the passengers would have none of 
them. Heavy rains were frequent, and often large 
quantities of water were caught in a sail erected for the 
purpose. This Avater was particularly refreshing to the 
passengers, as, although they had plenty of water on 
board, it was not always good. One of the curious things 
that caused some little amusement with the young was 
that, when the vessel was being tacked and put about, the 
sun appeared at first on the one side, and when the ship 
was put about it appeared on the other. 

The "Rajah" in 1853 encountered severe storms after 
passing the Cape of Good Hope. A very strong gale came 
on. and the bulwarks and all the boats were smashed up. 
The ship lay on her beam ends for an hour, but righted 
herself when the wreckage was cleared away. 

When the "Robert Henderson" made her first trip 
in 1858, she had a very rough passage through the Bay 
of Biscay, her decks frequently being swept by huge 
waves. The hatches were battened down until the worst 
was over. On one occasion, a young man was seated, in 
company with a young lady, on a spar, their backs to the 
bulwarks, when suddenly the ship gave a tremendous 
lurch, and the water came pouring in over them. The 
young lady sei/ed the man round the neck, and both were 
knocked fiat on their backs, heels in the air. Fortunately, 
neither was hurt. 

On another occasion, a young man got into a terrible 
state of fear, and cried out to clear the way and let him 
on deck to get fair play in drowning. Shortly after 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

coming to Otago this young man was drowned in a lagoon 
in the West Taieri. 

The "Rajah," previously mentioned, was brought 
into contact with a pirate, or what was supposed to be 
one. The pirate sailed round and round her, the yards 
almost touching. The "Rajah" was twice the size of 
the pirate, yet the latter sailed round her as if she were 
at anchor. All on board the "Rajah" were in a great 
state of alarm, but all prepared to meet death with the 
fury of tigers, those able to use a cutlass or a musket 
being supplied with these weapons. Fortunately, no fight- 
ing took place, as the pirate, no doubt taking compassion 
on so many women and children, sheered off ami soon 

On the "Bernicia" was a cockney tailor, who was in 
the habit of ill-treating his wife. One night this brute 
began abusing her as usual, when the single men, headed 
by a particularly strong young fellow, rushed into the 
tailor's quarters, dragged him out of his bunk, lugged 
him on deck, plunged him into a tub of dirty water, and 
then turned the hose on him till he was nearly drowned, 
lie did not appear on deck for nearly a week, and from 
that time till the end of the voyage his wife had a little 

When crossing the Line, a sad occurrence took place. 
All was festivity, and the rough play had just begun, 
when the cry, "A man overboard!" was heard, and a 
commanding voice shouted. u 'Bout ship!" The captain 
refused to stop, saying it was only a practical joke, but 
when the ship's roll was called, it was found that one of 
the apprentices was missing. The cry to "bout ship" had 
been given by Colonel Wakefield. one of the passengers. 
who had heard the cry for help. The saddest part was 
that the boy was the son of an intimate friend of the 
captain, who had declined to stop the ship. 

"The passengers of the 'Victory.' " says a passenger. 
"had the unusual experience of a mutiny on board, but 
it was of a mild type. Before the ship had cleared the 
Channel, it became apparent that the captain was a ner- 
vous, over-anxious, incompetent man, utterly unfit for 
his post. He also succeeded in annoying the crew by 
many acts of petty tyranny, such as depriving them of 
their sleep by calling all hands on deck, when it was not 
necessary. The discontent grew, and the grumbling loud 
and deep reached the captain's ears, as it was intended 

24 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

to do. To punish them, when they were up reefing on 
cold dark nights, he would stand beside the steersman 
and make him keep her full, thus keeping the men longer 
on the yards than there was any occasion for. 

"Conspicuous among the crew was a man named 
Robinson, who was a strikingly handsome young fellow, 
with dark complexion and curly black hair, with ai 
'love of a moustache,' as the girls said, a very unusual 
appendage in those days, and who looked, to quote 
another young lady, like 'a dear, delightful brigand.' 
This young man, who had been well educated and 
evidently belonged to a higher rank, proved himself to 
be a thorough seaman, and as the captain lost the con- 
fidence of the crew and passengers he gained it. The first 
mate was a very young man, who had no qualities or 
appearance to inspire respect, and the second mate was so 
worthless that he was disrated, and his place taken by 
the bo 'sun. Thus Robinson appeared to be the natural 
and only leader. 

"In the Bay of Biscay things came to a crisis. The 
old cry arose, 'All hands shorten sail!' Robinson was 
in the mate's watch, then below. The men had only 
turned in about an hour. When they had left the deck 
there was a stiff breeze, but nothing particularly 
threatening, and from the motion of the ship it did not 
appear to be any worse. There were a few curses, and 
then Robinson said, 'Look here, boys, I'll go up and see 
Avhat it is like, and if there is no need we will not do it. ' 
'Right you are!' said one and all; 'we are at your back.' 
Robinson went on deck, and asked the first man he met. 
"Has it been any worse?' 'Not a bit; just as you see.' 
So Robinson decided they would not obey the order, all 
the men of both watches backing him up. He told the 
captain their decision, and that gentleman got into a 
great rage. At first he wanted to put Robinson in irons, 
and tried to get the passengers to help him. but they 
refused to a man, for they saw plainly that the sailor 
was in the right, and that, if any real danger should 
threaten the ship, their only hope was in him. Thus it 
came to pass that the A.B. was virtual captain of the 
'Victory.' When everything went on well Robinson did 
his work like the other men. When there was rough 
weather or any danger threatened, he quietly took com- 
mand. All the men obeyed and trusted him, and before 
the voyage was over the mate repeated his orders as if 

of Dune din and South Otago. 25 

they had been those of the captaiu. It seems strange that 
this man, who practically saved the ship, crew, and* 
passengers, and really deserved the gratitude of the 
owners, should have been put in prison on the ship's 
arrival in port." 

A burial at sea is a sad and solemn function. The 
late Mr. Kobt. Campbell thus describes a burial from the 
"Ajax": "A little child died last night, and was buried 
to-day. October 9th, 1848. The little body was sewn up 
in a bag and laid on the grating of the main hatch, 
covered with the Union Jack. At 10 a.m. all hands were 
called up to attend the funeral. A few boards were laid 
from the ship's side to the long-boat. The boatswain 
stood on- the boards, the little body before him stretched 
on a piece of plank, still covered by the Union Jack. 
The boatswain had hold of the plank in one hand and the 
flag in the other. The doctor read the service over the 
body, and at the word of command the sailor pulled off 
the flag and tipped up the plank, and, amidst the tears 
of some and the sighs of many, the little thing was 
launched into the deep, and in a minute was lost to 
sight, and in ten minutes all things were going on as 

The adult steerage passengers of the " Ajax" received 
fresh meat only five or six times during the Avhole voyage, 
and then only half a pound each. They were often 
docked of their provisions, and on examination on one 
occasion the beam and scales proved to be three and 
a-half ounces on the wrong side, and on further examina- 
tion a piece of lead two ounces in weight was found run 
into the scale. The passengers then appointed two men 
to go into the storeroom every day and see the provisions 
properly weighed. 

A general disruption took place among the boys and 
girls attending school on board. A German who had 
been appointed to teach the children was in every way 
unqualified for the job, besides being in the habit of 
quarrelling with his better half, with whom he frequently 
came to fisticuffs. Mr. Brown started an opposition school 
with a few Scotch boys, and in the afternoon the English 
boys and girls left the German, who. in high dudgeon 
at being so put upon, gave up his task and retired, to the 
satisfaction of all concerned. 

On board the "Mooltan" was a number of young 
Highlanders, whose notions of t'ho English language were 

26 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of the haziest kind, but whose physique was grand. They 
were, so to speak, "the pick of the pen." All were young, 
powerful as lions, and hold as those mighty monarchs of 
the East. As they stood upon the deck when the vessel 
sailed from Greenock, sparkling with animation and 
bright as the morning star, they were pronounced on all 
hands fitting soldiers for colonising chivalry. It can truly 
be affirmed that the progress of Otago w T as materially 
advanced by these sons of the mountain, the heather, and 
the heath. 

Mr. K. M. McDowall. the third gentleman who con- 
ducted school in Otago, gives the following particulars 
of the voyage of the ' ' Mooltan ' ' : ' ' After the outbreak 
of cholera on board the 'Mooltan.' the passengers, as 
was natural, became terribly alarmed, and it was evident 
something must be done to divert and calm their minds, 
or a general panic would ensue. Prompt measures were 
determined on and adopted. The ship was fumigated in 
every part, and the ablest speakers, previously instructed, 
addressed the assembled and panic-stricken passengers. 
The orators assured the emigrants that all possible danger 
was at an end. Solemn as the occasion was. the wise and 
politic assurances, boldly asserted and insisted upon, but 
in the truth of which the speakers did not in the least 
believe, had the desired effect. The addresses were 
received with cheers by the emigrants. While in this 
mood all. available musicians were posted near the cabins, 
the decks cleared, and a gay throng was speedily joining 
in the merry mazes of the dance. In these and other pas- 
times devised from time to time to keep np the spirits of 
the passengers, the sailors were the leading actors, and 
their comical antics did much to divert anxious and 
troubled hearts from dwelling on possible danger. 
Naturally, however, nothing could stir the hearts of the 
formidable array of mourners, who had lost their nearest 
and dearest. 

Never, perhaps, was so much misery assembled in a 
space so limited, for the number of mourners was at least 
treble that of the dead. But the active measures taken 
had the desired effect, snd from that time onward there 
was but one more death, and that was from sunstroke. 
Sports of all kinds were organised and continued, music 
floated on the air. and the decks resounded nightly to thp 
measured motion of the dancers' feet. 

Later on, when the cholera scare had entirelv snl>- 

of D lined iu and South Of ago. 

siiled. and when the "Mooltan" was going full speed with 
a favouring gale, a new horror came. An ominous cry 
arose from the watch: ''Breakers ahead!'' We were all 
aware that we were nearing the island of Tristan 
D'Acunha, but by some miscalculation the captain was 
not aware that we were so close upon it. although one of 
the passengers, himself an ex-captain, had warned him 
of the dangerous proximity, and the watch had been 
enjoined to double vigilance. 

When first sighted, Tristan D'Acunha looked merely 
an undefined mist, of which one could make nothing. As 
the ship drifted closer in, drawn by a current from which 
she could not escape, the explosions from the impact of 
waters on the island announced its presence in thundering 
proclamations. Gradually the mist cleared off. the 
nebular appearance became more defined, and presently 
Tristan D'Acunha glittered in the rays of the setting sun. 
when even the most light-hearted were convinced of the 
impending peril. The day was drawing to a close, with 
scarcely a breath of wind with which to iiuuiu>uvre or work 
the vessel, which was gradually but surely drifting upon 
the breakers. Every moment the danger became greater, 
the sails were trimmed in all possible directions in a^ vain 
attempt to extricate the vessel from her dangerous* posi- 
tion. After labouring all night we did not appear to be 
any better or worse than before. Having floated to a 
certain point we had remained stationary. We were for- 
tunate in having a still, calm sea and no adverse wind in 
fact, no wind at all. Though soundings told us that we were 
on a sea where anchors would be of no use, they, with 
chains and cables, were ordered from below. Plan after 
plan was tried and abandoned, and there seemed nothing 
left but to await our doom with fortitude and composure. 
At this juncture a happy inspiration suddenly illumined 
the hitherto gloomy face of the captain. All the boats. 
with one exception, were ordered to be launched and 
immediately manned by a mixed company of seamen and 
Highlanders, conspicuous among the latter being the late 
Allan McMasters, of Saddle Hill. To these boats lines 
were attached, and the experiment was tried of towing 
the ship from her perilous position. 

During seven or eight hours these young Titans plied 
the oars with unceasing resolution. But the "Mooltan" 
remained as immovable as if she had been anchored, yet 
the efforts of the rowers were not useless, for the strain 

28 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

upon the tow lines at least kept the ship from being drawn 
nearer to the island. With the one boat remaining relays 
of men were sent out to the indefatigable rowers, stimu- 
lants were supplied, and everything was done to keep up 
their strength and courage. 

When hope of saving the ship had almost gone a puff 
of wind from the island filled the sails, and for the first 
time the ship moved a few yards from the land, but with 
provoking persistency the wind chopped round, and the 
"Mooltan" returned to her former dangerous position, 
and again the wind dropped altogether. This happened 
two or three times, and then, oeing convinced that the 
ship was doomed, the captain prepared to do his best to 
save the passengers, and ordered up stores of provisions, 
spirits, &c., and set the men to work to make rafts. Again 
the slight wind from the land filled the sails, and drove 
the ship some distance from land. The wind fell, but this 
time the ship did not lose ground, arid the captain's 
trumpet rang out to the rowers to pull for their lives. 
This they did, fearing some new disaster. Then came 
another puff from the land to their aid. and this gradually 
increased in strength and steadiness, until at last the tow 
lines began to slacken, and it became evident that the 
ship's progress was greater than that of the boats, and 
the "Mooltan," apparently ashamed of her former apathy, 
dashed aside the blue waters of the ocean and bounded 
ahead. In a few hours the dreaded Tristan D'Acunha 
was a mere speck on the horizon. 

One more marvellous escape marked this eventful 
voyage. When about an hour's sailing from the Heads, 
we were all but on a small rock unseen by the look-out. 
The captain had just time to leap to the helm, and so 
manipulate the ship that she escaped the rock and nothing 
more. For a couple of minutes he was speechless and 
pale, for the "Mooltan" had really grazed the rock. 
"That was a clean shave.'' he muttered, looking back 
upon the obstacle that he had contrived to elude as by a 

The "Three Bells" had a very long passage of 117 
days. Up to crossing the Line, a good deal of stormy 
weather was experienced, and in the Bay of Biscay the 
ship lost her fore-yard, and this was the only occasion 
during the trip on which the sailors received an allowance 
of rum. During this same storm, she also lost the top of 
the main mast, which was replaced at the Line, where she 

of Dunedin and South Of ago. 

lay becalmed for three weeks. This top was again broken 
off before the vessel reached her destination. It took 
eleven weeks to reach the Line, but only five afterwards 
to come to Otago. 

The ship got far to the South and many icebergs were 
encountered, chiefly during the night, one passed being 
over 100ft. above the water line. One of the passengers. 
Kogers, who had crossed the Line seven times previously, 
said that this was the only trip on which he felt afraid. 
On one occasion the ship reared right up on end, and 
quivered from stem to stern. It appeared as if she was 
about to sink head foremost, but fortunately she recovered 
her balance, and soon all fears vanished. 

30 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 



WHEN the "John Wickliffe" arrived, she anchored 
in Wickliffe Bay. Some Maoris, who were out 
fishing for barracouta, slung on board a great 
number of fish, receiving in return sugar, biscuits. &c. 
They wanted tobacco, but refused to take tea. Next 
morning Pilot Driver came on board and took the ship 
to Port Chalmers. Driver was one of the hardest cases 
in the place, and gulled the passengers with fearful tales 
about the Maoris. When they asked questions about 
shooting, he told them that there was any amount to be 
had. "Go ashore," said he; "shoot anything you see.'' 
A party went ashore, and, seeing a large number of ducks 
on the beach, they shot several, but looked blue when the 
owner turned up and made them pay for the lot. Driver 
had a -great love for Otago, and once, when comparisons 
between Wellington and Otago were made to the detri- 
ment of the latter, he remarked that he would sooner IK- 
hanged in Otago than die a natural death in Wellington. 

Whilst awaiting the arrival of her sister ship, the 
" Wickliffe V passengers were not idle. The first busi- 
ness was the housing of the immigrants, who had to stay 
on board while accommodation was being prepared by 
the Company's agents. Consequently Dunedin was 
visited, and arrangements made for building the first bar- 
racks, a structure made of posts and grass, with thatched 

Dunedin was a wild-looking, almost uninhabited 
place, and the bush grew right to the water's edge. The 
only houses were Watson's Hotel at the beach: Mr. 

of I) uned in and South Otago. 31 

Kettle's house, near where the "Otago Daily Times'' office 
now is; Pelichet's house at Pelichet Bay; and a clay hut 
on the point above Anderson's Bay. The older settlers 
lived at Otakou, as the settlement inside the Heads was 
called, and Port Chalmers boasted one house, a large clay 
whare. with thatched roof, while in the bush was a small 
hut, occupied by a man named French Charlie. 

About Dunedin was forest, and to get into the country 
the traveller had to force his way through ilax, tutu, fern, 
scrub, and swamps. The only way one could get to 
Anderson's Bay was either by boat, or by making a long 
detour round the sandhills at what is now St. Clair and 

Meantime the "Philip Laing" arrived, and there was 
great rejoicing on the "Wicklift'e" at her safe arrival. 
Before the passengers could be disembarked, the weather 
took a bad turn, and for three long, weary weeks the 
immigrants were cooped up in their quarters on board 
tiie ship. The succeeding three weeks were very wet. 
(iinl on many other occasions the early settlers had 
experience of protracted rains. 

Some of the first to get into their houses were after- 
wards driven out by floods, and one relates how he made 
his escape from his hut by swimming to another hut on 
higher ground. Captain Cargill and Dr. Burns soon 
began to build, and others put up huts, none of which 
were more than twelve feet square. 

Some of the people, growing dissatisfied, offered to 
go to Wellington, which they were allowed to do, while 
some others were told to go by Captain Cargill. who was 
a martinet and easily offended. In order to allow the 
settlers to get on the land, Friday, 21st April, was fixed 
as the day for making selections, and about twenty 
selectors who held land orders proceeded to the site of 
the town. 

Mr. Garrick held No. 1 order, and chose the section 
on Avhich the Bank of New Zealand now stands. Mr. 
James Williamson chose the section at the corner of 
Princes and Manse Streets; while Mr. Andrew Mercer 
chose a section in Forth Street, where it is cut by Leith 
stream, his intention being to erect a sawmill. Captain 
Cargill selected a section in Princes Street South, and Mr. 
Burns one at the corner of Walker and Princes Streets. 

The pioneers landed at Dunedin in boats at the foot 
of Manse Street, where the first jetty was built of rough 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

1848, "Philip Laing," AND 1849, "Larkins." 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

posts, and planked over on top. They found the whole 
frontage had been withdrawn for public purposes, and 
were very angry thereat, as this was in direct violation 
of the contracts entered into with land purchasers in 
London and Edinburgh; but, as there was no court to 
appeal to. they had to make their selections in the next 
best place, which appeared to be along Princes Street, 
which was represented by two survey lines. The street 
itself consisted of flax, grass, stumps, trees, creeks, and 

The iirst houses built by the settlers were wattle and 
dab, and Mr. James Adams thus describes the erection 
of his house : ' ' On my leasehold there was a clump of 
Mapau trees, but before cutting them I stretched a line 
through them for the ground plan of the house. Trees 
which coincided with this line I left standing, and those 
out of line were cut down and put in the line by digging 
holes. By this plan the walls were made strong and sub- 
stantial in one day. The natives then put small wands or 
wattles across the uprights about twelve inches apart, 
fastening them with flax, and over all they laced the long 
grass to the wattles, did the same to the roof, and at the 
end of four days my house was habitable. There was a 
difference of two feet in the gables, but. as no one could 
see the four corners at once, it was not known to anyone 
but myself." 

This shows that Mr. Adams' first house was a grass 
house. Wattle and dab houses were built in the same 
way. only that wattles were nailed across at intervals of 
a few inches, inside the uprights. Then the whole was 
plastered with a mixture of well-wrought clay and 
chopped grass. The windows were in many cases calico, 
stretched across the opening, while the fireplace occupied 
nearly the whole of the end of the house. Firewood was 
plentiful, and the settler could at least indulge in the 
luxury of good fires. The floor was generally the natural 
soil, packed level with the spade before the walls of the 
house were erected. 

Several settlers brought material for houses witli 
them. Captain Cargill had one of these houses, while Mr. 
Garrick had one which was afterwards the Royal Hotel: 
0110 belonged to Mr. Edward Lee; Mr. Cutten and Mr. 
Jeffreys had each a small house, and there was one for 
Dr. Burns. These were the first timber houses built by 
the immigrants, although a party of sawyers had been fit 

34 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

work, for some months before the pioneer ships arrived, 
sawing timber for the use of the settlers. 

The first party of sawyers consisted of Messrs. David 
Carey, John Logan, Charles Hopkinson, and James Bell. 
Antonio Joseph, who had rim away from the whaler 
"Favourite," was cook to the party. When the pioneer 
ships were lying in the harbour, Mrs. Anderson bought 
timber of these sawyers to build her hotel. Shortly after 
that the Company's sawyers commenced work in what is 
now called Sawyer's Bay, where the first sawmill was 
erected by Hugh McDermid. 

Captain Cargill often allowed people to build on what 
is now the Town Belt, and fence in a garden. One man, 
named Thorburn. fenced in half an acre and built a house, 
but he had killed some of the Captain's pigs which were- 
running about. The Captain heard of it, and made 
inquiries from Thorburn. who asked: "Who told you.'" 
"My girl,'' was the reply. The girl had the misfortune 
to be cross-eyed, and Thorburn asked: "How could you 
expect a girl with a crooked eye to see straight?" "X> 
matter, you'll have to remove." said the Captain. 
"Which house or garden?" "Both." "Well, I must 
say I'll look well, walking about with my house and 
garden on my back," was Thorburn 's reply; but it was 
no use, he had to go. On another occasion the Captain 
found fault with one Simpson, a shoemaker, who had put 
up a sign: "Shoemaker to Her Majesty." Simpson 
refused to take it down, saying: "I did not say which 
queen; it might be Queen of Sheba for all you know." 

Gradually the pioneers made their selections, or leased 
sections, and built houses until the first batch of immi- 
grants were all housed. The next concern was to set the 
labourers to work, and the formation of Princes Street 
commenced. Wages for labourers were fixed at 3/- per 
day of ten hours, and for tradesmen at 5/- per day. Work 
commenced at six in the morning, and continued till nine. 
Then there was an interval of one hour. Work was 
resumed at ten and continued till two. when another 
interval of an hour was given. Prom three to six finished 
the day. 

Farm servants had their wages fixed at 30 a year, 
with lOlbs. of meat, lOlbs. flour, or 51bs. potatoes for every 
pound of flour. They were to get a house free and liberty 
to graze a cow. A married man got 50 per cent. more. 
When Captain Cargill announced that, owing to funds 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 35 

available for wages becoming exhausted, the wages would 
be reduced from 3/- to 2/6 per day for labourers, the 
men left in a body, with one or two exceptions, one of 
whom said: "What can a man do? He cannot starve nor 
let his children starve." The men wanted shorter hours, 
but Captain Cargill pointed out that they were working 
shorter hours and earning more than they would at home. 
In the end they had to return to work, and the formation 
of Princes Street went on apace. 

Roads to tap the country districts were commenced, 
and by the end of May things had progressed so much 
that all the immigrants had left the "Philip Laing" and 
taken up their quarters in Dunedin. 

The selection of suburban lands was not made for 
some time after the town sections were taken up. The 
first country settlers went to Half -Way Bush. After that 
sections were taken up at Kaikorai, Green Island, and the 
Peninsula : also in the Suburban Town District, and at 
Xorth-East Valley. Several of the early settlers chose 
selections at Port Chalmers in preference to Dunedin. 

On account of the very wet weather the selection of 
rural lands was not made for a considerable time. Parties 
were organised to inspect and report, and several selec- 
tions were made in the Molyneux District, but most were 
made in the Taieri. The earliest settlers in the Taieri 
were Dr. Williams and Mr. Milne at Henley, and Mr. 
Kdward Palmer at Otakia. Mr. Valpy went to Waihola 
Park, and other settlers to other parts of the Taieri Plain. 

Mr. Archibald Anderson, who came to Otago before 
tlie arrival of the pioneer ships, says that, when he first 
saw the Taieri Plain, it was all under water, only a patch 
of bush near Allanton being visible. With the spy-glass 
he could see the movements of the tips of the flax blades 
at the surface of the water. As the flax was ten or twelve 
feet long, the depth of the water may be guessed. He 
Avarned the first settlers, but they would not believe him. 
However, fires soon cleared away the flax, and the 
clearings made along the banks of the river formed a 
better outlet for the waters, with the result that no one 
has since seen such a flood as described by Mr. Anderson. 

The immigrants did not wait for roads to be con- 
structed, but set out. often accompanied by their wives 
and children, to force their way through tiax. fern, and 
tutu, and to wade through streams and swamps with toil 
and difficulty. Gradually they spread through the Taieri. 

36 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Tokomairiro, and Molyneux Districts. Amongst others 
who settled on the Taieri were Edward Lee, James Fulton, 
Francis and William McDiarmid, James Buchanan. Donald 
Borrie, Grant, James Dow, and Rennie. At Berwick a 
Mr. Henderson had a large run. 

Meanwhile other vessels arrived. The "Victory," 
with a small number of passengers, arrived on July 8th, 
the "Blundell" on September 21st, the ''Bernicia" on 
December 12th, making the fifth vessel to arrive in 1848. 

Before the end of the year a forward move was made 
by the settlement. The first Custom House was erected. 
the Church and School were opened, and the first news- 
paper, the "Otago News," printed and published by Mr. 
H. B. Graham, made its appearance on 13th December. 

Law and order were established along with the settle- 
ment, and Mr, A. R. C. Strode was the first Resident 
Magistrate. At the same time Mr. McCarthy opened the 
first Custom House. The Police were represented by Ser- 
geant Barry, Corporal Smith, and Privates McKain. L. 
Stewart, C. Stewart, and a Maori named Epa. These wen- 
stationed at Otakou, but Barry removed to Dunedin, 
leaving Smith and a couple of constables at Port Chalmers. 
Shortly afterwards Shepherd was a constable in Dunedin, 
and Donald Ross was appointed to the Southern Districts. 

The first lock-up in Dunedin was a small weather- 
board hut, and the first prisoner (French Charlie) kicked 
the boards out in the night, and so got free. The next 
prisoner was chained to the lamp-post, erected to show 
the dangerous creek at Watson'? Hotel Old Gibbs was 
a wild man, and the police knew it was no good putting 
him in the lock-up, so he was marched to the lamp-post, 
where he made night hideous with his cries, till he was 
released in the morning to come before the Magistrate. 
After that a more substantial structure was built of strong 
posts, lined with timber inside, near where the present 
gaol now stands. 

So the year passed. The first road to the Taieri In- 
Half- Way Bush was made, bridges were built, and sub- 
stantial houses erected. The New Year, 1849, had not 
long been entered upon when the "Ajax." arrived on 
January 8th. 

On March 23rd and 24th, 1849, the first anniversary 
of the young colony was celebrated with great eclat. The 
first day was devoted to aquatic and rural sports, and 
the second to horse racing. On the 23rd. public worship 

of 1) lined in and Sout/i Ota go. 

was held at 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. in the Church, and the 
newspaper gave a stirring account of the state of affairs 
in the settlement. 

During the second year, progress was steady, and, by 
the end of June, a dray road was completed as far as 
Saddle Hill. The first Post Office in Dunedin was kept 
by Mr. Archibald Anderson, who resigned in August, when 
Mr. H. B. Graham was appointed. One of the most 
notable events of the second year was the recognition of 
the eight-hour day in February, 1849, and ever since eight 
hours has represented a day's work in Otago. 

. During the year 1849 the following ships arrived : 
"Mariner." 8th June; "Larkins," llth September; 
"Kelso," 21st November; and the "Mooltan," 25th 
December. The second anniversary was celebrated by 
races at Half- Way Bush, and by a regatta at Port 
Chalmers on March 27th. 

During the three following years the settlers had to 
encounter many hardships. Most of the supplies came 
from Sydney, in Mr. Jones's schooner, the "Scotia," and 
there were times when the expected visit of the vessel 
was delayed longer than usual, when the settlers were 
driven to the direst straits. 

The survivors of those days of hardship remember 
well when not a pound of flour could be obtained in 
Dunedin for love or money. A little wheat was procured 
from the Maoris, and a coarse flour made by grinding it 
in a steel mill turned by hand ; some even tried to grind it 
in a coffee mill. The coarse flour thus obtained, after 
the roughest of the bran had been sifted out, made fairly 
good bread. The camp oven was the universal cooking 
appliance, but those who could not afford one had to make 
damper bread, that is. bread covered over with hot ashes 
after a big fire had been allowed to burn low, and so 
cooked before the heat cooled off. 

When no tea was procurable the settlers used 
manuka leaves, or the leaves of the piri-piri or bid-a-bid. 
For coffee they roasted wheat, and ground it in a coffee 
mill. For tobacco the men smoked manuka bark, and 
tea leaves, when these were available. There was a time 
when the settlement was without salt, and for days on 
end every household might be seen boiling sea water, till 
a little salt could be gathered at the bottom of the pot. 
Those who came to Otago after means of communication 
had been fairly established knew nothing or the disadvan- 
tages under which the pioneers laboured. 

38 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Many of the first settlers in Tokomairiro and Moly- 
neux had to carry their supplies on their backs from 
Dunedin, and there are those living who have carried 
501bs. of flour to the Molyneux. 

The following sketch from the pen of Mr. James Elder 
Brown gives some idea of the prices current, and the 
difficulties that had to be met with : 

In 1851 Flour ranged from 207- to 35/- per lOOlb. ; 
41b. loaf. lid. to 1/2 ; beef and mutton, 5d. and 6d. per Ib. 

1852 Flour, 18 /- to 35 /- : loaf. 9d. to 1/2; beef and 
mutton, 5d. to fid. 

1853 Flour, 25/- to 40/- ; loaf. I/- to 1/3; beef and 
mutton, 5d. to 7d. 

During these three years there was every element of 
stagnation. There was no proper system of land sales 
and no money. to carry on improvements. All goods now 
paid duty, but there was no corresponding outlay of 
money. The price of some of the products, especially 
wheat at 8/- and 10/- per bushel, may seem excessive, but 
it has to be taken into account that almost the whole was 
grown on bush land, necessitating hard labour in every 
part of the process from felling, burning off. chipping 
in with hoe or spade, reaping with hooks, threshing with 
flail, and winnowing in the wind. The high prices of 1853 
were caused by the failure of supplies from Sydney. 

The supplies grown by the settlers were chiefly con- 
fined to the suburban lands and the sides of the harbour. 
The chief means of communication with the latter was by 
boat, and nearly every settler had to have one. The only 
way to reach the Peninsula with animals was to go round 
by the Forbury and the sandhills. The way to reach 
Dunedin was by a footpath across the swamps, with small 
bridges on the creeks. The farmers of the day were just 
the labourers who had managed to acquire a few acres 
of land ; which they cultivated with great care. In 
Dunedin, in many cases, the tradesmen and others 
grew their own potatoes and vegetables, while some kept 
cows on the unoccupied parts, and supplied milk and 
butter to the others. There were few employers of labour. 
and everyone did his or her best to find means of employ- 
ing themselves by cutting timber, fencing, or firewood. &<.. 
and bringing them to market. Neighbours often assisted 
each other or exchanged labour. Money was very scarce, 
but there was scarcely a person who could not go to a 
store and get whatever supplies he needed, without any 
question as to when they would be paid for. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 39 

With the advent of the Provincial Council, which was 
established in 1853, the members being Messrs. Cutten, 
Rennie. and Adams, representing Dunedin, and Messrs. 
McAndrew, Reynolds, Harris, Gillies, McGlashan, and 
Anderson, the country districts, a stimulus was given to 
everything. More people arrived, and public works wi-iv 
entered upon with vigour. Those who wished to get land 
paid a deposit of 10/- an acre, and signed a guarantee to 
accept the terms that might be fixed by Regulation, and 
when, in 1856, the new Regulations came into force for 
the sale of Waste Lands at 107- per acre, with 2 per a civ 
to be expended on improvements in four years, the Pro- 
vince might lie said to be fairly launched into a state of 

Perhaps the most startling event in the history of the 
colony so far was the robbery of the Custom House, at 
Port Chalmers. The safe, containing 1,400, had been 
looted and conveyed, no doubt, to a boat waiting for the 
purpose. Search was made of the various bays near the 
Port, and Mr. James Adams had the good fortune to find 
the safe unopened, half-submerged in the water. 

An inquiry was instituted, and a reward of 100 
offered, but to no purpose. Shortly after this the Custom 
House was removed to Dunedin, and its robbery was never 
again attempted. 

Meantime immigrant vessels continued to arrive, and 
in 1859 the population in Dunedin had risen to 2,262, while 
Otago as a whole contained 8.899. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that settlement 
had spread throughout the country, and the agricultural 
and pastoral industries had obtained a good foothold. In 
1857, the only portion of the Otago Province settled was 
the Taieri Plain, Green Island, and Balclutha Districts, 
while here and there portions of laud were taken up along 
the South Road as far as Popotunoa. Northwards, then- 
was hardly any settlement, all the country being held as 
large runs. 

About Oamaru there was no town, and even in 1861 
only a few houses. The first lands in the district were 
sold in 1853, at the then fixed price of 10/- per acre, to 
Messrs. Frazer. at the Bluff. Moeraki ; Benjamin Bailey 
and John Lemon, at Otepopo ; Wm. Jones, at Lavant ; J. R. 
Jones, at Puketapu; J. F. B., C. E. A., arid C. Suisted, at 
Otepopo. In November of this year the Filleuls took up 
the Papakaio Run, and Hugh Robison the Oamaru Run. 

40 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

From 1853 to 1858 the chief runholders up to the Waitaki 
were the Filleuls at Papakaio; H. Robison. the Oamaru 
Run ; Williams and Lemon, Waiko.ura Run ; Rich and 
Teschemaker, Kakanui ; Frazer Bros.. Tuparitaniwha and 
White Bluffs ; W. S. Trotter, Te Awa Kokomuko. between 
Horse Range and Moeraki; H. McHugh, Moeraki; John 
Jones, Waikouaiti and Puketapu ; Suisted, all the land from 
the Otepopo to Oamaru ; W. H. Valpy, the Maerewhenua 
Run ; Borton and McMaster, between the Awamoko and 
Maerewhenua Rivers ; J. J. MacEvoy, between the Maere- 
whenua and Otekaike Rivers, bought from the original 
holder, one Lawson; W. H. Dansey, Otekaike Run, pur- 
chased from J. P. Taylor; Julius Bros.. Rugged Ridges 
Run ; the Rev. J. C. Andrews, the Otemata Run ; H. C. 
Robison, the Omarama Run ; John MacLean, Morven 
Hills; Gouch and Miller, the Longslip Run; and A. Mac- 
Murdo, the Upper Waitaki Plain. 

In 1855 Robison sold his Oamaru Run to W. H. Valpy, 
and in the same year E. MacGlashan purchased a share in 
Suisted 's Run at Otepopo. In 1857 Major Richardson 
bought out Suisted 's interest in all the runs, and Suisted 
left Otago about the end of the year. In 1854 Rich and 
Teschemaker brought sheep overland from Nelson, intend- 
ing to take up a run in the Molyneux District; but they 
changed their minds, and took up the Kakanui Run. as 
stated. In 1857 Valpy sold his Oamaru Run to the 
Filleuls, who in 1859 sold to Jas. Hassell. who held it till 
it was proclaimed a hundred by the Provincial Govern- 
ment in 1862. About the end of 1858 Frazer Bros, sold 
their sheep station at the Bluff to Dr. Gleeson, and E. 
MacGlashan sold his Otepopo Run to F. Fenwick. In 
1859 C. Hopkinson had a run somewhere about the Shag 
River, and from a return by Mr. Logic, chief inspector 
of sheep, the number of sheep-owners totalled 56, the 
number of sheep held in the Northern District being stated 
as 201,649. 

At the beginning of 1857 the population in the north 
was 285, and it was in this year that the first northern 
mails were carried, the offer of David Hutchison, at the 
rate of 290 per annum, being accepted, and the first mail 
started from Dunedin on Monday. 2nd February. On the 
]0th February, a Mr. H. C. Hertslet. who had carried 
on business at Moeraki, advertised that he had enlarged 
his business, and had for sale all the goods usually re- 
quired at stations. For some time Mr. and Mrs. Hertslet 

of Duncdin and Soutli Otago. 41 

were the only white family at Moeruki, and were on 
excellent terms with the Maoris, of whom a large number 
resided in the neighbouring kaik. 

The site of Oamaru was not laid out and offered for 
sale until 1859, and between 21st March and 6th April 
17 sections were put up to auction, realising 291, the 
upset being 12 10s. per quarter acre. From records it 
appears that the population at this time was only 25. but 
in 1861 it had increased to 210. The first real house was 
built in 1859 for Dr. King, and at the end of the year 
there were but four substantial dw T elling-houses, belonging 
respectively to Henry France. Dr. King. J. Hassell, and 
H. Hertslet. 

At this time Oamaru was visited by the Kev. Wm. 
Johnstone. of Port Chalmers, at intervals of about three 
months, and in February, 1860. he preached the first 
sermon delivered in Oamaru in Mr. Hassell 's woolshed, 
the congregation of between 20 and 30 being nearly the 
entire adult population. During 1860 the s.s. "Geelong" 
was engaged to make one trip a week between Dunedin 
and Oamaru, at a subsidy of 1,500 a year, for two years, 
and soon the trade assumed such proportions that the 
authorities placed a hulk, "Thomas and Henry," in the 
bay for the accommodation of steamers and other craft, 
and William Hay was placed in charge of her. 

The news of the discovery of gold at Tuapeka had 
little effect at first, but when reliable information was 
received caused great excitement, so much so that in July 
the town and district appeared nearly deserted. In this 
year there were only 47 houses in the town, very few 
being of stone, which cost 6d. a foot at the quarry and 6d. 
a foot cartage. During 1862 large numbers of sections 
were sold, but it was not until 1863 that the town made 
much progress. That year was one of the best and busiest 
experienced, and the prosperity of the place was finally 

The first school in East Taieri was started in 1853 or 
1854. a Mr. Gebbie acting as teacher, till the arrival from 
Home of Mr. John Hislop in 1856. Mr. Hislop continued 
in charge till 1861. when he was appointed Inspector and 
Secretary in charge of the Otago Schools. Mr. James 
AVaddell succeeded to the school, and occupied the position 
for nearly forty years, being succeeded, on his retirement, 
by his son James. 

The coastal trade of the young colony was carried on 

-1-2 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

by means of large open boats, which supplied the settlers 
of Tokoinairiro and the Molyneux before there were any 
roads. James Harrold ran one of these boats between 
Dunedin and the Taieri, taking goods to the head of 
Waihola Lake. Antonio Joseph traded another boat to 
the Molyneux, and up and down the coast from Wai- 
kouaiti to Stewart Island. 

After that a small cutter. "The Spec." owned by 
Captain Simpson, took up the running, and then the 
"Pioneer'' and "Scotia." Small steamers began to 
supersede these small sailing crafts, and the first coastal 
steamers were the "Oberon" and "Guiding Star." From 
these small beginnings has grown the present coastal and 
inter-colonial shipping trade, a trade well carried on at 
the present day by the Union Steam Ship Company and 
other smaller concerns. 

As years passed on, the little community went on the 
even tenor of its way along the high road to steady pro- 
gress, but this progress proceeded at a snail's pace, com- 
pared with the leaps and bounds it made when the gold 
discoveries of 1861 were announced. By December, 1861, 
the population had increased to 30,269 people. The 
inland districts became rapidly opened up, and soon the 
pioneers of Otago found themselves lifted into a life of 
activity and excitement. Dunedin advanced at a rapid 
rate, and those who knew the old town recognised it no 
longer. To follow up the different events of importance 
would take a volume in themselves, and are beyond the 
scope of this account. 

A word might be said about the Press. As stated, the 
"Otago News" was first published in December, 1848. but 
its opinions and the subsequent death of the proprietor 
brought about its demise in December, J850. On Feb- 
ruary 8th, 1851. was commenced the publication of the 
"Otago Witness." its first editor and proprietor being 
Mr. W. H. Cutten. The discovery of the goldfields and 
the advent of Julius Vogel induced Mr. Cutten to issue 
a daily newspaper, the "Otago Daily Times." the first 
issue of which took place on November i5th, 3861. 

of Diinedin and South Otago. 43 



BEFORE the arrival of the pioneer ships at Otago, one 
of the oldest of the Otago settlers, Archibald 
Anderson, lately deceased, arrived from Welling- 
ton. Of his arrival in the colony and subsequent actions 
the following particulars have been gleaned: 

The late Mr. Archibald Anderson left Scotland on 
the 31st of October, 1839, in the ship "Bengal Merchant," 
from the Port Glasgow, and arrived at Port Nicholson on 
February 22nd, 1840. He had purchased for 131 (101 
cost, and 30 premium) a land order for 101 acres of la ml 
in the township of Wellington. With this he got a cabin 
passage, and also could take as many servants as he liked ; 
so he brought a ploughman named Donald Drummond. his 
wife, and her mother. lie intended starting a farm for 
dairying, but Avhen he arrived in Wellington lie found that 
the surveyors had landed only just a few weeks before, 
and for this reason he was told he would not get his land 
for two or three years. He therefore paid his servants off, 
and the dairymaid's mother, a Mrs. Miller, kept a 
boarding-house very successfully for a long time. 

Mr. Anderson got some natives to put up a whare for 
him. near the site of the present railway station, and then 
started a store, which he kept going for about twelve 
months, doing the most part of his trade with the natives. 
At that time the wages in Wellington were 3/- a day, and 
the price of beef and mutton was 1/6 and 2/- a pound, 
butter and cheese 2/- a pound : pork, however, was only 
6d. How the poor man could live, Mr. Anderson said in 
later years, he did not know. Of course, the natives wen- 
easy to deal with, and would give a basket of potatoes for 
a plug of tobacco. However, they soon knew hotter than 
this. All the sheep and bullocks had to come from Syd- 

44 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

ney. In the course of a short time. Mr. Anderson took 
into partnership a man named Andrew Rowan, and built 
another store in Willis Street, so that he had shops at 
each end of the town. His partner, however, got tired 
of storekeeping, and so Mr. Anderson bought twenty 
milk cows at 20 a head, 500 sheep at 2 each, and sent 
Rowan' with them to .Cape Terawhiti. about two miles 
south, of Wellington. For two years they carried on a 
small farm there. But the natives were very troublesome, 
so Mr. Anderson came south in the "Scotia" with Johnny 
Jones in 1845 to have a look at the Otago country. Being 
very well satisfied with it. he chartered two schooners 
from Wellington, and in the one sent down thirty cows 
and two horses, and in the other 500 sheep, and landed 
them safely without the loss of a single head. They were 
landed at Otago Heads, where Rowan took charge, and 
kept them for eighteen months, Mr. Anderson returning 
to Wellington to settle up his business affairs. On return- 
ing to Otago, Mr. Anderson found that his partner had 
made "ducks and drakes" of their property, selling the 
produce to the whalers. On the advice of Johnny Jones. 
Mr. Anderson decided on dissolving partnership, and this 
he did, each partner taking half of the stock. Rowan 
sailed in a craft for Sydney, but the boat and all hands 
were lost. 

Mr. Anderson went to Blueskin with his stock, and 
remained there for two years. Native dogs were, how- 
ever, a source of great annoyance here, so Mr. Anderson 
shifted his stock to the hills, which is now the site of 
Roslyn. He subsequently engaged as shepherd Mr. Wm. 
Jaffray, now of Saddle Hill, one of the "Philip Laing" 
passengers, who took his sheep and cattle to Saddle Hill, 
where he looked after them, Mr. Jaffray being with Mr. 
Anderson for about eight years in all. 

The settlers then began to get more numerous, and. 
after a time. Mr. Anderson leased the North Molyneux 
run of 30,000 acres, extending from the Lake to Manuka 
Island. This was about the year 1850. His first house 
on this run was near Moir's Bush, above Barnego Flat. 
In the meantime and for some time Mr. Anderson had a 
store in Dunedin at the corner of Princes and Rattray 
Streets, arid he was the first Postmaster in Otago. After 
a time, when the place was becoming more extensively 
settled, Mr. Anderson bought 2,000 acres, extending from 
the present railway bridge at Balclutha to the Lake front. 

of Dutiedin and South Otago. 45 

on condition that he inade improvements to the extent of 
2 an -acre within four years, but this regulation was done 
away with. He used to travel from Dunediu about once 
a month to see how things were progressing, and on the 
occasion of these visits, about 1853 or 1S54, he bought 200 
acres of land on Inch Clutha at 2 an acre, and settled 
his family there. This 200 acres was purchased from Mr. 
Redpath, and was then, and is now. the well-known Bal- 
moral Farm. 

At that time Balmoral was a delightful spot. There 
was a large horse-shoe-shaped lagoon in front of the house, 
nearly a mile long, covered to the edge with manuka 
scrub. In- the early summer; when the scrub came out 
in a mass of white bloom, the scene was one to be remem- 
bered. The water was clear and placid, and with the 
native songsters and the natural surroundings, the place 
was a picture. Here Mr. Anderson resided for twenty-five 
years, and then moved to the Hermitage, where he resided 
for the last thirty years of his life. After two years he 
gave up the lease of his rim to Mr. Peter Bell, who sub- 
sequently settled at Stony Creek. 

Mr. Anderson also held for a time the Beaumont run. 
This was in the '50 's, but he sold out about 1860, the price 
for the place as a going concern being 1 per sheep. The 
gold rush broke out the following year, and the purchaser 
of the run was able to get 3 per head for the sheep. 

While at Balmoral, Mr. Anderson kept a boat for the 
purpose of carrying settlers across the river to the south, 
and for four years he had a man working a ferry between 
Balmoral, or the hill opposite it. and the lower reserve 
near where the south end of the railway bridge is now. 
the charge being sixpence a trip. At This ferry, but 
previously. Mr. Matthew Marshall crossed about February 
of 1852, when he went south to Popotunoa Hill to shepherd 
for Mr. Meredith. 

There Avas a big flood on Inch Clutha eighteen months 
before the flood of 1878, and it rose to within six inches of 
the "big flood" mark, but it stayed only for ten hours, 
while the '78 flood stayed for weeks. Mr. Anderson 
brought his family out from Dunedin to the Clutha in a 
sledge draAvn by two bullocks, and it took a Aveek for the 

While at Balmoral, on Inch Clutha. Mr. Anderson 
used to grow his own wheat and grind it into flour in a 
steel mill. All the produce groAA-n had to be sent by boat 

46 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

from Port Molyneux round to Dunediu. Mr. Anderson 
grew large quantities of potatoes and sent them round, 
but the charges were heavy and the profits small. Any- 
thing they got round from Dunedin had to be sledged from 

Mr. Joseph Anderson, of Waiwera South, gives the 
following particulars of the arrival and subsequent settle- 
ment of his family in the colony. He says : ' ' My grand- 
father, James Anderson, and father, John Anderson (a 
young man of twenty), natives of Sutherlandshire, Scot- 
land, left for New Zealand in August, 18o9, by the ship 
'Oriental,' she being one of the first four emigrant vessels 
to leave London on the same day. The 'Oriental' arrived 
on January 30th. 1840. in Wellington, which at that time 
was very subject to earthquakes, so much so that it was 
considered unsafe to erect high chimneys to the houses. 

In 1842 my grandfather and father left Wellington 
for Nelson, their intention being to start sheep-farming 
in that province. They took a cargo of sheep with them, 
but the vessel was wrecked near Nelson, and nearly all 
the sheep were drowned. During their stay in Nelson. 
Captain Wakefield and a number of leading citizens were 
massacred by the Maoris. When word was brought to 
the town, the settlers, expecting a raid, gathered in the 
town, and attempted to build some rude fortifications. 
They also cut away the grass, fern, and rough growth, 
so that the Maoris would not be able to approach without 
being seen. If beaten by the Maoris, the defenders made 
arrangements to retreat into the church on the hill, and 
there make a last stand. However, the Maoris did not 
turn up. so the scare soon passed away. 

"My mother. Isabella Allan, my maternal grandfather. 
John Allan, his wife, four .sons, and three daughters, 
arrived in Nelson, from Ayrshire, Scotland, in the ship 
'New Zealand,' in 1842. In 1844 my father and mother 
were married in the English Church at Nelson. In the 
latter part of this year, in company with my father's 
brother-in-law, Alexander McKay, and his wife, they 
decided to leave for Otago. On the eve of their departure 
word came from the Home Country that the New Zealand 
Company, which held the Charter from the Crown for 
colonising New Zealand, had failed. However, as they 
had made all arrangements, they decided to set off, and. 
after a very rough passage of six weeks, landed in Port 
Chalmers. It was on the arrival of the vessel that my 
eldest brother, James Anderson, was born. 

of Diinedin and South Otago. 


1848, "Joint Wickliffc." 

1848, John Wickliffc 

48 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

"My father took up his residence in Anderson's .Bay. 
hence the name, afterwards removing to Dunedin. the 
only occupants of which at that time were two pig' hunters. 
My brother John was born in the district, and was the 
first white male child born in Dunedin. My grandfather 
died in Dunedin in the early part of 1849, and was buried 
in the cemetery, then in Upper York Place. After the 
first batch of immigrants arrived, my father removed to 
Port Chalmers, where he started in business as a butcher, 
and just about this time I was born. In 1852 we removed 
to a farm in the East Taieri. Farming work was in a 
very primitive state, hand ploughs being used to break 
up the ground. The grain had all to be cut with the 
hook, threshed with a flail, and ground in a hand-mill, 
most of the grinding being done after the men had 
returned from their work. After about Four years of 
farming life, my father leased the Dalvey Station for a 
term of years from Thomas Martin. Possession was 
given in the beginning of 1856. and about eighteen 
months afterwards my mother and the family were taken 
in bullock drays from the Taieri to Tapanui." 

A large number of the early settlers obtained employ- 
ment from the runholders. The most important work of 
the time was shepherding, but the life Avas a very lonely 
one and full of hardships. Thomas Blateh. one of the 
arrivals with the "Wickliffe." says that he lived at 
Totara in a hut. which was really half cave, near where 
a big totara tree stood. There was no other living being 
nearer that Otepopo. which was ten miles away. Often he 
ran out of provisions, and had to live for weeks at a time 
on Maori cabbage and mutton. The following incidents 
occurred while he was shepherding for Suisted. It had 
been very wet weather for some time, and all the rivers 
were rising fast. When out on the run, Blatch saw two men 
coining towards him. They had crossed the Kakamir, and 
were making for the Waiareka. but, finding it impassable, 
were about to recross the Kakanui. Blatch knew that the 
river had risen since they had crossed it. and that if they 
attempted to cross they would be droAvned. It was 
blowing strongly, and he tried to light a fire to attract 
their notice, but failed. He then tied his plaid to a long 
stick and waved it till one of them saw him. They came 
to the bank of the Waiareka, and on their asking how 
they Avere to cross he told them to make a strong flax 
rope, and to pay particular attention to Ilie knots. He 

of Dunedin and South Ota go. 49 

would make a light line which he would throw to them. 
They were to fasten it to th,3 strong lino, and he would 
pull it and them across, one by one, but they were to make 
a light line too. so that the one that remained behind 
could pull it back. They wanted him to make the heavy 
line, but he refused, saying it was their lives which were 
at stake, not his. At last they made the line, and one 
Ure after fastening it to his body, stepped out. He 
walked boldly on, feeling with his stick until he was 
about up to the waist, when he could find no bottom in 
front, and he was about to turn when Blatch jerked the 
rope and pulled him forward. The rapid current swept 
him down, and his mate, a young fellow named Mann, 
became frightened and held tightly to his line so that 
Blatch could not draw Ure in. After much yelling he 
managed to let Mann know that he was to slack the line, 
with the result that Ure was safely landed. Mann then 
drew back the line and fastened it to himself, but tied it 
round his waist. When Blatch pulled, the rope tightened 
so much that he was doubled up, head and feet being 
together. Blatch pulled with all his might, and at last 
landed him more like a drowned sheep than a man. 

On another occasion, while crossing cattle at the 
Shag Kiver. a steer rushed at Blatch, and, before he could 
escape, pierced the clothing in front of his body with his 
horn. The belt about the waist held, and the bullock 
galloped off. with Blatch swinging on his horn. At last, 
by a sudden jerk, he managed to so twist that the tongue 
came out of the buckle, and he fell with a fearful crash. 
His clothing was torn to ribbons, and he had to return 
home, where he was laid up for some time. Towards the 
end of 1859, Blatch joined the police force in Dunedin 
under Shepherd, and in 1861 he served under St. John 
Branigan, he being the only one of the old hands who 
remained in the service. He was stationed in Dunedin, 
and had charge of the night duty men. During this time 
a great fire took place in Shand's shop in Princes Street. 
Shand's baker's shop. Pollock, the butcher's, and Simp- 
son, the shoemaker's shops were burned, while Cargill's 
store narrowly escaped. In one of the shops Blatch had 
a narrow escape. He had gone in to try to save some 
goods, when a room, containing corrosive sublimate and 
arsenic, took fire, and he was almost stifled, when he heard 
a voice outside saying: "Lie down and crawl out." He 
did so and escaped. On another occasion he had to jump 
over a pile of blazing weatherboards to get out. 

50 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Shortly after this he took typhoid fever, which was 
raging in Dunedin, the people dying off like flies. More 
immigrants arrived, and Dv.nedin was crowded with men 
on their way to the diggings. Three ship loads arrived 
in one day, and the Town Belt was nothing but a canvas 
town. Garret's bushranging gang broke out at this time, 
and Mill's gunsmith's shop was broken into. 

A man, named McLennan, brought word to the police 
at Dunedin that a man named Tom Tait had left Wai- 
kouaiti several days before, but had not arrived at his 
destination in Dunedin, and it was feared that he was 
lost, as the weather was bad. It was arranged that 
McLennan, Blatch, and another should search towards 
Waikouaiti. On the Sunday morning they went over 
Flagstaff, but shortly after they started a blinding snow- 
storm came on. The top of the Snowy Mountains was 
covered with snow, and a dense fog with a bitterly cold 
wind came on. The men took shelter for a while under 
a large rock, and on again starting they had a job to 
get their horse (they had only one) to start. They then 
began the search, one man keeping in the track, while the 
others spread out on either side. In this way they searched 
the whole mountain, but without success, and long after 
dark they got to Waikouaiti, where they stopped the 
night. Next morning the mountain road was impassable, 
and they had to go by Jones's road, called Kilmog. It 
was so cold that now and then they had to light a big fire 
to warm themselves. They crossed Blueskin Bay and the 
Bush, and arrived at the Junction Hotel, where two of 
them stayed, while Blatch went on to Dunedin. On his 
arrival he met Shepherd, going for his milk just about 
dark. "Is that you, Blatch?" said he. "Yes," was the 
reply. "I am glad to see you. We thought you were all 
lost. Put your horse in the stable and go home." On 
going to the station, he found that Tait had been found 
that morning drowned in the Silverstream. Before Blatch 
could get his coat off that night he had to have the sleeves 
ripped up, his hands and arms being swollen up with the 

The first gaol was a very primitive affair. Mr. Mon- 
son, who had two assistant warders, being the first gaoler. 
When there was trouble, Blatch, who lived opposite the 
gaol, was always sent for to assist, There was a notorious 
character, one Jeannie Stewart, who was always in trouble 
for drunkenness. One day she got very drunk and kicked 

of Ditnedin and South Otago. 51 

up such a terrible row that Blatch was sent for to take 
her to the lock-up. She was coming along quietly, jawing 
away at the gaoler, who occasionally gave her a good 
shake, when suddenly turning round, and finding the 
officers' backs turned, she quickly opened the prison door, 
letting out all the prisoners, about twenty in number. 
She then caught Blatch by the hair, and one of the 
prisoners gave him a blow between the eyes. They all 
got away, but Blatch followed, and one was heard to say: 
"If he strikes with his 'neddy,' we'll kill him." They 
surrounded him. trying to get his "neddy" from him, 
and in the scrimmage he got a smack in the face which 
broke the bridge of his nose and half stunned him. Other 
constables- who soon arrived upon the scene managed to 
capture all the prisoners. Jeannie was taken charge of 
by two constables, and Blatch, going towards the lock-up 
behind them, with clothes torn and spattered with blood, 
was met by Shepherd, who told him there was a "drunk" 
in the Maori house on the beach. Blatch went to the place 
and called upon the man to come out ; he refused, and 
there was a rough-and-tumble. A young constable came 
to help, and, seeing Blatch 's condition, imagined that the 
man had caused it. Calling out : "Oh, you beggar, you've 
killed him," he let him have it on the face. Next morning 
all the prisoners were sentenced to various punishments, 
Jeannie suffering solitary confinement in addition. 

On the outbreak of the diggings thousands of diggers 
were in Dunedin. and things were very lively. One 
evening the Sergeant of Police was told that there was a 
row at the Provincial Hotel. Constable Sheridan was told 
to go up. and he asked Blatch to go too. They found that 
a digger had thrown a tumbler at the barman and cut 
his head open. They arrested the man, and were taking 
him to the lock-up when they were rushed by a crowd of 
diggers, who tried to rescue the prisoner. One man' in 
particular made himself very offensive, and Blatch was 
ordered to arrest him. He struggled so much that Sheri- 
dan left the first prisoner and came to help, shaking a 
heavy guttapercha riding whip over the man's head. The 
diggers crowded round and crushed the officers against a 
Idling fence. Five constables arrived and succeeded in 
arresting five men, but in the melee they were nearly 
suffocated. Blatch had a fifteen-stone Irishman to deal 
with, and in the course of the struggle the two were some- 
times together, sometimes separate. Some of the better 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

1848, "Blundell." 

1848, "Blnitdell." 

1848, "Blimdell." 

1850, "Eden." 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 53 

class of diggers helped the police for a while, but soon left. 
A ero.wd of nearly 1,000 men had quickly gathered, and 
there was danger of a regular rush. The other constables 
managed to get together and rushed along the fence, but 
Blatch and his man were stopped by the crowd, who 
pulled them round the street until the others were gone. 
Though his arms ached. Blatch kept hold of his man. until 
two or three of them, by throwing their weight on his 
arms, broke his hold and forced him down. The crowd 
then opened and let the prisoner away, but at once closed 
again around Blatch, who. jumping into the air. saw his 
man without a hat hurrying off. Near by was a police- 
man, to whom Blatch called out: "Seize that man." He 
was captured and taken to the lock-up, where, for fear of 
further trouble, a sentry, fully armed with rifle and 
bayonet, had been placed on guard by the authorities. 
Next morning the five men were fined 30 each, and the 
Magistrate said that if all that had happened had been 
made known to him he would have committed them for 
trial. During the struggle Blatch lost a gold pin valued 
at 1. 

Mr. Mosley's house in Dunedin at Half-Way Bush 
was a two-roomed one, 'the sides of which were built of 
slabs and the roof of saplings and thatch made of grass 
and rushes. On Sundays the Mosleys often walked one 
and a half miles to a place of worship along the beach. 
A Miss Dunlop started a school near them, and she had 
about a dozen pupils. 

One of the chief events of the time was a great dinner 
given to all the children of the place by Mr. Valpy. of 
Green Island. He sent bullock drays to take them out, 
but Miss Mosley saw that some of the children in the drays 
were sick, so she refused to go in one, and, along with a 
neighbour named Hepburn, walked the distance there and 

One winter it was very cold, and a Mr. Lewis, when 
looking for his cows, was lost in the bush. Mrs. Lewis 
got Mr. Mosley to search for him. but he also got lost* and 
was found only by his w r ife cooeeing. when he came 
towards the sound. Three days later Mr. Lewis was found 
dead in the snow. 

Mr. James Somerville, a passenger on the "Blun- 
dell," gives a good account of the experiences of some of 
the immigrants arriving by that boat. He says that the 
bush was alive witli birds, wild pigeons, tuis, parrakeets. 

54 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

robins, kakas, and others. Their party (the Somervilles) 
was the tirst to get away from the ship on a fine, dear 
morning, and they reached their destination, where Por- 
tobello now is, safely. Their luggage was landed with 
the help of the sailors, who, after a good meal, prepared 
to go back to the ship. 

In the meantime the wind changed, and the return 
trip was a difficult one to accomplish. The party, being 
unprovided with tents, set to work to arrange th?; boxes 
as a shelter, but night overtook them before they were 
finished. The wind blew right in on them, but, by 
keeping a fire burning, they were fairly comfortable, 
till a shower of hail came on. when things became very 

Next morning they erected a shelter with the fronds 
of the tree ferns for a roof, but these, although fine for 
keeping off the sun, were useless to keep out the rain. 
The beds were anything but comfortable, being duly a 
platform with sails and branches, the softest procurable, 
laid across. You could not call it the Board of Health. 
but it was a bed of health. If it rained, they put up all 
the umbrellas they had to shelter them. 

Boats were not easily procured, but after some 
trouble they bought one at a cost of 30, and then had to 
travel from Dunedin to North-East Harbour to get it. 
The beach was very rough, being covered with large 
stones, while the bush came to the water's edge. There 
was no track through it until Grassy Point was reached, 
where a surveyor's track had been cut through to Ander- 
son's Bay. Then they had to cross the swamp between 
Goat Hill and Dunedin. 

On reaching North-East Harbour they got the boat, 
but were, advised not to attempt to return that night, as 
wind and tide were against them. However, they all 
thought they would get on all right, and set off. On 
reaching Grassy Point it became very dark, and it came 
on to rain, a thick, heavy drizzle, which continued all 
night. They hugged the shore so closely that very often 
the boat bumped against the stones. After pulling for 
some hours, they were startled by a peculiar cry. which 
turned out to be nothing more alarming than the crowing 
of a cock. This put them all in good humour, for it 
showed that they were neariug home, where they arrived 
at 4 a.m.. after pulling for nine hours. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 55 

Dr. Burns advised them to shift to Anderson's Bay, 
and this was done. They went in the boat, but found 
that they could not get it up to the beach. In carrying 
one of the men to land, John Somerville got stuck in the 
mud. and let his passenger slip into the water. 

The building of a house took some time. They sunk 
posts and nailed battens outside and inside. Then clay, 
mixed with grass, was dumped -in and rubbed smooth. 
"When the walls dried, any cracks were carefully filled up, 
and preparations were made to put on the roof, which 
was pavilion shaped and made of timber. 

Two carpenters, employed at this job, had to go down 
the harbour- for the material. One of them thought that 
if they could rig up a sail they would get on better, but 
on trial it proved unsuccessful, and they had to pull it 

James Somerville was left in the boat to keep it 
afloat while the others got the timber and loaded up. 
The return journey was then begun, and for a time they 
got on well. Instead of going to the jetty at Dnnedin, 
they went to Pelichet Bay so that they might sail across 
the bay. However, here their difficulties began, for the 
boat grounded and gave them some trouble to get off. 
Before going very far they noticed water coming in, and 
thought they had sprung a leak. The sails were put up, 
but the Avater came over the side, and soon tilled the boat, 
which Avas only kept afloat by her loading. They 
managed to get to Grant's Braes, where they got a rope 
and towed the boat the rest of the distance. When they 
unloaded they found the plug floating about, hence the 
supposed leak. 

After the house was finished and the families \\ r ere 
lirought home, preparations for getting in some crop were 
made. The grass, fern and flax were burned off. and the 
ground dug and grubbed for potatoes and vegetables. 
More houses were then built for the rest of the party, 
and things began to be more comfortable. 

To procure some cows Avas the next business, nine 
being bought at Blueskin for 10 each. They had to be 
driven over Flagstaff, and. after a journey of five days, 
all. except one which was lost at the foot of the Half-Way 
Bush, were landed safely. William Duff was engaged to 
look for and bring the missing one in. but he failed to 
find her. 

56 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Bush felling was pretty hard work, more especially 
as the axes were unsuitable, but ultimately American axes 
were procured, and the work went on better. After the 
ground was cleared, the seed was sown and then chipped 
in with grub hoes. The stumps had been left in the 
ground, so that neither ploughing nor harrowing could 
be done. The crop had all to be cut with the hook and 
carried on the back to the stackyard, until bullocks could 
be broken for sledges. 

Then it had to be threshed with the nail. A sheet was 
put down and a good-sized board was put in the middle. 
A man stood on either side of the board and struck the 
sheaf time about. After the grain was threshed, it was 
winnowed outside to blow away the chaff. As things 
improved, a fanner was made and worked at night. 

The children went over to Dunedin to school, which 
was held in the Church. This building was also used 
for the meeting of the Provincial Council, the Courthouse, 
and for public meetings. After a while it was sold and 
used for a wool store. At the last it died a martyr's 
death, being burned to the ground. 

To cross to Dunedin was a difficult job. There was 
no path, and people kept close to the edge of the swamp. 
There were two creeks to cross, one, a small one. about 
where the Bay View Hotel stands, and the other, a larger 
one. about the turn of the Bay Road near the Gasworks. 
They were crossed on round rails laid from bank to bank, 
with a hand rail to steady the folk. On the big creek the 
bridge w r as raised in the centre, two cross pieces being 
nailed to posts driven in the centre of the creek. Both 
bridges were very shaky concerns, one being called Big 
Waverly, and the other Little AVaverly. Oftentimes the 
ladies crossed on their hands and knees. 

Soon a track was made across the swamp. This 
started at the Bay View Hotel and grossed higher up, 
where it joined a road that connected with the main road 
at the Southern Cemetery. The people from Green 
Island. Caversham, and the Forbury usually met the 
Anderson's Bay people and some settlers from the Toma- 
hawk here. The early settlers thought nothing of a long 
walk, and in the summer it was enjoyable enough, but 
in the winter, when the ruts were full of water, it was a 
miserable job. 

The road to the Taieri was formed through the 
swamp by the authorities cutting two parallel ditches 

of Dnnedin and South Otago. 

some distance apart and throwing the material taken out 
between. This was then macadamised with bundles of 
flax. A serviceable track was thus made, but it was 
rough and so boggy that it was no uncommon thing to 
see waggons stuck fast from Saturday to Monday 

All the country folk dressed much alike, the ordinary 
costume being a blue flannel or serge shirt for a coat, 
with vest and trousers of rough tweed, corduroy, or 
moleskin. People were not particular about the material 
so long as the garments were whole and clean. The boots 
were veii 7 heavy, and often laced with flax for w r ant of 
leather |aces. One young woman went to church in a 
silk dress, with her boots laced with flax, while a man 
wore his nightcap for a hat. 

Some amusing incidents took place on the road from 
the Bay to Dunedin, when those who imbibed rather freely 
found the path not wide enough, and tumbled into the 
ditch. Sometimes they could steer a pretty straight 
course, crawling along with a hand on either side. If 
the one in trouble were of the gentler sex. she Avent 
floundering along, shouting for assistance until some 
passer-by pulled her out. 

One of the "Philip Laing's" passengers, who some- 
times got into the ditch, owned a boat, and often rowed 
across to Dunedin on Saturdays with his butter and 
eggs. He usually got on the spree, and roared and bawled 
until the police were glad to get him awav. If it were 
blowing, they tied the painter of the boat round him. so 
that if the boat were capsized they would be sure to find 
his body along with the boat ; but fortunately the old man 
always got across safely. 

Provisions sometimes ran short, and on one occasion 
there was no flour to be got. Fortunately there were 
plenty of potatoes, and the skill of the cooks had to be 
displayed in cooking them. It was "taties" at all meals: 
taties boiled with their jackets on, taties with their jackets 
off, taties fried, taties mashed, taties stoved. and taties 
and point. 

Just about this time, or shortly afterwards, a hand 
flourmill. which completed the operation of grinding and 
dressing at the same time, was purchased by them (i.e., 
the So7nervilles) from a settler at Green Island, from 
which place it was carried to the Bay. A pole was tied 
to each side and slung on men's shoulders. As there w;is 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

DK. H. MAN M \r. 
1848, "John \Vickliffc." 

1848, "Blmuiell." 

of Dnnedin and South Otago. 59 

no road they carried it over the hills and along the sand- 
hills. The Somervilles then managed to get 100 bushels 
of wheat from the Maoris of Waikouaiti and set to work ; 
but. as the stones of the mill were a foot in diameter, they 
found the driving a difficult job. So difficult was it that 
six men had to be employed, and even then the work 
was so hard that two of them could work only five 
minutes at a time, when they took a ten minutes' spell 
while other two worked. 

The flour was what was called "overheads" that is, 
only the bran was taken out. At first people were glad 
to get the Hour, but it soon got a bad name because it 
was so black. Investigation proved that the wheat was 
smutty, and it had all to be washed and dried before any 
more flour could be made. 

This was the first flour made in a stone mill in Otago, 
and the Somervilles were the first millers. By and by 
bullocks were used to turn the mill, but were not much 
of a success. After the Blagdon Mills started at the 
Water of Leith this mill was stopped. When the Somer- 
villes shifted to Wharepa, the mill was taken there. It 
was at first driven by bullocks, then by a small water 
wheel. The barn in which it stood took fire, and every- 
thing was burnt. So ended the first stone mill in Otago. 

All the woodwork required for tools, axes, grub hoes, 
etc.. had to be made by hand, and this entailed a good 
deal of labour. At first only round sticks were used for 
some of the implements, and these were pretty rough, 
lint with axe handles and flails more care was taken; 
these latter were made of white manuka and kowhai. 
Another occupation in the long winter evenings was the 
teasing and carding of wool. The spinning was done by 
Mrs. Somerville. senior, on the big wheel which had been 
manufactured by one of her sons. 

William Gilfillan. a son of James Gilfillan, who 
arrived in 1848, in the "Blundell," and settled at Blanket 
Bay. gives his recollections of the times when the family 
lived in that quarter. He says: 

''I was born on the 7th of October. 1850, in a little 
two-roomed hut at the Bay. I have a dim recollection 
in after years of my father carrying pieces of saplings, 
which he had ripped up the middle with a hand saw. to 
a spot where he was building a new house, which house, 
by the way, was never finished, although we lived in it 
for a vear or two. One dav T -wandered down to the 

60 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

beach, where I sat down on a big stone. My attention 
was so taken up with gazing around that I did not note 
the rising tide till 1 was completely surrounded. Still 1 
sat on, thinking all sorts of horrible thoughts about what 
would happen to me. Happily before it was too late my 
father came to the rescue, only saying, 'Man, ye micht hae 
been drunt if I hadna gotten ye. ' 

"Robert Campbell was our nearest neighbour until 
he bought Glenfalloch, Wharepa, when he sold out to a 
Mr. Lewis, for whom my father built a new house. Lewis 
started brick works on the property, cut a water race, put 
in a lot of fluming, and built a water-wheel to drive a 
pugg machine; but somehoAV the works w r ere a failure, 
and the fluming and wheel stood there till the timber 
rotted. Lewis afterwards obtained an appointment from 
the Provincial Government to supervise the opening up 
of the Coal Point Coal Mine near Kaitangata. He then 
took up some land in the South Molyneux District, along 
the Puerua Stream. 

"In those days everyone at the Bay and on the 
Peninsula side had boats, and my father did a good 
business in repairing and painting them. The Maoris also 
brought their boats for repairs, but were hard 'nails' to 
deal with. I can well remember the old man Kori-Kori. 
-called by the Europeans 'Colika.' standing debating the 
charges for hours at a time. He did not like parting 
with 'Te Huti, ' and always tried to beat down the prices. 

"Somewhere in the fifties my father decided to shift 
to Sawyer's Bay. where he had previously erected a small 
house. Some potatoes were then planted among the tree- 
stumps, the ground being broken up with grub hoes or 
mattocks; wheat was sown and chipped in. The harvest- 
ing was done with the reaping hook, and the crop 
threshed over a barrel. Later on, a man named Ridlie 
at Portobello procured a hand mill, which he carted 
round in his boat and did the threshing. This mill was 
driven by two men, one man attended to the feeding, and 
another carried the sheaves and attended to the straw. 
The great drawback was that the neighbours had to help 
each other, and this often caused long journeys both In- 
land and water, there being no roads. 

''Nearly all the settlers around Sawyer's Bay earned 
their living by pit-sawing, the logs having to be brought 
to the pit by hand labour. The sawn ' timber was then 
carried to the beach, where it was packed into a raft and 

of D lined in and Sont/i Ota go. 61 

floated up to Dunedin or down to Port Chalmers. On 
one occasion a raft had been made, up and anchored 
opposite our house, ready to catch the tide on the Monday 
morning, but meanwhile a storm arose, and during the 
Sunday the raft began to break up. My father set off in 
the ponring rain to warn the owners, and soon about a 
dozen men had collected, and, setting to work, in a very 
short time had everything snug and safe again. About 
the middle fifties Hugh McDermid started the first saw- 
mill in Otago on McDermid 's Creek, better known at that 
time as the 'Big Burn.' in contradistinction to the 'Wee 
Burn.' another creek close hy. McDermid was also the 
first to own a pair oi' working bullocks, which went in 
harness like horses. 

''Towards the end of the fifties a Wm. McCalley 
built a two-masted schooner at the Bay, wholly of native 
timbers, but on her trial trip the 'Kate McCalley,' as she 
was called, capsized on a sandbank on the Peninsula side. 
The settlers, however, all turned out, and soon raised 
and towed her back to anchorage. Repairs having been 
effected, the 'Kate McCalley' attempted a trip to the 
Bluff, but was wrecked at the Tois-Tois, her remains and 
gear being disposed of for thirty odd pounds. 

"The first brewery in Otago was started at Sawyer's 
Bay by Wm. Strachan. who worked away for a year or 
two in a small way, and then shifted to Dunedin, where 
he started the famous Strachan 's Brewery. 

"When the Rev. W. Johnstone was settled as the first 
Presbyterian minister at the Port, the Presbytery bought 
a property facing the bay. and a contract was let to my 
father to build a manse. He had just about finished the 
work when something went wrong at McDermid 's Saw- 
mill, and he was sent for to fix it up. During his absence 
a fire, which had been burning in the neighbourhood for 
two or three days, commenced to spread with amazing 
rapidity. Soon the manse was in flames, and, in spite of 
all efforts to save it. was reduced to ashes, my father losing 
nearly all his tools, and Mr. Johnstone a large quantity 
of goods. My father also lost the contract money, besides 
having to pay his men for two months' work. However, 
he secured the contract for the new manse, but owing 
to a miscalculation in his prices came out of the affair 
practically a ruined man. Shortly after the diggings 
broke out he sold out to David Kilgour. who had been 
the police officer in Port Chalmers, but had retired to 

62 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

turn publican. We then shifted to Dunodin, where we 
stayed a week before coming to the Chit ha District." 

In 1853 McGlashan's Mills at Woodhaugh were being 
carried on, and the wheat was taken up either in horse 
drays or bullock waggons. Five bags was a good load, 
and often the dray got stuck in the streets. On one 
occasion Robert Christie, who was driving for John 
Duncan, got stuck in Rattray street, the horse sinking up 
to the belly in mud and the dray up to the axle. A man 
with eight bullocks pulled them out, and he had hard 
work doing it. 

Mr. Alex. Petrie, who arrived in the "Strathmore" 
in 1856, describes in a racy way his experiences while 
working at Green Island: "I engaged with a Mrs. 
Shand, Green Island, but soon found I did not like the 
job, so I said I would leave. Mrs. Shand told me if I did 
she would send for the police, as I had engaged for six 
months, of which only one had gone by. I told her to 
keep the month's wages, but she threatened to put me in 
gaol, so as I knew nothing about the laws I stayed on. 
She laughed at me. but I made up my mind that I would 
have the laugh before the other five months were 
over, so we were at cross purposes all the time working 1 
against each other, and often I am sure she wished she 
had never been born or that I had cleared out. 

"Once I was carrying posts from the bush, doing 
two loads a day, which was a day's work, and as 
I wanted to go to a spree at the Taieri. I hurried up and 
got home twenty minutes before five, so she told me as 
it was not five o'clock I could go for a plough which 
was tw T o miles away. I knew she did not want the 
plough, and only sent for it to hinder me from going out 
that night. My spirits fell to zero, but off I went, think- 
ing all the time how I could have her. Nothing struck 
me until I came to the plough, when, seeing the swingle- 
trees on the ground. I determined to leave them behind. 
On my return home with the plough, but no swingle-trees, 
there was Old Nick to pay and no pitchfork. 

"After being the six months with Mrs. Shand. I went 
to Mr. Dawson, who managed a place for a Mr. Currie. 
Currie had a number of bullocks running wild about 
the ranges, and Dawson wanted to kill one every week 
for the settlers. There was no stock horse, so he proposed 
to shoot the bullock and sledge the carcass home. Getting 
one of the riding horses. I tried to drive the bullock in. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 63 

and got on well for a while, until the bullock thought he 
had gone far enough, when off he went back. When I headed 
him the horse turned short, and I went straight on. How- 
ever, I got on again and had another try, but the bullock 
stuck in the flax, so Dawson asked me if I could shoot it, 
and 1 said 'Yes.' but why I don't know. He had a rifle. 
and gave me a double-barrelled gun. He was to take the 
first shot, and if he missed I was to shoot. He kept 
aiming, but did not fire, so I thought I would have a shot. 
I fired, but Dawson also fired, and the bullock dropped. 
Each of us claimed him. but it was only when we had 
dressed him that I found it was my shot that had killed 
him. This was my first attempt at stock-riding and cattle- 
shooting in the Colony. After that I always did the 

"On another occasion Mr. Jaffray. oi Saddle Hill, 
told us that one of the bullocks was running with his 
cows, and that we could get him any time. So we took 
the dray, but w T hen we got to the place we found that 
Mr. Jaffray was not at home. It was a misty day, and 
we could not find the bullock. Then Mr. Dawson went 
home and left me to bring on the dray. 

''When I got part of the way home I saw the bullock 
feeding on the side of the road. I looked about for a 
place where I could load him, and having found a shelf 
backed the dray in. I then shot the bullock, and managed 
to get him on the dray. As it was after dark Dawson, 
thinking that something had happened, came to look for 
me. I told him I had got the bullock, and he wondered 
how I had got him on the dray. We left the carcass on 
the dray all night, but that was the end of our killing, for 
we had not taken the inside out, and the meat was spoilt. 

"In 1858 I went with Murison Bros, to search for a 
run. We went to Waikouaiti, where we bought a team 
of bullocks from Johnny Jones, also a dray, which we 
loaded with a frame house and provisions. We drove to 
Hopkinson's ('Dutch Charlie,' as he was called), the 
run which was the farthest station up the Shag River, 
the country farther up being unknown, and he told us 
we could not possibly go any further with a dray. So 
we left the team there, and having sewn two bed sheets 
together for a tent, set off to find the easiest way to make 
a road. 

"We discovered a suitable course, and set to work- 
making cuttings. I used to ride ten or twelve miles 

64 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

ahead to survey the course, and then turn back to the 
others. The Shag River had to be crossed again and 
again, and it was usual for us after crossing to take oft' 
our boots and pour the water out. I was the first white 
man to set foot on the Maniototo Plain. Sometimes 
parties of Maoris were ahead of us up the Maniototo 
eeling, and had built here and there scrub whares shaped 
like beehives, roofed with tussocks, which we often found 
very useful. 

''Once we got to a narrow gorge with a steep spur. 
up which we had to go. We made a narrow cutting up 
this, but we had to exercise great care, as there was only 
a narrow ledge. If anything had gone wrong, our bullocks 
and all would have been precipitated into the gorge 

"On another occasion we lost our bullocks for three 
weeks. They went right back towards the coast, where 
they were found by Jones's stockmen. I put bows on 
them and shepherded them at night. One night a bow 
was lost, and we made a long search for it. There was 
a foot of snow on the ground, so wo joined hands and 
searched the whole place, but in vain. I had to ride to 
Hopkinson's, a distance of 80 miles, for another bow. 

"We again got a start, and after making some more 
cuttings we reached the top of the Taieri Lake, where 
we camped. There was splendid grass, and Murisons 
decided to stop there. Here I may say that, at a place 
called Coal Creek, I advised the Murisons to take 
up some land. When they rode back to apply for 
it, Jones met them, and after hearing their story 
advised them to go back and go further up. They did turn 
back, and soon afterwards Jones applied for this land 
himself and got it. 

"The weather was intensely cold, and we had to 
break the ice on the river every morning to get water 
for the bullocks. The ice was the depth of an American 
axe. I once led my horse over the river on the ice. One 
night T woke up and found myself lying in water. I 
lay till morning, and then found it was raining heavily. 
For three days this went on, and for that time we lay in 
the wet, as we could not get our blankets dry. 

"Wild dogs were numerous, and had made tracks all 
along the river side. We put our tent across one of these 
tracks, and were awakened one night by hearing our dog 
growling. Looking up I was confronted by a wild dog, 
which on being struck at went off. I got tired -of this 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 


1848, "Philip La ing," and 1851, "Clara" 

66 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

sort of life, and taking the team returned to Waikouaiti. 
where a man from Dunedin took it in charge. 

"Next morning I started to walk to Dimedin, a 
distance of 33 miles. On the way a heavy mist and rain 
came on, and I was afraid of losing my way. I managed 
to find a Government hut, built for the accommodation 
of travellers, and soon got a fire lit. The place was a 
comfortless one, the thatch being mostly off the roof. I 
had nothing to eat, but found a teaspoonful of tea behind 
a rafter. Thinking I would have some tea I put on a 
billy, but it had no lid, and the soot came down and spoilt 
my brew. 

"Next morning it was as wet as ever, and I tried to 
snare a wood hen which came about, but without success. 
I was so hungry that I could have eaten bones and all 
had I been successful in catching it. Leaving my swag 
1 again set off, and soon had the luck to hear a dog bark. 
Shortly afterwards I came to a house, and eventually 
reached Dunedin." 

Mr. John Crawford, a passenger by the "Robert 
Henderson" in 1858, gives the following account of his 
experiences after arriving in Otago : "When we got to 
land I, with two other young fellows, essayed to walk 
to Dunedin from Port Chalmers. We got on all right, 
although the track was exceedingly rough, and on reach- 
ing Bell Hill we met one Gebbie, a gardener, whom we 
asked how far it was to Dunedin. 'Well, my lads.' said 
he, 'you are in Dunedin now.' We were fairly knocked 
out at such a reply. 

"We wandered about Dunedin that night, and next 
night slept, along Avith the Lamond family, in the chief 
policeman's (Shepherd's) house. The others went to the 
Barracks, and one day when passing I heard one of the 
men crying out, 'My Betty's tooted, my Betty's tooted.' 
I wondered what was up, till I discovered that, Betty was 
his wife, and she had eaten some tutu, but she soon 

"I afterwards engaged to work for one Rennie. driv- 
ing his horse and cart. I got loads of flax and put them 
in holes in the roads, covering the flax with clay. There 
were numerous deep holes in the streets, and laughable 
incidents often took place. One Loper, a butcher, was 
galloping along Manse Street, when he came to a big 
spring, where his horse baulked. Loper went head first 
into the spring, and nothing could be seen but his boots. 

of D lined in and South Otago. 67 

".Heiiiiie then sent me to his farm on the West Taieri, 
after . which I drove grain to McGlashan's Mill with a 
horse and a bullock, the latter in the shafts. The same 
horse would not be worth a pound a leg now, but then 
it cost 80. Sometimes when carting I got stuck in the 
Caversham mud, and when I managed to get to the top of 
the hill the bullock just sat back in the breeching and 
would not lift a foot. Going home we had to go down 
a ridge, and here the bullock would bolt, and just stop 
when we got to the flat. 

"When seed time came on I called on Grant and 
asked him what quantity to sow, and he said I could 
not sow too little. I sowed one and a-half bushels to 
the acre, and thought I had spoilt the crop, but when it 
was reaped it yielded 60 bushels per acre, which sold at 
5/6 per bushel. 

"Once I was going to Dunedin with Peter Campbell. 
Instead of crossing the river in a boat we crossed in a 
'moggie.' On getting near the other side the current 
was much stronger, and swept us down the stream. Camp- 
bell sprang to the bank, but in doing so upset me into the 
Writer. The distance to Dunedin was 18 miles, and by 
the time I landed there I was quite dry. 

"Three of us arranged to go north 'shearing.' These 
were W. Grant, John Mclntosh (a brother of Jas. Mc- 
Intosh. the coach driver), and myself, but we were after- 
wards joined by a youth named Robson from Waihola. 
The first night we camped at a place called 'The Clump 
of Trees.' but got little sleep owing to young Robson 's 
continual coughing. The third night we got as far as 
Oamaru, where we stopped at the only house there, kept 
by Xed Hudson and his Maori wife. 

"Next night we arrived at the Maerewhenua, where 
we found that Borton and McMaster were not ready for 
shearing, so we did some grubbing for them at 2 5s. per 
acre. We also planted some potatoes, Maori fashion, for 
them. We stopped till the end 01 the shearing, I manag- 
ing to shear the first day 36 sheep, the rate being 25/- 
per 100. 

"While here I made the acquaintance of one Matthew 
[Miller, who had been stuck up by bushrangers in Victoria, 
iuid had been shot through the cheeks. He was afterwards 
the first to get stuck up by Garret, the bushranger, at 

68 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

"Mr. Geo. Munro. afterwards a resident of Wharepa. 
was employed at the station. He was a .stonemason by 
trade, and built the first stone house in the district. 

''We got no ready money as pay, but a 'blue blister.' 
i.e., a cheque on Johnny Jones. We then returned to 
Dunedin, but next season again went north. One day 
the three of us went up the river Maerewhenua. I was 
fossicking for gold, and found two or three specks, but 
the others said it was only mica, so I threw it away. This 
time we did very well, and returned with 45 a man. 

"Next time we went there was a big party of us. 
Hector Munro and Peter Dow Avent ahead of us by a day 
or two to cross into Canterbury. The Waitaki was a 
difficult stream to ford, so they made a 'moggie,' and 
were crossing nicely when Munro found they were being 
carried out to sea. He swam to land, but Dow floated 
right out on the moggie as far as could be seen. Munro 
lit a fire on the beach and waited. Dow came back with 
the tide just as he had gone out with it. landing on th^ 
same spot he had started from. When our party crossed 
the river I came down, but by holding on to Grant got. 
over safely. We got into a gully out of sight of any 
passer-by, stripped, and ran about till our clothes dried 
in the sun. We then shore at Myers's Station, where one 
Gibson was manager. 

"One day Gibson had a trying experience. He was 
driving a waggon across the Plains, when a big bull 
charged it. capsizing the whole show and letting the 
bullocks loose. Gibson got under the waggon mighty 
quick, and was found there next morning by our party. 

"Then we went on to the Hakataramea Station, 
where six Maoris and six whites were employed. We 
shore 30.000 dry sheep, bul when -,c ean.e to the ewes 
the manager wanted to cut the price from 25/- to 22/6, 
so we left. This I believe was the first strike in the 
country districts of Otago. In returning home, we crossed 
the Waitaki by placing our hands on each other's 
shoulders. Grant, the biggest of the party, being in the 
lead. On reaching Oamaru I took passage to Dunedin in 
the 'Stormbird,' which was trading between these ports." 

Another description of early times is the folloAvi im- 
personal sketch by Mr. J. W. Roberts, who arrived in 
the "Jura" in 1858: 

" Work on the roads about Dunedin was being carried 
on when we arrived, and all who desired were taken on 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 69 

at Caversham. Mr. Marchbanks was foreman, and above 
liim was a Mr. Calder, while the chief was Mr. Oliver. 
The old hands had a fixed wage, but the new ones were 
paid according to ability. I earned 6/6 a day, but one 
man named Powell, a tailor by trade, had a difficulty in 
wheeling his barrow along the planks, so when pay day 
came he got only 5/6. He said he really thought it was 
all he was worth. 

"Soon afterwards i took a trip north to Kakanui 
shearing. When we reached the station shearing was not 
ready, so I was employed threshing wheat. A primitive 
method of threshing over a barrel was in vogue, but I 
made a flail, threshed a large stack, and winnowed the 

"On returning to Dunedin, T built a house with a 
weather-board roof, but the rain came in everywhere. 
Our first bed was made of sticks nailed together, but it 
swayed so much that I was forced to let the uprights into 
the ground, thus making a fixture of it. I also made some 
chairs in the same way. 

"I was next engaged to take sheep to Oamaru. Pre- 
parations for the trip were made, and Peter McGregor 
was boss; John McMaster and I were under him. He had 
12/- a day, and we had 10/-. On the trip fogs came on, 
and often we lay out without tents, bedding, or covering 
of any kind. One day the owners came along, and found 
the men but no sheep ; they were scattered everywhere. 
It took several days to collect them again, and on reach- 
ing a place called Sheep Hill we lost 150 of them with 
tutu. At night we had to tie our dogs to our legs to keep 
them near. Heavy work it was collecting and carrying 
the half-dead sheep, especially the rams, up the steep 
faces. One day, after struggling till we were quite worn 
out, we found a bottle of rum a perfect godsend, it was 

"Near Waikouaiti we had met Johnny Jones riding 
a white horse, and he ordered us to drive faster, as he said 
we were only gra/ing our sheep on his run. Owing to the 
flooded state of the river w r e had to stay on his land for 
two days. Crawford then went on with the sheep, and 
1 turned back to Dunedin. Heckler wanted me to go back 
by way of Blueskin. but I refused, and for my obstinacy 
lost my way. After wandering about a good bit, I fol- 
lowed a creek, and came out at North- East Valley." 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

1849, "Ajax" 

1849, "Ajax." 

1849, "Ajax" 

of Diinedin and Son fit Otago. 71 



AX account, however brief, of the early settlement 
would undoubtedly be incomplete should church 
matters be omitted from it. and it would be a gross 
mistake if the grand work done by the Presbyterian 
Church should fail to be recognised. The Presbyterian 
Church and the settlement had a common origin, and it 
is to the wise forethought of the Church authorities that 
Otago owes her proud pre-eminence in religious and 
educational work. 

The earliest settlers were members oj' this Church, 
and laid its foundations immediately on their arrival. 
They brought their minister with them, also a school- 
master, the purpose being to found a settlement in 
accordance with the order of things in Scotland. Some 
provision was made with the idea of having a church 
and a primary school attached for every settled district, 
and of having in course of time a High School in the 
leading towns, with a University in the chief centres. 

This noble scheme had a small beginning, one 
minister, one teacher, and one congregation, the record of 
whose work is an enduring monument for all time. The 
Rev. Thos. Burns, the first minister, was a noble specimen 
of the Scottish Pastorate, while the individuals and 
families composing the first settlers were well fitted to 
start the enterprise of pioneering a new branch of the 
British Empire. Such progress was made that ere six 
years had passed since the arrival of the first minister 
and the formation of the first congregation, several other 
congregations had arisen, and more ministers were 

In 3853 application was made to the Mother Church 
for two ministers, and the Revs. Wm. Bannerman and 
AY. Will received appointments to Otago. where they 
arrived in the ship "Stately" early in 1854. They received 
a heartv welcome from the venerable founder of the 

72 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Church, who felt a great relief at the arrival of the 
brethren to share the great responsibilities which had 
hitherto rested on him alone. 

In June, the Presbytery of Otago, consisting of the 
three ministers, with Captain Cargill and J. Allan as 
elders, was inaugurated. To these was added Mr. John 
McGlashan. and associated with the Presbytery were 
some elders, who could give the benefit of their experience 
and advice with the constituent members of the court. 
Very important business was transacted at this meeting. 
the most important being the institution of a Sustentation 

Immediately on arrival Mr. Will proceeded to the 
field allotted to him, extending from Green Island to 
AVaihola, both included. Mr. Bannerman occupied all 
the settled territory south of "Waihola Lake, including 
Tokomairiro, Inch-Clutha. South Clutha. Wharepa. and 
Kaihiku. Two years after extending settlements south- 
wards necessitated his visiting these, which he did at first 
on foot, journeying as far as Riverton. visiting the 
scattered settlers in their houses, holding public services 
where people could come together, celebrating marriages, 
and administering the ordinance of baptism. In 1858 the 
Rev. \Vm. Johnstone, M.A., was settled in Port Chalmers, 
thus relieving Dr. Burns from that portion of his charge. 
In the same year Mr. Will was relieved of Waihola and 
adjoining districts by the settlement of Rev. John 
McNicol. In the following year Rev. A. B. Todd was 
inducted into Tokomairiro. disjoined from Mr. Banner- 
man's original charge. In 1860 Mr. Bannerman received 
further relief by the settlement of Rev. A. IT. Slobo over 
First Church. Invercargill. While the Church was thus 
extending itself, it had become manifest that Dunedin 
required that an addition should be made to the ministry 
and the Church there. Steps were taken to secure a 
suitable minister, and these resulted in the selection of 
the Rev. D. M. Stuart, of Falsione, who arrived in Dunedin 
in January, 1860, and was inducted into the new charge, 
which had been designated Knox Church. Gradually the 
suburban districts around Dunedin also received ministers. 
The Presbytery guaranteed to those ministers who came 
from the Home Church a share in the Sustentation Fund, 
which in those days vras so attended to as to yield an 
ever increasing dividend to each minister as their numbers 
increased. Besides guaranteeing to the ministers received 

of Duncdin and South Otago. 73 

into the Church a suitable maintenance and a manse, the 
Church provided what was required for their outfit and 
passage from Home. The amount required for these was 
duly remitted to the Home Church, from which its Otago 
daughter sought nothing but suitable men. and to which 
it has been not otherwise indebted, being the only colonial 
Church that has not been pecuniarily assisted by the 
Mother Church. 

The progress in Otago was such that in 1865 it was 
found to be necessary for the proper government of the 
Church to divide the then Presbytery of Otago into 
several Presbyteries, and to constitute a Synod as the 
Supreme Court of the Church. Three Presbyteries were 
instituted, and these have since increased to six. being 
only one less than the number of Presbyteries existing 
in the larger field occupied by the sister Church north 
of Otago (1898). The Synod was formally constituted 
January loth. 1866. under the Moderatorship of Dr. 
Burns, the h'rst meeting consisting of twenty-one ministers 
and ten elders. Each returning Synod has witnessed an 
increase of membership, significant or an increasing 
number of congregations, and fresh territory^ occupied 
by Presbyterian settlers. What that increase has been 
during the intervening years is indicated by the number 
of ministers and elders on the roll at the meeting of 
Synod in 1897. That roll bore the names of seventy-five 
ministers and seventy-one elders, in all 146, compared 
with the thirty-one members of the first Synod in 186ti. 
Looking back over the years that are passed since first 
the Presbyterian Church took origin in Otago, she uas 
good cause to thank God for the progress she has made, 
and hopefully to enter upon a fresh career of usefulness 
in the Master's work at home and abroad. 

Some four years before the arrival of the "John 
\Yirkliffe" and '"Philip Laing." Bishop Selwyn paid his 
first visit to the South Island of New Zealand. He found 
a knowledge of Christianity in every part, and remarked 
at the time that he did not believe there was a spot in 
New Zealand where the Gospel had not been made known. 
His next recorded visit was on June 14th. 1848, when 
he stayed two or three days, and was well received by 
the newly arrived immigrants. Some three and a-half 
years later the Rev. J. A. Fenton was sent to Dunedin 
by the Bishop to organise a church, that gentleman arriv- 
ing on the 1st January. 1852, and conducting a service 

74 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

in the Courthouse on the following Sunday. Mr. Feuton's, 
parish comprised the whole of Otago. and he had on his 
committee representatives from such widely separated 
districts as the Clutha and Waikouaiti. On the 10th 
March, 1852, the Committee thanked the Rev. Mr. Creed 
for his visits to Dunedin, and appointed a committee of 
one to select a site for a church, etc., and he recommended 
the Octagon. In February, 1853, there w^ere stated to be 
285 Episcopalians, and at the annual meeting in March 
it was decided to build a church. On the 24th August, 
1853, it was resolved to purchase the house of E. B. 
Atkinson for a parsonage, and a week later another 
resolution was carried that a wooden church be erected. 
As a site for the church a part of the Octagon was fenced 
off, and application made for it to the Governor. Public 
opinion was so much against the proposed grant that the 
Governor refused to entertain the proposal, which was 
dropped. The project of building a church was 
abandoned, and in 1855 it was resolved to purchase the 
property on which the Courthouse stood. The Courthouse 
building was used until a part of the present building 
was erected and made fit for occupation. 

Such is a brief outline of the early struggles of St. 
Paul's, the pioneer church of the Anglican Communion 
in Otago. In 1858 Mr. Fenton intimated his intention 
of resigning on account of failing health, and removed to 
Waikouaiti, where he opened a church which had been 
built solely at the cost of John Jones. His successor at 
St. Paul's was the Rev. A. H. Wyatt. who took temporary 
charge until the arrival of the Rev. E. G. Edwards. 
Shortly after this churches were opened at Invercargill 
and in several other districts. The corner-stone of All 
Saints' Church was laid on February 11th. 1865; St. 
Matthew's was built a few years later, arid also churches 
in Caversham and Mornington. In the country districts, 
too. the Church was advancing, and in 1866 a church 
was built at Tokomairiro, where the Rev. R. L. Stanford 
was stationed. The Diocese remained under the charge 
of Bishop Harper, of Christchurch. until the breaking up. 
of the General Synod in 1871. when the second Synod of 
the Diocese of Dunedin was held, and the Rev. S. T. 
Xevill. M.A., elected Bishop, and since that time the lines 
of the Church have been ca.t in comparatively pleasant 
places. The Diocese is not a rich one. but it has pushed 
on the work of the Church in as rapid and thorough a 
manner as has been practicable. 

of D uned in and South Otago. 75 

Little headway had been made by the Roman Catholic 
Church, in. Otago before the early sixties, but as far back 
as 1840. Bishop Pompallier, the Missionary Bishop of 
Oceania, had visited the harbour in his schooner, the 
"Sancta Maria." During the later fifties Father 
Petitjean, a venerable priest, paid visits to the Catholics 
in the Province, but Catholics were few and their homes 
much scattered. The first mass in Dunedin was celebrated 
in a small house in the North-East Valley, the second in 
a skittle alley in Feeger's Hotel, and the third in a bottle 
store belonging to Mr. Burke, but after this the Court- 
house was secured for morning service. Father Moreau 
was the next priest. He was a Marist missionary, much 
beloved by his nock. He had the care of the whole of 
Otago, and when the rush to Gabriel's Gully took place- 
he visited the field once a month. As population increased 
other priests were appointed to Otago. and Father 
Moreau 's charge was confined to Dunedin. It is interest- 
ing to note that, whereas in 1859 there were only about 
ninety Roman Catholics in Otago. they had increased 
in 1891 to 22,000. In 1871 Bishop Moran was appointed 
to the new See, and for many years laboured early and 
late for the benefit of his parishioners. He died in 1895. 
and was succeeded by Dr. Yerdon, who proved himself an 
able administrator, a gentle friend and counsellor, always 
willing to advise and succour in cases of distress, and 
firm in righting wrongs. 

In the year 1840. on behalf of the Wesley an 
Methodists, the Rev. Jas. Watkin inaugurated a mission 
to the Maoris of the southern parts of New Zealand. John 
Jones, of Waikouaiti. requested the Missionary Committee 
at Sydney to send a missionary to Waikouaiti. and the 
Rev. Watkin was appointed. He met with a good recep- 
tion from the natives, and a great moral change was 
wrought amongst them. He left for Wellington in 1844, 
JDK! was succeeded by the Rev. Charles Creed, who 
brought to his work a perfect knowledge of the Maori 
tongue. Between eight and nine years of hard service 
were given to Otago by Mr. Creed, who witnessed the 
birth and rise of the settlement. In 1853 he was succeeded 
by the Rev. Wm. Kirk, Avho retained the Otago appoint- 
ment for four years. His successor was Rev. George 
Stannard. who was an Irishman, although born in York- 

76 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

1854, "Stately," AND 1848, "Philip La ing." 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

The lirst Methodist laymen to arrive in Otago were 
Henry Monson and Thos. Ferens, both of whom arrived 
by the "John Wickliffe." It is essentially characteristic 1 
of them as Methodists that, on the evening when they met 
Mr. Creed, they should adjourn to the bush and hold a 
prayer meeting. The first public services (other than 
cottage meetings) were held in the old Oddfellows' Hall, 
but afterwards a loft over a baker's shop in Pelicliet Hay 
\vas rented at a charge of 5/- per Sunday. It was then 
decided to erect a church in Dunedin. A site had already 
been presented in Dowling Street, and a contract was let 
for the erection of the church ; but the contractor failed 
and the building was not ready until July, 1862. In the 
meantime the new minister, the Rev. Isaac Harding, had 
taken up his duties. Until the chureli was completed 
he preached in the Courthouse in the mornings and in 
Knox Church at night. 

Mr. llarding's circuit was the whole of Otago, but 
as a result of his labours churches were erected in 
Tuapeka. Clutha, Tokomairiro. Waikouaiti. Oamaru, In- 
vereargill. and elsewhere. Some of these were frame 
buildings covered with canvas, but others were substantial 
structures. Mr. Harding was only two years in Otago. 
but his record is one of which any man might be proud. 

The first meeting called to form a Baptist Church 
in Dunedin was held on June 10th, 1868, when twelve 
pet-sons were present. Three weeks later another meet- 
ing was held, when it was resolved to hold regular ser- 
vices. The first service was held on July 26th. 1868, in 
the Courthouse, and Dr. Burns generously offered the 
use of First Church for an evening service. The first 
Baptist minister to visit Dunedin was the Rev. A. Poole, 
of Victoria, and he was succeeded by the Rev. J. Langdon 
Parsons, at a salary of 350 a year for the first year, and 
a minimum of 400 per annum afterwards. A church 
was built in Hanover Street, and duly opened for service 
on July 24th. 1864. In 1867 the Rev. Parsons was com- 
pelled, owing to the ill-health of his wife, to tender his 
resignation, and was succeeded by the Rev. John Williams, 
whose career was suddenly terminated by a fatal coach 
accident on December 22nd, 1872. He was succeeded by 
the Rev. J. U. Davis, whose voice failed at the end of 1880. 
and he was compelled to resign. The pioneer church has 
sought to establish out-stations as opportunity served, and 
has reason to rejoice at the success which has crowned 
its efforts. 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Rev. Thos. Burns. D.D., was the first minister of the 
Otago Presbyterian Church, the tirst Moderator of the 
first Presbytery and first Synod, and the first Principal 
of the Otago University. He was borri on April lUth. 
1796, in Mosgiel, Ayrshire. After studying at the 
University of Edinburgh, he was licensed by the 
Presbytery of Haddington, and shortly afterwards became 
parish minister of Ballantrae, and thence after a few 
years he was translated to Monckton. While there the 
Disruption of the Church of Scotland took place, when 
he joined the Free Church. He accepted the first colonial 
appointment made by the Free Church viz., to Otago 
where he arrived with his family on April loth, 1848. On 
the day after arrival he conducted divine service in the 
chief surveyor's office. The building continued to be the 
usual place of worship till the schoolhouse was built, 
which for many years served in place of a church as 
well as for many other purposes. Dr. Burns had brought 
with him material for his manse, which was speedily 
erected at the corner of Princes and Jetty Streets. This 
he occupied for several years, till a larger one was erected 
on Church Hill, which, however, was removed in a short 
time to allow of material being obtained for harbour 
reclamation, the removal of which left the hill at its 
present level as occupied now by First Church manse and 
the handsome First Church. 

For well nigh six years he stood alone to discharge 
the duties of the ministry, and during these years he 
confined not his labours to Dunedin and its neighbour- 
hood, but extended them as far as Clutha, Help was 
at length brought to him on the arrival of Messrs. Will 
and Bannerman in 1854. and later on of Dr. Stuart and 
others, by whom the whole original Province from Oamaru 
in the north to Riverton in the south was supplied with 
religious ordinances. All this was effected between 1848 
and 3871, the year of his death. He had lived to see in 
Otago, which he found on his arrival a wilderness desti- 
tute of people and all that makes for civilisation, a con- 
dition of progress such as perhaps has never been 
witnessed elsewhere as made in a short space of twenty- 
three years. 

Rev. Wm. Will, Taieri, was born 27th April, 1825. 
in the parish of Colace, Perthshire. In due course he 
entered the University of Edinburgh with a view of study- 
ing for the ministry. In the course of his student career 

of I) u ned in and South Otago. 79 

his attention had been directed to the colonies as a sphere 
of labour, and he offered his services to the Colonial 
Committee of the Free Church. These were accepted, 
with the result that he received an appointment to Otago. 
He was then duly licensed and ordained by the Presbytery 
of Irvine, and left for Otago early in October, 1853. in 
the ship ''Stately," arriving at Port Chalmers early in 
the following February, in company with the Rev. Win. 
Banuerman. Their arrival together enabled the Presby- 
tery to be formed, which was named the Presbytery of 
Otago. Mr. Will immediately after arrival settled in 
East Taieri, but extended his services throughout the 
whole Plain, and also to Green Island on the one hand 
and to Waihola on the other. Gradually his wide sphere 
became lessened, and ministers were settled in Waihola, 
Green Island, West Taieri, and North Taieri. In 1862 
he visited Scotland, and at a later period was appointed 
with Mr. Bannerman to represent the Otago Church in 
the General Assembly of the Victorian Church. For many 
years Mr. Will filled the convenorship of the Synod 
Sustentatiou Fund Committee, and enjoyed the honour 
of a second Moderatorship of Synod on the occasion of 
the Church's Jubilee on March 23rd, 1898. 

The Rev. Wm. Baunerman was born in the town of 
Kirkcaldy, in B'ifeshire, Scotland. At the age of three 
years his parents moved into Edinburgh, where he showed 
himself a diligent scholar, and seems to have been above 
the average in acquiring the instruction given there. At 
the age of thirteen he was accorded a Bursary. After 
leaving the High School he graduated at the Edinburgh 
University and engaged in private teaching, which 
enabled him to pursue his way at the University. In 1843 
he threw in his sympathies with the Free Church at the 
Disruption, and was present in. St. Giles Cathedral in the 
final scene, the signing of the Protest (so graphically 
described in the "Memoirs of Dr. Chalmers"), and fol- 
lowed that memorable procession to the Cannon Mills' 
Hall. It was Mr. Bannerman 's privilege to attend the 
ministry of the late Dr. Candlish, whose instructions he 
enjoyed till he was employed .by the Free Church. In 
1847 Mr. Bannermau travelled on the Continent with 
pupils, visiting France, Italy. Germany. Switzerland. 
Austria. He made the ascent of Mont Blanc, and passed 
a night at the historic St. Bernards. A good deal of this 
tour was made on foot, and Mr. Bannermau often spoke 

80 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of it as being an important and very happy period of his 

Dr. Bannermau was engaged in Church Extension 
work for a short time by the Edinburgh Presbytery, but 
the last two years of his life in Scotland were passed at 
Crathie, in Aberueenshire. There he organised the Free 
Church, forming a congregation which held its first meet- 
ing in a barn. He often referred to his work there with 
warmest expressions of regard. 

While in Crathie Dr. Bannerman received a letter 
from the late Mr. Joseph Maitland. saying that he and 
his family were about to sail for Qtago to join his two 
sons who had gone out there, and were settled in Inch- 
Clutha. The letter went on to invite him to "join the 
outward bound." The invitation was at once accepted, 
and Mr. Bannerman received his appointment from the 
Colonial Committee of the Free Church, being ordained 
by the Perth Presbytery, the Rev. Andrew Bonar presid- 
ing at the meeting, and accordingly he sailed with his 
friends and the Rev. Win. Will in the ship "Stately" in 
1853, arriving in Port Chalmers in February, 1854, when he 
was appointed to the district of Clutha. just then desiring 
a minister. His parish extended from Waihola Gorge to 
Kiverton. Thus he entered on a long time of exceedingly 
Irving work, done on foot for eighteen months. The first 
night in the Clutha was passed in the wide chimney of 
Mr. Pi 11 aii's hospitable house in Inch-Clutha, while his 
first home for the first two years was in the house of 
.Mr. Wm. Ferguson, Inch-Clutha. Tn 1856 he removed to 
Wharepa, to a house lent by Peter Ayson, Corydon. till 
the manse at Puerua was ready. 

He conducted services in Tokomairiro every third 
Sunday, visiting there during the week, and returning 
on Saturday to hold service in Inch-Clutha and Wharepa, 
in the house of the late Mr. A. Gordon and in the house of 
the late Mr. Shaw, Finegand. The next Sunday he Avas in 
South Clutha, where the service was held in the house 
of Mr. Andrew Mercer, in the Awakiki Bush, and after- 
wards in Mr. Hay's, Hilly Park, till the church was built 
in the Bush. In 1857 Mr. Bannerman had occasion to 
visit Southland, which had been thrown open for settle- 
ment. This journey he made on foot, and, having to 
celebrate a marriage at Tuturau, he crossed the Mat aura, 
going along the sea beach to the Bluff. This was a long, 
trying journey. He was alone, and suffered from thirst, 

of Dunedin and South Ota go. 81 

but all the streams he crossed were brackish. Very weary 
he reached the Bluff, where the Maoris crossed him in 
a canoe. After a night's rest he walked to Invercargill. 
and slept in the wide chimney of what was afterwards 
an hotel. After holding service and visiting there, 
Mr. Bannerman went on to Rivertou with a gentleman 
who was going that way. Their road was along one of 
the finest beaches in Otago, but they had a narrow escape 
at the mouth of the Waimatuku Creek, where the sand 
was very shifting, making the ford at times dangerous. 
After a few days' stay at Riverton. Mr. Bannerman 
returned to Invercargill, and set his face homewards by 
Mataura. He was accompanied by the late Mr. Charles 
Logic. Collector of Customs for Otago. and another very 
trying journey was begun. After crossing the Mataura 
they lost their way, and slept two nights in the open air. 
with the rain falling heavily, wetting all their provisions 
(a few biscuits), and with no means of lighting a fire, 
all around being soaked with the rain. On the third day 
they reached the hospitable house of Mr. Steel. Popotunoa 
(Clinton), where they rested, and on the fourth day they 
reached the little house in Wharepa. Mr. Logic was very 
much exhausted, and both were weary, foot-sore, and 
travel-stained as well. 

In June, 1861, Mr. Bannerman left home to attend 
the annual meeting of Synod in Dunedin. The day was 
stormy, heavy showers of snow falling all day. the ground 
being white everywhere, and the Puerua and all the creeks 
"up." On the ridge where the present church is now 
situated, his horse fell on him, breaking his leg. There 
wns no house within call, but he succeeded in getting on 
his horse, and reached the house of D P. Steel (Under- 
wood). There happened to be some settlers there, getting 
their tools and farm implements sharpened, and they came 
at once and in the kindest and most generous manner lifted 
him into the barn, laid him on 'the hay, brought a bullock 
sledge, wrapped him in a rug. and conveyed him hom<\ 
where they carried him in. and laid him on his bed with 
all the kindness their warm and generous hearts could 
express. Dr. Manning was at the time away at Captain 
MacKenzie's station. Mr. Robert Christie started at once 
to bring the doctor, but the creeks and river in flood made 
the journey tedious, and it was Wednesday before the leg 
could be set. the accident taking place on the Monday. 
Many hours of pain were the result, and Mr. Bannerman 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 



of D lined in and South Otago. 

suffered for nine weeks ere he left his bed. To the last 
of his life he referred to the great kindness shown to him 
at this-time especially a kindness no pen can adequately 
express, but he always spoke of it in the most grateful 
and affectionate terms. Until this time he had preached 
every Sunday without exception for eight years. As soon 
as he was able to be out again he held service in the 
manse ; later on he was very kindly taken by Mr. George 
Richardson on a sledge to hold service in Inch Clutha. and 
the next Sunday the late Mr. John Geggie did the same 
kind service to Wharepa. As the years passed Mr. Baii- 
nerman formed congregations, and his parish gradually 
narrowed to its present limits. Mr. Todd was settled at 
Tokomairiro ; Mr. Stobo at Invercargill. when the ladies 
presented Mr. Bannerman with a handsome communion 
set, part of which is now in the present Puerua Church, 
the remaining part having been given most courteously 
by the Deacons' Court to Mr. Bannerman 's family. Inch 
Clutha was next settled, and this congregation and that 
of Milton each presented him with a very handsome gift 
of money. Tapanui, Wharepa, Clinton, and Balclutha 
Avere all in turn supplied with stated ministers, so that 
Puerua and Port Molyneux then had regular services, and 
with the exception of Catlins River tin work of the dis- 
trict was easily overtaken. In 1884 Mr. Bannerman had 
a serious accident a broken leg which caused him to 
resign his charge, he being quite unable for pastoral work. 
He removed with his family to Duuedin, \vhere, after 
somewhat recovering his strength, he took the work for 
foreign missions as well as his work as Clerk of Synod, 
which last office he held till the union of the North and 
South Churches was completed. In his Avork for foreign 
missions he was required to visit the New Hebrides in 
1889. and continued his work as member of Missions Com- 
mittee till laid aside by illness in May. While engaged 
in the mission work Mr. Bannerman received the degree 
of D.D. from the Edinburgh University. He suffered 
much till the 24th December, when he passed away in 
great pain, somewhat suddenly, as he seemed for some 
weeks before to rally. The evening before he was able 
to see some friends who came in, his sister and brother-in- 
law, Mr. and Mrs. Craig, who were on a visit to NYw 
Zealand, and were to leave next day. He was able to lead 
in family worship, which in his illness -he was seldom able 
to do, reading from the sixth chapter of John, 19th verse 

84 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

to the end. His work, indeed, was "finished." Next 
morning he passed away. His resting place is in the South 
Cemetery, Dunedin, where loving hands committed his 
remains till "the day dawn, and the shadows flee away." 

Rev. D. M. Stuart. D.D.. first minister of Knox 
Church, was born in Kennmir. Perthshire, in 1819. After 
attending the parish school there, he entered the 
University of St. Andrews, and afterwards that of Edin- 
burgh. After being licensed, he received a call from Fal- 
stone, in the North of England, which he accepted, and 
was ordained and inducted into that charge. This he 
resigned in 1859 on accepting an appointment to Knox 
Church, .Dunedin, into which he was inducted by the Pres- 
bytery of Otago on May 16th, 1860. On his arrival in 
Dunedin and on his induction Dr. Stuart met with the 
heartiest reception, both from his brethren in the ministry 
and the congregation of Knox Church, as well as from 
the citizens of Dunedin generally, among whom he soon 
came to hold a prominent position. 

As minister of Knox Church he continued to discharge 
his duties till his death in 1894, which had been preceded 
by a short period of declining health. Ever unflagging in 
the discharge of his various duties, he found time and 
opportunity to interest himself in and to further the educa- 
tional and charitable institutions of the city. Many 
sought his advice and received assistance that braced them 
for their respective duties in life. His interest in church 
matters was not limited to the sphere of his own congrega- 
tion, but extended to the whole Church. He lent his 
services wherever they were sought, and few congrega- 
tions failed to have the opportunity of receiving and being 
benefited by them. 

Rev. Win. Johnstone. M.A., first minister of Port 
Chalmers, was born in 1823 in the parish of Cruden. Aber- 
deenshire. He received his education in the parish school 
of his birthplace, in the Grammar School of Aberdeen, and 
in Aberdeen University. Having been duly licensed, he 
accepted a commission appointing him to the Otago 
Church, and was settled in port Chalmers in 1858, taking 
in charge the whole district north of the Port, where his 
manse was erected. His services Avere welcomed and 
appreciated not less in the outlying districts than in the 
centre of his operations, where the original wooden church 
gave place to a stone edifice, which was opened by the Rev. 
Wm. Will and Dr. Stuart in Januarv. 1872. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

His health was unhappily not of the best, and this 
greatly interfered with the work that lay to his hand. 
It finally gave way, and at the age of fifty-eight years he 
died, to the profound regret of his congregation and the 
Church at large. 

Kev. Alexander B. Todd was born in 1821, in St. 
Andrews. Scotland. He was licensed to preach by the 
Free Church Presbytery of St. Andrews in the year 1855, 
and was ordained to the office of the ministry in 1858. On 
the first day of January, 1859, he embarked for Otago in 
the ship "Mariner." The Rev. Archdeacon Edwards was 
a fellow passenger, and the two ministers held service in 
the saloon alternately on the Sabbath, and the friend- 
ship thus commenced continued through life. The two 
ministers left London the same day, landed in Dunedin 
the same day, and retired from the active work of the 
ministry the same day, December 31st, 1894. 

Mr. Todd's first charge was Tokomairiro, where he 
laboured for about ten years. Pie was the first minister 
who preached to the miners in Gabriel's Gully. In 1869 
he was settled at St. Paul's, Oamaru. For several years 
he paid periodical visits to the stations on the Waitaki, 
preaching to runholders. shepherds, miners, &c., and 
helped to form several congregations as off-shoots to St. 
Paul's. Through failing health, after twenty-five years' 
service in Oamaru, he retired from the active work of the 
ministry on December 31st, -1894. 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of D lined in and South Ota go. 



IT is worthy of record, when so much of the past history 
of Otago is being reviewed, that when the first party 

of settlers arrived there were a few families settled 
here who were living in comparative comfort, and who 
were able to help and counsel the new arrivals. Willingly 
they gave their hospitality and shared their homes, like- 
wise assisting with advice gained in the earlier days of 
the other settlement. They especially could guide others, 
as the mode of housekeeping was new to many, and they 
made many kindly suggestions as to making the best of 
things and taking comfort out of the material that came 
to hand. The making of bread Avas new to the immigrant 
women, also the management of wood fires, while many 
other things would have been more slowly learned but for 
the kindliness of these friendly women. Notably the chief 
surveyor and his young wife threw open their doors to the 
strangers, shared their bread and all else with the new 
arrivals, and their unselfish, generous conduct went far 
to gladden the hearts of lonely and homesick women, who 
might otherwise have sunk under difficulties. For, 
indeed, these difficulties were neither few nor small, and 
might well have crushed women of less nerve than those 
who came in the early times. While the women of the 
early days gave the best of their life and strength for 
the domestic comfort of their families, they ever took a 
deep interest in all that concerned the public good. At 
the helm there were wise men, who had to contend with 
difficulties that cannot be easily understood in the present 
day, but the majority of the settlers stood shoulder to 
shoulder, fought their battles, and conquered, while 
thoughtful women watched with keen interest the progress 
of public events. 

The first fruit trees in the colony were brought by a 
little vessel from Tasmania. The women were diligent 
gardeners. Mrs. Cargill set a praiseworthy example, and 

88 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

her love of flowers led her to cultivate many varieties, as 
-well as fruit and vegetables. Hers were the first grapes 
seen in Dunedin, and many were assisted by her in their 
first attempts from the abundance her garden produced. 
Perhaps it may interest some to know that the first scarlet 
geranium was brought from Home to Otago by a lady who 
kept the plant safely during her long voyage. When the. 
far south was opened for occupation, many of the settlers 
near Dunedin turned their thoughts to wider fields, and 
began to take up land in Southland. The journey was a 
long one, the men going overland with their cattle, the 
women mostly going by sea. When provisions ran short, 
the neighbours divided their tea and shared the last of 
their flour and sugar with each other, and, when stores 
did arrive, and they found that one half was eaten by the 
way, and the remainder had been submerged in landing, 
it is not surprising that the disappointed settler sometimes 
desired an interview with the captain and crew. The 
patient, heroic women, however, had many resources. 
Sometimes tea was made from the small leaves of the 
manuka, or the shoots of the bid-a-bid. while wheat was 
roasted and ground as a substitute for coffee. 

One lady, who was among the first party who took 
up land in Southland and sailed south round the coast, 
deserves mention. "We left Dunedin," she says, "in 
November, 1856, in the 'Star,' three other ladies and their 
children and myself. We were three weeks on the way. 
and the vessel put into Waikawa, where she stayed for 
some days. We ran short of provisions and had to fall 
back on the cargo, which consisted chiefly of flour. We 
sailed again, and after beating about in a. wearisome way 
were at last landed at the Bluff^only to be driven back 
to the vessel by the tormenting sand-flies there was no 
welcome for us there. Again \ve set sail with weary 
hearts, and at last reached our destination, thankful that 
we had been preserved thus far." 

Another lady gives an account of landing in Dunedin 
in 1850 by the "Mooltan," sixteen of whose passengers 
died of cholera on the voyage. This lady and her family 
were fortunate to secure accommodation in a small wooden 
building at the corner of Princes and Rattray Streets. 
where the new Government Insurance Office now stands. 
Here this brave lady began colonial life in earnest, and 
very laborious it must often have been. Besides the cares 
of her house and family, there were the fowls and garden 

of Diinedin and South Otago. 89 

and the labours of a considerable dairy, early and late, 
but she brought a brave spirit to the work, which pros- 
pered in her hands. But further effort was yet in store 
for her. The land in Mataura was thrown open for 
occupation, and, nothing daunted, this heroic woman pre- 
pared to accompany her husband and begin pioneer life 
anew, undertaking the journey overland. In 1858, she 
and her husband arranged their affairs, gathered together 
their cattle, put the fowls in crates, and packed up all 
their household goods, and one bright morning bade adieu 
to the home which had sheltered them for eight happy 
years. The last look was taken of the deserted house, and, 
stepping into the waggon beside their children, they started 
off; the corner was turned, the old life was a thing of the 
past, and she set her brave heart to the long, weary jour- 
ney which stretched away before her a weary journey of 
three fatiguing weeks. Slowly they made their way over 
the hills and along the sidelings, resting awhile at mid-day, 
and pushing on till evening. There were no tracks to 
guide them on the way. and they had to mark carefully 
the leading ridges, for to take the wrong spur Avould have 
caused much trouble and loss of time. Between Dunedin 
and Mataura there were no bridges, the cattle and horses 
had to swim the larger rivers, while the passengers crossed 
in a boat. The smaller streams were forded, and the 
travellers had often to cut the banks to allow a dray to 
get safely through the fords. The little party of pioneers 
bravely held on their way, sometimes under a hot sun. 
sometimes with a hot wind, till at last one evening they 
came in sight of their new home, not another habitation 
within tens of miles, the wide plain Avith its winding river 
lying before them, with difficulties which might well have 
discouraged a less brave spirit than this lady carried to 
her new home. 

A few special remarks are due to the wife of the 
Rev. Dr. Burns. Her life as a pioneer was very full of 
interest, her work rough and distasteful, such as she had 
not before experienced; but like her family she possessed 
an indomitable spirit that nothing could conquer. She 
brought culture and refinement to bear on her household 
and work. An accomplished musician, even at this day 
her voice in singing would be considered above the average 
for sweetness and melody. She had ever an affectionate 
and hearty sympathy for the poor, but it was known to 
few even of her own family how she helped those in need. 

90 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Innumerable instances could be given of how brave, 
patient women accompanied their husbands to the bush, 
assisted in dragging posts and wattles for their houses, 
cut and carried coarse grass for thatch, while some helped 
to split shingles for roofing, mixed clay, and helped to 
form the walls of their little cottages. This done, they 
again assisted to bring material to fence a garden, and in 
this way soon made cheerful homes, small indeed, but with 
bright firesides, a tight roof, a door, and perhaps two 
windows. One very young woman became a widow just 
after landing, her husband being carried on shore only to 
die. There was a small, half-ruined cottage at Port 
Chalmers, and a few of the young men, with great kind- 
ness, repaired it and made it a shelter for the widow and 
her little baby. Another woman with her little dying boy 
shared this cottage. She could get neither oil nor candles, 
and often said afterwards that she "never knew exactly 
at what hour little Sandy died," for he passed away in 
the night as she held him on her knee by the fire. But, 
as a rule, good health prevailed among the pioneers, with 
the exception of a few delicate women, who soon passed 
away, their end being hastened, no doubt, by the hard- 
ships they endured. As immigration continued, more 
country was opened up. and the pioneers pushed further 
and further inland. Slowly they made their way over the 
wilderness, many going on foot, as there were few con- 
veyances, and there were no roads or bridges. Some 
went round the coast by means of an open boat, sailing if 
the wind were favourable, landing at night, and sleeping 
in a tent made of the sail of the boat. Sometimes it was 
weeks before these ladies reached the end of their voyage, 
sometimes the boats would run before the wind, then 
would be suddenly turned back. Often the passengers 
had to walk the rest of the way, the mother carrying a 
baby, and the others such few necessaries as they could, 
sleeping under the ilax at night, and bravely pushing 
onwards through the day, wading the creeks, and crossing 
the deeper streams on a raft made of the koradi. Many 
still living can testify to and give far more romantic- 
adventures than any here recorded. 

A very touching incident from the pen of a lady who 
came with her father in the very early days may be 
interesting. Her father brought his two little motherless 
girls to make a home for them in Otago, and she thus 
records their landing at Port Chalmers in one of the ship's 

of I) lined in and South Otago. 91 

boats, which was in charge of two sailors: "Hoisting 
sail, we started, and all went very well until a wind arose, 
and we were glad to seek shelter somewhere in the vicinity 
of where St. Leonards now stands. We landed there 
early in the afternoon, and some of the passengers pro- 
posed to walk to Dunedin, my father with his two little 
girls being amongst those brave enough to make the 
attempt. We started right over the hill, through dense 
bush and scrub, making very little way indeed, and little 
wonder, when you think of our mode of travelling. My 
father took it in stages, carrying one of us so far, and 
then returning for the other one. After a few of these 
trips it began to rain, so we retraced our steps as best we 
could, reaching the boat at evening. The sailors had 
rigged up a tent with the sail of a boat, arid there we 
were glad to spend the night, drying our dripping clothes 
in front of a large fire. Next morning the wind was still 
contrary. What we breakfasted on or whether we had 
any breakfast I cannot remember. Again our party 
started to walk to Dunedin, keeping round the beach over 
the rough rocks, and sometimes wading in the sea. The 
two sailors carried my sister and me on their backs nearly 
all the way. Over the Water of Leith there was a tree 
thrown across for a bridge. The water was deep there, 
and [ well remember clinging in terror to the sailor who 
carried me across." 

Another extract, from the pen of one of the first 
pioneer women to the Clutha, gives some idea of the 
adventures by the way. "We left Port Chalmers to go 
to the Clutha in a boat, half-decked my husband, five 
children, and myself, and two men to manage the boat. 
Half-way to the Heads we were caught on a sandbank, and 
had to wait till the tide rose and floated us. Long after 
dark we reached the old Maori Kaik at the Heads, and 
anchored there. The children (my baby was only six 
months old) and I were so sick that we had to be carried 
on shore, where we lay in the open air all night. In the 
morning, having no cooked food with us. we walked to a 
small accommodation house about a mile off. and stayed 
there four days. Then back to the rocks for another day 
and night, waiting for a wind to take us out. At last the 
wind favoured us, and we rounded the Heads and put to 
sea. making the Molyneux Bay the same day, but had to 
lie off in the bay till morning, the wind not being favour- 
able for landing. Here I was welcomed by the Maori 

92 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Princess, Makariri, who plunged into the waves, took my 
baby, and carried him ashore. On landing we pitched a 
tent, which was our home for two months, but the children 
were so tormented with sandflies that we removed some 
distance away from the beach to the house of a friend, till 
my husband built a whare for us, and w r e settled down in 
our new home and began pioneer life in earnest." 

This brave woman records another voyage and 
another journey two years later. They started in an open 
boat to go to Taieri Mouth, and after being beaten back 
and starting again, and sleeping in a Maori hut at night, 
reached their destination thoroughly worn out. But the 
return journey was full of adventure, and again she 
writes : 

"My husband, a friend and I, with a baby seven weeks 
old, started to walk home. We crossed the Taieri River 
in a flat canoe, hired a boat on the Waihola Lake, and 
sailed so far in it; then walked from the head of the lake 
to what is now Milton, resting there two nights. Then we 
started again, I carrying my baby, my husband and our 
friend carrying heavy loads, and we walked to the Kai- 
tangata Lake, where our friend had left a boat. We 
embarked once more, and were again caught on a shallow 
mud bank, but managed to land at a hut which had been 
left by a party of the first surveyors. We had nothing' 
to eat our provisions were exhausted and waited 
patiently for daylight ; then started again, this time 
reaching the Clutha River. Soon we were at the mouth, 
where 1 landed and walked the rest of the way home." 

This lady also records a flood on the Clutha in 
January, 1851, quite as heavy as that which took place in 
1878. Inch Clutha and the land on which Balclutha now 
stands were then all under Avater. Many can yet testify 
to the kindness and hospitality ever shown by herself, her 
husband, and her family. 

Among this noble band of women some few stand out 
more prominently than the others. L - settled in one 
of the most fertile places, and her beautiful home was the 
resting place of many a weary traveller, who was always 
made welcome to that hospitable house, no matter how 
many came, or how often she spread a repast in the day. 
Sometimes, when she required to leave home for a day. the 
table was laid with a comfortable meal, and on it was 
placed a slip of paper on which was written: "Stranger, 
help thyself." The door was fastened on the outside, so 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 93 

that anyone arriving in her absence might enter and be 
refreshed. L 's example, in the way she worked, 
and her brave, patient spirit under difficulties inspired 
many a Avoman to bear up under hardship and discourage- 
ment little kuoAvn by the later generation. She Avas Avell 
educated and refined, yet she patiently took up the Avork 
she had come to do, though it often proved heavy and 
sometimes distasteful. 

The foregoing sketch is but one among many of the 
careers of a noble band of women Avho came in the very 
early years to the colony. Many of them Avere ladies Avho. 
in the Home Country, had been accustomed to every 
luxury, and whose education and pursuits had been so 
different to the life they were called on to lead here. But 
IIOAV Avillingly and nobly they did their life's Avork can 
still be testified by many yet living. 

One Avord in conclusion may perhaps be permitted to 
the daughters and grand-daughters who are so ably filling 
up the gaps in the ranks of the pioneer women, Avhose 
Avork may be compared to the lines laid down for the 
raihvays. No one travelling in the sAvift-rushing train 
ever thinks of the sloAV. toilsome workers who, foot by foot, 
laid the rails for the rapid travelling now enjoyed. But 
it Avould not be amiss sometimes to cast a thought back- 
Avards to the patient women who helped so largely to lay 
the foundation of much that the women and girls of to-day 
enjoy. Their Avork is not seen, and can never be fully 
told, yet they should have a place in the records of the 
early days, and in the memories of those Avho are taking 
their places. All honour to the bright and gifted 
daughters Avho are treading in the footsteps of the pioneer 

94 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 



THE Tokomairiro Plain was variously described in the 
accounts given to the New Zealand Land Company, 
but all agree in that it was of large extent, embrac- 
ing some 14,000 acres. It was almost entirely covered 
with grass, the neighbouring hills being nearly destitute.' 
of wood. Though well watered, it was free from swamps. 
From it there was almost a level pass to the Taieri. or. 
rather, to Waihola, where, by means of the Lake, easy 
communication could be made by means of the Taieri River 
and thence to Otago Harbour. At the head of Waihola 
Lake, the land was described as consisting of undulating- 
downs, round topped and covered with herbage and grass 
of various descriptions and of large growth. Quail were 1 
plentiful 011 these downs and on the adjoining plains. A 
very large extent of land was well fitted for cattle, 
sheep, and horses. The Rangitoto Lake was said to be 
some twelve miles from Waihola, and a short portage 
would take people to Kaitangata Lake and the Clutha 

W r hen selections of rural land were first made. Toko- 
mairiro was practically neglected, but, when the New 
Zealand Company surrendered its charter and new regula- 
tions for the sale of waste lands were made by the 
authorities, it came in for its full share of the benefits. 

The first pioneer settler was Mr. Robert Martin, who 
came from Nelson, and was settled at Pelichet Bay when 
the first ships arrived. He purchased land on the west 
side of the road where Fairfax now stands, and settled on 
it in 1850, no doubt being influenced in his selection by the 
proximity of bush on the ridges near it. He was accom- 
panied by Mr. Francis Chrystal, who did not at that time, 
however, purchase any land. Some years later he built 
an accommodation house, which he carried on for some 
time, and then, selling out, bought some land at Akatore, 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 95 

calling the place "Cock-my-lane." Selling out this, he 
then purchased land at the coast, and put up a lodging- 
house for holiday makers at the beach. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Salmond and a family of three 
were the next settlers. They were passengers by the 
"Larkins" in 1849. Mrs. Salmond was the first white 
woman settled in the Plain, and those three were the first 
pioneers to settle in the district. Other settlers followed. 
the Martin family being well represented, and might well 
be described as a representative pioneer family. They 
were Robert, Mrs. Duthie, Mrs. Dawson, Mrs. Smith, 
Thomas, Edward, Joseph, and William. The settlers who 
followed the three first pioneers mostly took up their land 
on the same line of road. Others took up land on the 
river below the junction of the two branches, and up the 
south branch. 

Mr. John Grey was settled near the Gorge, beloAv the 
main road, while next was George Lindsay, above the 
upper road, and southward were Messrs Lang, Ball, and 
Salmond. Messrs. Black and Brooks were both settled on 
what is now called Brookland. and Mr. James Smith on 
Springfield, across the district road which crosses Milton 
and continues in a straight line to the hills ; Mr. Alexander 
Duthie above Mr. Smith's near the Bush, and Messrs. 
Edward Martin and John Dewe on adjoining sections in 
the bush. Across the river Messrs. Stuart and Kobinson 
settled at Riverside. Passing up the south branch, Mr. 
James Reid was the first settler. He was the first person 
interred in the Fairfax Cemetery, and his father was the 
first settler on the site of Milton. Mr. Thomas Reid 
followed on the side of the public road, Messrs. Robert 
Murray and William Matheson across the river. Mr. 
Clarke and Mr. John Cargill above them on Meadowbank. 
Mr. Walter Millar was the furthest west settler on the 
river, while John Hardy settled on the Plain on what he 
called Helensbrook. 

Some important changes in ownership then took place. 
Messrs. Stuart and Robinson's property was sold to John 
Gillies, of Dunedin. and four of his sons, Thomas. Robert. 
William, and John L., carried it on for some time, but left 
one by one to fill important positions in the colony. Mr. 
Gillies, sen., was prominent both in church affairs and in 
public life. A lawyer by profession, he filled several 
important positions in Dunedin, his son. Thomas, being 
trained as a lawyer in his office. When Thomas left the 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 



1849 " Ajax." 

of Dimedin and South Otago. 97 

farm he settled for a time at Wharepa, Clutha District, 
and then, going to Dimedin. he followed his profession in 
company with John Hyde Harris. In 1860 he was elected 
to the General Assembly, was Attorney-General in 1862, 
Postmaster-General and Secretary for Lands in 1863-4. 
In 186o he removed to Auckland, and was Superintendent 
from 1869 to 1873. In 1875 he was elevated to the Bench, 
and discharged his duties in a singularly able manner till 
his death in 1889. Robert Gillies was a surveyor, and 
entered politics as M.H.R. for Bruce, but died shortly after 
his election. 

William Gillies studied for the ministry, and occupied 
a prominent position in the Presbyterian Church, being 
successively placed at West Taieri, Timaru, and Tauranga. 
during the occupancy of which latter place he died. John 
L. Gillies went to Australia in 1851, was a digger for a 
while, and returned to Otago in 1855. He was a member 
of the Provincial Council, and, after occupying several 
important public positions, died in 1897. When leaving 
Tokomairiro he was the recipient of a presentation of 
nearly 100 from the settlers, but, while thanking them 
for their kindness, he declined to accept it for himself, 
and handed it over to found a scholarship or bonus for a 
pupil teacher. 

The early settlers near the bush added to their pro- 
perties by purchasing land below them on the Plain. Mr. 
Smith's land reached the main road through Milton, and 
Mr. Duthie's was on both sides of it. Mr. James Adam 
purchased a large area in the south end of the district, 
and other settlers arriving, the whole Tokomairiro was 
purchased by the end of 1860. 

With the increase of settlement, the question of Avhich 
was to be the main road came to be a debatable one. The 
first settlers had combined and made the road to Waihola 
Gorge by putting culverts on the creeks, but something 
better was now desired, and after much disputation the 
Government proceeded to gravel the present road, which 
was opened for traffic about the end of I860. Some years 
before this a mill was built by Peter McGill, who employed 
Mi\ Hi-own, sen., and James Elder Brown at the work. 

James Elder Brown arrived in the "Ajax" in 1849, 
and was employed by Mr. Valpy to erect a combined flour 
and sawmill on the Water of Leith. Dimedin. Mr. McGill 
was employed to work the mill, and both stayed in the 
same hut. The mill proved a success, but. when the 

98 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Brown family arrived in the "Eden" in 1850, James 
Brown shifted to Anderson's Bay. 

At this time there was a small coasting vessel being 
built in Otago Harbour, the "Endeavour," and McGill. in 
company with Sinclair Harrold and Richard Craigie, 
bought her for the coastal trade, sailing her for eighteen 
months. The vessel was then sold, and McGill went back 
to the mill, working it on terms. In 1856 he thought he 
would try to start a flour mill in one of the country 
districts, and, selecting Tokomairiro as the best place, in 
company with Messrs. Brown went out to choose the site. 
The two Browns made up their minds to sell out at 
Anderson's Bay and settle in Tokomairiro, where they 
could get more land and help to put up the mill. They 
selected 100 acres next to McGill 's land. Henry Clark 
also purchased land, and he and McGill sawed the timber 
for their houses, Mr. Clark putting them both up. As 
soon as possible McGill, with William Baskett, sawed the 
timber for the mill, while the Browns sawed the necessary 
timber for a clay house for themselves. In October. 1857. 
the mill was at work, and an oatmeal mill was soon added 
to it. About thirty years afterwards the building, with a 
large quantity of grain, was burned down, when the 
present brick building replaced it, the contractor being 
the same Baskett who had helped to saw the timber for the 
first one. 

The most important event in the history of Milton, 
which name had replaced the old one of Tokomairiro, was 
its recognition by the Government as a township, and its 
elevation, in 1866, to the rank of a borough. The first 
Mayor was James Elder Brown, and the Councillors were 
Messrs. E. Stewart, James Goodall, James A. Dickson. and 
James M. Bryce. 

The "Bruce Herald," I suppose the oldest country 
paper in Otago, was established in 1864 by Joseph McKay, 
and for many years was the only paper circulating in 
Bruce and Clutha. Its back numbers well repay perusal, 
and contain many entertaining facts about the hardships 
which were even at that period encountered by the settlers 
of these districts. 

Two very important matters occupied the attention 
of the early settlers of Milton, viz., the necessity of making 
provision for the public ordinances of religion and the 
education of their children. The first Presbyterian 
Church and school was built at Fairfax, on the ground 

of Dune din and South Ota go. 99 

now occupied by the cemetery, the settlers contributing 
both in money and work to its erection. The bush sawyers 
supplied a large share of the timber, one settler drew the 
timber to the site, carpenters who afterwards became well- 
to-do farmers gave their labour, and so the first church 
was erected not a very pretentious building, but an 
exceedingly useful one. both for church and school, and 
for all public meetings. It was opened for public wor- 
ship on the 28th of February, 1857, by the Rev. William 
Bannerman, who had been first introduced to the con- 
gregation on February 5th, 3854. at the house of Mr. Alex. 
Duthie, and was its pastor till the Rev. A. B. Todd was 
inducted into the charge in 1859. 

AVhen Milton increased in population, the church at 
Fairfax was thought to be too far away, and a large 
wooden one was erected where the present new church 
now stands, the site being a gift from Peter McGill. The 
building looked well, but it was rather weak, as a severe 
gale so strained it that it was never satisfactory. The 
present church was built in 1889, and opened for worship 
by the Rev. Dr. Stuart. The beil was presented for the 
first church by Mr. John Gillies, sen., but the vessel that 
brought it from the Home Country did not deliver it in 
Otago. and it went Home again. It was again sent out, 
but the vessel, the "Henbury," took fire at Port Chalmers 
and was burnt. The bell was sold as salvage, and Mr. 
Gillies had to re-purchase it. It came safely to Toko- 
mairiro. but. when the third church was built, it had to be 
re-casr. after which it was hung where it now is. 

The first election of elders resulted in the appointment 
of Messrs Henry Clark. James Adam, George Brown, and 
James E. Brown, who were therefore the first session of 

The Anglican Church was the next church to hold 
services in the district. A piece of land on the Plain was 
consecrated as a cemetery for members of the Church of 
England. Services were first held by Mr., afterwards 
Rev.. J. Dewe, for the latter part of the time in the Court- 
house. Milton. The first regular incumbent, Rev. R. L. 
Stanford, was appointed in November, 1864. The first 
parsonage, near the old cemetery, was erected in the early 
part of 1865, and the present one in 1888. 

The first Catholic services were held in the late Win. 
Poppelwell's house, in the 'fifties, when Father Petitjean, 
a French missionary, made occasional visits to the 
scattered members of his flock in the South. 

100 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

In the early 'sixties, a church was constructed out of 
the materials of a store kept by Messrs. Smith & Hibbard. 
and in 1869 a handsome Gothic building was erected at 
the end of High Street, the dedication ceremony being 
performed by Father Ecuyer, who resided in Tuapeka. 
The late Bishop Moran purchased and presented to the 
congregation the Presbytery site in Queen Street, together 
with a small dwelling, which was occupied for eleven 
years by the first parish priest, Bev. T. Lenihan. 

In 1863, the Eev. Isaac Harding stayed at Milton on 
his way to the goldfields, and a little later the Rev. R. L. 
Vickers held the first Wesleyan service in a clay house. 
Occasional visits were afterwards paid by the minister 
from Dunedin. until Lawrence was made a circuit, when 
the minister came down and conducted services, chiefly on 
week nights. In 1871 the first regular Sunday services 
were conducted, and during Mr. Isitt's pastorate the 
present church was built. 

The first school, as already stated,, was held in the 
first Presbyterian Church at Fairfax, except for a short 
time before the church was built, when it was held in a 
small building belonging to Mr. James Smith and in the 
schoolmaster's house. Mr. Alexander Ayson was the first 
teacher, and after some years he retired to Wharepa, 
where he settled on some land he had purchased there. 
He again took up work at Southhridge. and finally retired 
to Mataura. where he died. During this time a new school 
was built at Milton, where the Courthouse now is. Mr. 
David Ross was the next teacher, and was succeeded by 
Mr. Malcolm, who was again succeeded by Mr. James Reid, 
in the present school, opened in 1880. The present rector 
is Mr. W. B. Graham, an ex-pupil of the school. 

Mr. Alex. Brown, Milton, describes his first trip to 
the district in the following words : "It was a bleak, cold, 
windy day in the end of September, 1856, that I had my 
first view of the Tokomairiro Plain. Mr. Peter McGill, my 
brother James, and myself had driven our cattle that day 
from Taieri Ferry, where we had lodged the night before 
on our way to settle on our new location, and, cold and 
weary with our journey, when we got through Waihola 
Gorge, as we called it then, and saw the plain stretched 
out before us. my heart sank at the prospect. There was 
only one house near the Gorge (Mr. John Grey's), and we 
had to hold eastward and come along the road that passes 
Springfield and Fairfax. Coming to the store, then owned 

of Dunedin and Soutli Of ago. 101 

by Mr. Thorn, and afterwards by Mr. James Goodall. ;md 
the only store in the district. Mr. MeGill purchased a few 
eatables, among them a pot of marmalade, to supplement 
the provisions we had left in the house which he had 
previously erected. We made our way down to it. and. 
letting the cattle wander at their will, we entered th-> 
house, tired and hungry, and ready to enjoy a hearty tea. 
But 'the best laid schemes o' mice and men gang aft 
a-gley. ' MeGill had bargained with a man to build a clay 
chimney to the house while he was away. The man had 
built the chimney, but had also made a raid on the eat- 
ables, leaving a big deficit, and the tea bag Avas empty. 
We agreed to try marmalade as a substitute, but I cannot 
recommend the tea it made, and I have hated the taste of 
marmalade ever since. 

"A bargain had been made with a carter in Dunedin 
to take a dray load of our belongings and the womenfolk 
of the family to the Taieri, so after staying in Dunedin for 
a night, they my father, mother, and sisters made a 
start next morning, but the load was so bulky that there 
was not much room on the dray for them, and they had 
to make most of the journey on foot, carrying a baby. 
Fortunately for them, a sailor, who was going to the 
Taieri, had joined them for company on the road, and he 
volunteered to carry the baby. For a while they tried to 
keep up with the dray, but found they could not do it, 
so, telling the drayman to leave his load at Scrogg's Creek, 
they reached a friend's house, where the}' stayed for the 

"Next morning Mr. Antonio Joseph came with his 
boat and took them with the luggage to Harrold's accom- 
modation house at Taieri Ferry, where they stayed the 
night. Next day the wind was very high, and Mr. Joseph 
was unwilling to take them up Waihola Lake, but my 
father persuaded him to go. Going up the river they were 
safe enough, but when they came to the Lake the waves 
were very high, and the settlers on the lakeside watched 
their progress with great anxiety, expecting every minute 
to see the boat swamped. When they arrived at the head 
of the Lake Mr. Joseph told them he had never been on 
the Lake before in such a storm. 

"Mr. John Cargill's bullock dray was waiting at the 
store erected by the settlers to stow their goods, and con- 
veyed them to Thorn's store, whence they walked to the 
house cold, weary, and hungry only to find a shortage 

102 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

1849 "Ajax." 

of D lined in and South Of ago. 103 

of provisions, but glad to find themselves safe at their 
journey's end." Such is a sample of what the women and 
children had to undergo in helping to provide homes in 
the wilderness in the early days. 

Many and varied are the stories told by the early 
settlers of the district, relating to their work and the 
difficulties they so successfully overcame. The comic 
element often obtruded itself, and served to lighten these 
days of worry and hardship. There was a common and 
almost universal feeling of brotherhood among the settlers, 
and if there was one thing more than another which was 
looked back upon with profound pleasure it was this 
practical brotherhood and absence of selfishness exhibited 
towards one -another. 

"In the matter of food." says a settler, "with the 
exception of tea. sugar, and a few other groceries, all the 
main staples were raised on the premises. Still, roads, or 
rather bridges, were required to enable us to receive our 
supplies from and send our produce to Dunedin, and these 
bridges were provided for and constructed in the following 
way.- The names of the different creeks to be bridged, or 
culverts to be constructed, were put into one hat, and the 
names of the settlers in another, and the drawing took 
place on the understanding that those settlers whose names 
were not drawn were to give their assistance to those who 
drew the heaviest bridges or culverts an arrangement 
which was most honourably carried out." 

The roads were for a long time mere tracks, some 
became perfect quagmires, and the difficulties of transit 
may be realised when we are told that the first wheeled 
vehicle seen in the Tokomairiro district occupied nine 
days in the journey from Dunedin. This vehicle was 
taken thither by Mr. Poppelwell in 1853. In 1850 it took 
three days to drag a plough from Dunedin to Waihola. 
and nearly as long to take the first dray over the survey 

The humorous side of travelling in these times is- well 
illustrated in an account of the trip made by four men. 
John Cargill. W. H. Cutten, J.. McAndrew, ' and W. H. 
Perkins, who started down the country to obtain signa- 
tures to a petition for self-government, needless to say for 
the colony, and not for themselves. The Tokomairiro 
River was in flood, and the water was up to the top of the 
banks. Mr. Cargill plunged in without hesitation. Per- 
kins saw only his head and shoulders occasionally, but, 

104 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

undaunted, he followed and managed to struggle to the 
landing place. Mr. Cutten declined to trust to his horse, 
so he stripped, tied his clothes to the saddle, and drove 
his horse before him into the stream, swimming by its side 
himself. Mr. McAndrew was afraid to tackle it on horse- 
back and could not swim. After many suggestions, he 
said that if he had a rope round his waist he would risk 
it, so the others flung him a tether rope, which he joined 
to his own and also crossed safely. 

Now commenced the real fun. Mr. McAndrew did 
not fancy riding in wet clothes, but the others were not 
so particular, so he stripped all save his shirt, boots, and 
hat, and hung his garments on either side of his horse to 
dry. When they got in sight of a settler's hut one 
Cameron they saw Mrs. Cameron and some one else at 
the door. Mr. Cutten suggested that they should ride up 
to the hut. "No, no," cried the unfortunate Mac: but 
the others hurried on and his steed followed. The two 
who stood in the doorway could not make out who or what 
the fourth person might be. First they thought it was a 
Maori with a mat on, but, as the riders drew nearer, they 
beheld the various garments flying in the wind, conjecture 
failed, and violent laughter took its place. 

After a feed of mutton and sugarless tea. the four 
adventurers started for Clutha. but got lost half-way to 
Mount Stewart. They then climbed up till they got a 
view of the Nuggets, and after consultation decided to 
proceed, so steering with the sun on their left they ulti- 
mately reached the river. They were again wet through, 
and the boat on which they had depended to reach Inch 
Clutha, where several people had already settled, had been 
swamped, and no other was procurable. They cooeed loud 
and shrill, and at last Mr. Redpath from the opposite bank 
told them that there was no boat nearer than several miles 
down the river. He advised them to remain where the 
ground was at least dry, though they themselves were 
soaking and they had neither food nor blankets. 

The next morning they found that three of their 
horses had broken away. A meeting was held, and it was 
decided that they had had enough of it. However, the 
horses had not gone more than six miles, when they were 
stopped by a creek, and were caught by the old device of 
driving them into a bend and stretching a tether rope 
across, with a man at each end and one in the middle, so 
that the animals were caught under the jaws. 

of Diincdin and South Otago. 105 

Once more they mounted, but by this time McAndrew 
was fairly exhausted and could not go beyond a walk. 
The two freshest of the party rode on, and the laggards 
joined them some hours later at Cameron's. Mac was not 
yet conquered, for, after a meal and a rest, he suggested 
that the party should go eeling. They made preparations 
and started at 8 p.m., lost their way in a swamp, and came 
home at midnight, but without any eels. Alas! the fire 
was out, no supper had been prepared for them, and there 
were no blankets. Once again the soaking adventurers 
passed a night without food, but this time they rolled 
themselves in a few old wool packs and were thankful. 

Mr. Gillies once applied to a carpenter in the district 
to help him to build a barn. The man refused, saying he 
could not finish before harvest was in. "What has that 
to do with the harvest?" was the query. "Oh," was the 
reply, "I always lock up my tools during harvest." 
"How is that, when your wages as a carpenter amount to 
10/- a day, and you get only 6/- for harvesting?" was 
again questioned. "Yes, I ken that; but, Mr. Gillies, if 1 
didna help the farmers to get in their harvest, they 
couldna afford to keep me the rest o' the year," was the 
pawky reply. 

In the same district was a useful, but eccentric. 
Scotchman, who possessed a bellows, anvil, and a few 
blacksmith's tools, that enabled him to do any simple piece 
of work, such as setting a plough sock, &c.. but, if anyone 
tried to give him advice, it was no uncommon thing for 
him to throw down the tools with the ultimatum : "There's 
the anvil, and here's the hammer; tak' and dae it yersel !" 
and off he would go to the bush, and one had just to turn 
to and do the job or leave it until he got over his 
tantrums, when he would probably do it as was wished. 

A good story is told of a mailman Black Andy. He 
used to take Mr. John Cargill's letters to his farm on the 
Toko River, and was rewarded by having his dinner there. 
One day he was seated alone in the kitchen after a good 
square meal, when his curiosity induced him to look 
what was boiling in a pot over the fire. There he dis- 
covered a plum pudding, intended for Mr. Cargill's dinner 
when he returned at night. Quickly he took it out of the 
pot, slipped it into the sack where he carried his mail bags, 
and departed. A few miles on the road, the smell proved 
so enticing that he could no longer withstand the tempta- 
tion, so, opening the sack, he attacked the pudding with 

106 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

a sheath knife and eagerly devoured it. While thus 
engaged, Mr. Cargill appeared on the scene. Noways 
abashed, Andy asked him if he would like a slice of 
pudding, which Mr. Cargill at once accepted, and after a 
yarn each proceeded on his way. When dinner was served 
Mrs. Cargill deplored the loss of her pudding, which, she 
said, was an extra good one. Mr. Cargill, at once suspect- 
ing who the thief was, told her not to mind as he had 
already eaten his share, and laughed heartily as he related 
his adventure with the mailman. 

Tokomairiro had the honour of instituting the first 
ploughing match in Otago. This fixture took place on 
April 18th, 1856, and was the forerunner of many such 
fixtures in other districts. The amount distributed in 
prize money was only 25, but spoke well for the 
enthusiasm of those connected with it in those strenuous 
times. The traction employed was bullocks in yoke with 
drivers, and bullocks in harness without drivers, and much 
ingenuity was displayed to ensure the gaining of the 
coveted prizes. The prize list is worthy of publication, 
and is as follows: 

Bullocks in yoke with driver : Ploughman, Louis Daw- 
son, owner E. Duthie, driver J. McKenzie, 1 ; ploughman 
James McNeil, owner J. Smith, driver Thomas Wilson, 2. 

Bullocks in harness without drivers : E. Martin. 1 : W. 
Gillies, 2; D. Louden, 3. 

Horses without driver. R, Gillies. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 107 



' I "HE Molyneux, or Clutha District, as it ultimately came 
1 to be called, was one of the first rural districts to 
be settled. The vivid descriptions of this part of the 
country given by the surveyors and others had attracted 
particular notice, and it was held by manj^ that it should 
have been the centre from which all partitions of the 
settlement of Otago should have radiated. Its position as 
the heart of the selected block ; the lay and extent of its 
fertile area ; the immense stretch of country around to the 
south and west ; the comparative ease with which internal 
communication could be opened up; its copious water 
supplies in all directions; together with its genial clime, 
were attractions hard to resist. 

Others held that a great mistake had been made in 
the location of Dunedin, and that the Clutha was the 
proper site for the town. The land was superior, being 
more level than that at Dunedin, and the area more exten- 
sive. A powerful objection was the want of a good har- 
bour, and the liability to sudden floods was urged, but it 
was maintained that both could be overcome by a 
moderate outlay of money. No efforts were spared to 
further their proposals by those holding these views, but 
the difficulties ultimately proved insuperable, and Messrs. 
Kettle and Tuekett's selection of the site of the chief town 
and port of the settlement completely justified. 

The River Molyneux, upon which so many vain hopes 
were rested, was so named by Captain Cook on March 4th, 
1770, out of compliment to the sailing master of his 
exploring vessel, the "Endeavour." Robert Moulineux, or 
Molineux. The name was not spelt with a "y," and was 
pronounced "Moli-nooks." as it is still in England to-d;iy. 

108 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Its Maori name is the Matau (right hand), because, on 
entering the river in a canoe from the bay by the old 
entrance, the steerer had to turn the prow to the right to 
paddle up that branch instead of the Koau (the pied shag 
bird) branch. The name "Clutha" was bestowed by the 
surveyors, and is said to be the Gaelic for Clyde. 

Hawkesworth Edition of Cook's first voyage says 
nothing about naming the Molyneux River, but Sydney 
Parkinson, draughtsman to Sir Joseph Banks, on board 
the "Endeavour," in his book says: 

''On the 4th March, 1770, after having been beat 
about with adverse winds for nearly a week, by the favour 
of a breeze from the north we again got sight of land. 
which tended away to the south-west, and appeared to be 
of great extent. We had a continual rolling sw r ell from 
the south-west, and saw the appearance of a harbour, 
which we named Moulineux's Harbour, after the name of 
our ship." 

Cook says : "This day we saw some whales and seals. 
At half an hour past one o'clock, we saw land bearing AY. 
by S., which we started for, and, before it was dark, were 
within three or four miles of it. During the whole night 
we saw fires upon it." 

This shows that, even at this early date (1770), there 
were Maori inhabitants at Molyneux Bay. 

The Molyneux has a course of 220 miles from Lake 
Wanaka to the ocean, and drains about 8,248 square miles 
of country, including the Aspiring group of mountains 
and the extensive glaciers and icefields of that region. 
The water discharged by it into the ocean is considerable, 
exceeding many of the largest rivers in the world, and 
is variously estimated at from 1,674,000 cubic feet to 
3.690,000 cubic feet. "The first sight of this might v 
river, " says one of the early settlers, "was a most beauti- 
ful one. The waters were clear for fathoms towards the 
banks, showing the white pebbles and bright water weeds, 
but lost in the depths of the centre, and showing on its 
ripples the blue-black sheen only seen on snow-fed rivers, 
recalling the words of the patriarch Job: 'Blackish by 
reason of the ice wherein the snow is hid.' ' 

The first white man to ascend the river in a boat was 
Bill Palmer, who, in 1839, had established a whaling 
station at Toutook (Tautuku) for Johnny Jones. Some 
years later he persuaded his Maori crew to go up the 
River Matau, as they called it. in a whaleboat with him. 

of l)u iied in and South Otago. 109 

and they went as far as Tuapeka Mouth. The Maoris did 
not want to go. as they believed that there was a hostile 
tribe of natives living up the river, towards the Lakes, 
who would enjoy a feed of "long pig." Palmer was not 
afraid, and took with him a gun and a quantity of powder 
and shot, to shoot birds for food, or, if necessary in self- 
defence, to shoot the cannibals. The Maoris took hinaki 
(eelpots) to catch eels, which were plentiful in the river, 
and a lot of sharp-pointed korari (flax flower stalks) and 
other straight sticks, which they used for spearing birds. 
The birds, strangers to the human enemy, stood still until 
the Maoris got near them, when the adroit hunters threw 7 
the sticks with such unerring aim that few birds escaped. 
They took a long time going against the stream, but the 
return journey was of short duration. They did not see 
any strange human beings on the trip, neither real nor 
mythical, so it is presumed that the natives were at the 
Lakes, and the Taniwha dead. 

A short distance north of Coal Point, Molyneux Bay.' 
is Measley Beach (Waikaro, meaning Mussel Water). 
About 1838 a couple of war canoes, filled with a war 
party, landed there, the occupants suffering from measles, 
a new disease imported by the Europeans, and very fatal 
to the Maoris. The party managed to draw up their 
canoes above high-water mark, and camped, making tem- 
porary shelter whares. It was reported that every man 
died, and the remains of their bones and the canoes w r ere 
seen as late as 1850 by some early European settlers. 

In April, 1846, Edward Jollie. AndreAV Wylie. and 
A. C. Wills, surveyors, had a contract to survey land at 
Port Molyneux. They chartered the brig "Bee" in Wel- 
lington, put stores and instruments on board, went to 
Xelson, where they engaged men to assist, then sailed for 
Port Chalmers, then known as Koputai, where they arrived 
about the end of May. The party numbered twenty, and 
included three women and one child. Having landed some 
passengers at Port Chalmers, they sailed for Molyneux 
Bay, but the weather was so bad that the brig ran to the 
Bluff for shelter. After two days the weather improved, 
so she returned to Molyneux Bay. where she anchored 
four miles from the mouth of the river. Snow was falling, 
and the surf was heavy, but the party landed safely. 
Soon afterwards they were visited by Messrs. Thomas and 
Harrison, who had a survey contract on the northern side 
of the river. Jollie's party being on the south side. They, 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 


1850 "Eden." 

1849 "Mooltan." 

1849 "Mary." 

of Dunedin and South Otago. Ill 

i.e., Thomas and Harrison, had chartered a schooner to 
take their party and stores to the Molyneux, had arrived 
safely and landed instruments and men, except one man. 
Night came on, and the landing of the stores was deferred 
till the following day. During the night it came on to 
blow, and the schooner had to run for it, but she did not 
come back. Thomas and his party were without provi- 
sions, and lived as best they could by catching wild pigs. 
Jollie had a good supply of food stuffs, so lent them what 
they wanted. Several months afterwards, the man they 
had left on board, "Old Jim." came back and reported 
that the schooner had to run as far as Akaroa. The 
captain refused to return, and landed him and the stores 
at Akaroa. ' Jim had no money, and, before he could get 
a vessel to go to Molyneux. the cost of living, storage 
charges, and other expenses had absorbed the selling value 
of the stores, so that he had nothing to bring back with 
him. Jollie 's survey occupied the party a little over a 
year, and was finished about the end of June, 1847. Then 
they all went to Dunedin, intending to go to Wellington. 
Several weeks passed before an opportunity offered, but 
at length two schooners arrived in Port Otakou. Wylie, 
Wills, Gollan, Pelichet, and Jollie took passage in one and 
arrived safely. Most of the men went in the other, but 
never reached port. The vessel called at Akaroa. but 
after leaving was never heard of again. 

The European settlers at the Matau before immigra- 
tion set in were very few. Mr. Tuckett mentions only 
Harrison, Thomas, and Wylie as farming there, but there 
were also Willcher (generally spelt Willsher), Kussell. and 
a few others, whose names cannot now be procured. Of 
Willcher and Russell the following particulars have been 
gleaned : 

During the New Zealand land boom in 1839-40, one 
Thomas Jones, merchant in Sydney, became a large 
operator. He claimed to have purchased from the native 
owners 307,000 acres of land, of which 256,000 acres were 
in the Molyneux district. A syndicate was formed, stock 
purchased, and the brig "Portenia" chartered to convey 
a party to the Molyneux. Besides Jones himself, she 
carried George Willcher, William Bessant, Conning, and 
Thomas Russell. Willcher represented Jones as resident 
agent, Bessant represented two men, Cruikshanks and 
Cohen, who belonged to the syndicate, while Conning 
represented an area of 7,000 acres purchased from Jones. 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Russell's status is not specially known, but the likelihood 
is that he was another purchaser from Jones. He 
remained in the colony till his death, which occurred in 
Dunedin many years ago. He had been awarded 100 acres 
in place of his original claim of thousands of acres, and 
he lived all along in hopes of getting further concessions 
hopes which were never realised. 

The voyage was a tempestuous one. and all the stock 
perished except one cow. The party landed near the 
Kororo Creek, and Willcher was so disgusted with the 
failure of the expedition that he remained in New Zealand. 
He secured a section of some twenty acres of land at the 
mouth of the Kororo. and the bay near Port Molyneux is 
called Willcher Bay after him. He and Russell were saved 
from being eaten by the Maoris by the Maori Queen. Mata 
Makariri (frost), whom Willcher married, with whom he 
lived many years, and about whom many funny stories 
are told. 

Makariri was not blessed with an angelic temper, and 
when a dispute arose she vented her spleen by throwing 
everything out of the whare pots, pans, furniture, and 
bedding were all sent flying. When she got over her ill-tem- 
per, she quietly put them all back in their proper places. 
Sometimes Willcher ill-treated her. and then she would 
swim out to a large rock near the beach which is still 
called Makariri 's Rock. Makariri had no children of her 
own, but adopted the eldest son of Hermoni Rakiraki. a 
well-known Maori chief, known by the early settlers as 
Ben Lakitapu. Ben as a child was subject to uncon- 
trollable fits of temper, and. Avhen they came on. Makariri, 
instead of slapping him, used to strip him of his solitary 
garment, throw him into the river, and quietly walk 
along the bank smoking her pipe to watch him flounder 
ashore, but ready at any moment, should occasion require, 
to plunge in to his assistance. She could swim like a fish 
herself, and determined to make Ben a good swimmer too. 

On one occasion she won a wager made by the crew 
of a small boat that she would swim a mile with a lighted 
pipe in her mouth. She accomplished the feat with ease, 
ooming out of the water to claim her prize with her pipe 
alight and laughing heartily at having beaten the pakeha. 

Various stories are told about the number of cattle 
landed by Willcher 's party, but the generally accepted 
story is that only one cow which happened to be in calf 
was saved. The calf happened to be a bull calf, and from 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 113 

this small beginning a herd of some 600 cattle sprang up. 
The bull afterwards strayed away down south, and his re- 
mains were found near Wyndham. How he had managed to 
travel safely such a distance has been regarded as a puzzle, 
and it is said that his hoofs when found measured nearly 
a foot in length. The cattle were all a dark red colour, 
with a white stripe down the back. In about the year 
1855 Willcher arranged to send his cattle to Clydevale to 
graze, and. in 1859. disposed of them, leaving the colony 
without telling anyone where he was going. 

In 1880, a lady well known in Otago. Mrs. Joseph 
Maitland, was on a visit to the Old Country, and was 
making some purchases in a shop in London when she 
remarked to the shopman that the goods were for exporta- 
tion to Otago. "Pardon me. madam," said a well-dressed, 
gentlemanly-looking man, ' ' I overheard you say you came 
from Otago; do you know the Clutha?" On being 
answered in the affirmative, and names being exchanged, 
the man turned out to be Mr. Willcher. His land was 
afterAvards purchased by the Hon. Thomas Mackenzie, who 
sold part of it to the people of Clutha as a recreation 

The following account of Willcher and others, giving 
a slightly different reading, was published in the "South- 
land Times" in 1889. and was entitled "A Scrap of Early 

"A copy of a letter has been handed to us for pub- 
lication by a gentleman from Sydney at present in Inver- 
cargill. It may be interesting to our readers at this day. 
having been written forty-nine years ago (1889). and was 
probably the first letter written by a settler in Otago. 
The epistle was evidently written with a pointed stick and 
a dark red fluid, probably the juice of the tutu berry. It 
is very much faded, many of the words being quite 
illegible. Mr. Cohen, to whom the letter was written, was 
afterwards the manager or other officer in a bank in Mel- 
bourne, where he died many years ago. He never came 
to Xew Zealand ; had he done so, and brought the rabbits 
with him as advised, what a deplorable condition the 
country would have been in when the first Scottish settlers 
arrived. The writer of the letter was engaged by the 
person to whom it was addressed to settle upon and 
improve several thousand acres of land at the mouth of 
the Molyneux River (Molyneux Bay), purchased from the 
New South Wales Government, early in 1840. For this 

114 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

the writer was to receive certain moneys, and also a por- 
tion of the land so improved. Owing to the conditions not 
being fulfilled, neither of the parties received the land,' 
the claim being disallowed by the Land Commissioners at 
Auckland a few years after, subsequent to the control of 
matters pertaining to land being transferred from Sydney 
to Auckland in 1841. The writer of the letter was killed 
by natives at one of the South Sea Islands in 1841. Some 
of the foregoing particulars, so says our informant, were 
obtained from an aged lady, resident in Sydney, the 
widow of one of the persons spoken of in the letter; a 
lad.y under whose hospitable roof and encouragement a 
portion of the opera "Maritana" was written, and who 
arrived in Sydney at a time when Melbourne, Adelaide. 
Brisbane and Auckland were not yet in existence. The 
letter was written before envelopes were invented, being 
a double sheet of paper folded up into letter shape and 
sealed with wax. 

"There were originally four persons who settled at 
Molyneux Bay. bringing with them the stock mentioned 
in the letter, in the ship 'Portenia, ' Captain Morris. Of 
the cattle, only one cow was landed. Fortunately this cow 
was in calf, and w r ith much joy to her owner, Mr. Willcher, 
the calf was a bull. From this beginning a herd of 600 
head was eventually raised. Some of the goats and pigs 
that were landed strayed into the bush. These pigs pro- 
bably formed the nucleus of the wild pigs at present in 
the southern portion of the Middle Island. For some 
years there were wild goats about the Nuggets and Catlins 
River, but being sought after by subsequent settlers for 
their flesh they have decreased out of existence. The 
names of the original settlers were Thomas Russell, Robert 
Conning, Mr. George Willcher (acting for Thomas Jones, 
merchant, of Sydney), and T. W. Bessant (acting for 
Cruikshanks and Cohen, of Sydney). Of these, Russell 
and Willcher obtained grants of land. Bessant and Con- 
ning resided there about twelve months, and, being dis- 
gusted with the solitude and privations forced upon them, 
returned to Sydney at the first opportunity. Russell died 
about fifteen or twenty years ago in Dunedin ; Willcher 
left for England about twelve years ago, and it is not 
known whether he is still alive. Until the Lower Moly- 
neux and Inch Clutha were settled by farmers or graziers 
these intrepid pioneers endured a hard life for ten or 
twelve years. They lived on potatoes and vegetables 

of Dnncdiii and South Otago. 115 

grown by them: for meat they shot the wild pig, pigeon. 
&c., whilst fish was relished as a luxury. A whaler 
putting into the bay once in twelve months or so provided 
them with a taste of flour, tea, and sugar, and received in 
exchange potatoes, ducks, and other wild fowl, money 
having for a time gone out of use with these two primitive 
settlers. Russell's grant about two miles south of the 
township of Port Molyneux is now owned by the Wilson 
Brothers, and evidences are still left of the early settle- 
ment. Russell was a stone-mason, and built a chimney to 
his house which is still standing, and on one of the stones 
of which he cut the date ' 1840. ' 

' ' The letter is as follows : 

"Molyneux Bay, 
"Monday. July 6th, 1840. 

"Dear Cohen. Here we are, and have been since 
Sunday week, after a passage of four weeks exactly (from 
Sydney), during which we experienced all kinds of mis- 
fortune. In the first place, on leaving Sydney Heads we 
popped into the midst of a heavy gale of wind, which 
lasted four days, and destroyed twenty-eight head of 
cattle. You can imagine the state the hold was in the 
dead cattle all rotting. The people had to cut them up 
and heave them overboard. As you may suppose, our 
provision for the stock was soon wasted, and we were at 
our wits' end to find food for them. I am sorry to say 
poor Billy and one of the pigs died, and one of the goats 
dropped her kid. Russell lost one goat and two pigs. We 
are now all on shore with our stock, and some of the 
things, but they are not all landed yet. By the by. you 
may guess what a harbour it is when I tell you you must 
bring all your things in ironbound casks, except the small 
eases you can carry. I have had to unpack all mine, and 
find the iron has destroyed all the (illegible). Now, I 
must tell you, the land is, by everyone's account, and I 
think so too. everything you could wish, and when Jones 
gets his piece, as he says he will, the place will prosper. 
The land here is covered with a thick bush, and all around 
the place is the same, but by the river all tremendous hills 
and dales with nothing but grass and flax upon them. 
You cannot imagine how beautiful the country looks. 
Russell and I penetrated a long way back yesterday and 
found some splendid trees (indistinct, may be grass), and 
the whole country watered by small bits of brooks. I 

116 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

must tell you the chart is no more like the place than you. 
There is no island in the river, but a bar thrown up by 
the sea, and impassable for any boat. Jones is a man of 
no enterprise or the place would soon be valuable ; we 
have been a week here now, but instead of laying out a 
town he is fuddling about on board ship for fear his wine 
would be drunk in his absence. However, we have got 
our houses at the only landing place, and it, of course, 
will be the town. My goods are all at the tent, and I 
have got a house nearly iinished. I have a small stream 
of water at the door. I do not think he intends measuring 
the land now. but talks of sending a surveyor down, and 
plenty more people ; but as long as he will measure the 
water frontage we can do the rest. Of course, I cannot 
tell you the bounds, nor can Conning sign the deed (as 
we have not got the land yet), but you may rest assured 
I am on the lookout, and will take pretty good care of 
them all. I like Russell and Conning very well indeed. 
Conning is a hard-working felloAv ; Russell is a schemer. 
The captain no doubt will speak bad enough of the bay, 
so I will only say look at the best side of the question, as 
a sailor of course looks to the safety of his ship, and not 
at the land. If we could get a craft from 60 to 80 tons 
we should do splendidly, and I hope some day or other 
we will. Russell says: 'Never mind, the hills are as good 
as the dales, and the dales as good as possible.' The 
whole country is covered with flax. Mr. Jones says he 

will get a piece here, and if so we shall soon . There 

is a very heavy surf here, but a whale boat can always 
manage to land. Should you get a boat, it must be a 

whale boat . It is good holding ground for a ship, 

but the bay is quite open. Our stock are all running 
about, and find such food that they will not eat anything 
that we have to give them. As for the w r eather. it is not 
at all cold, though winter time. 

"In our excursion yesterday we shot a tremendous 
dove - , it was the size of a fowl - . and we had 
him for supper. When you come, please bring - - a 
cap as I always wear a collect - - head and a pair of 
strong shoes. You could not do better than bring the 
cattle and some rabbits, another billy goat. &c. We must 
get a cutter, and if, by and by. we should be able to get 
a brig or schooner from Home, it would be a fortune about 
here, for Johnny Jones has too much of his own way. 
We went to Rubucka Island, where Bloody Jack lives. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 117 

Mr. Jones went to see him. It was about five miles from 
the Port. He was ill, but talks of calling on us when he 
gets well. He engages to defend Jones in his purchase, 
and gave him to the chief to come with us. Pie holds a 
court, and went off to the - - in a major's uniform and 
attended by his soldiers. You will hardly be able to make 
this out, but I can get no pen or ink, and am very busy 
;ts my snoods are coming ashore, but as there is no knowing 
when the brig will sail 1 was in a hurry to write. I shall 
very likely write to Mr. Ellard. but as the land is not 
measured yet, have nothing to tell him. I forgot to say 
there is a clerk of Johnny Jones' living with Bloody Jack, 
and there are no natives at Molyneux, so of course we 
have no assistance; but I do not mind that, as they under- 
stand money so well as to prefer it to anything else, and 
will do anything here for a handkerchief. I could say a 
deal, but cannot put in a letter. Come as soon as you 
can and persuade as many as you can, for the place wants 
people more than anything. Do not forget to look out 
for my letter and give my brother a paper or two. Rely- 
ing upon soon seeing you, I am. with best respects to Mr. 
and Mrs. Cruikshanks, &c., &c., 

"Yours, truly. 


"Morris says he promised to write from Port Nic. 
(Wellington), and will do so. I expect to see you next 

"Russell and Conning want you to put a paragraph 
hi the paper about the place ; they intend doing so. Jones 
has a store here, and you should get one too, for we shall 
have callers from all the places about here. Here comes 
the boat. Good-bye. 

"Should you have a store, buy plenty of spirits. I 
intend making a survey of the harbour, and going up the 
river to have a look at the land. I hope you will be able 
to make this out. but can hardly do so myself. I shall 
write by the first ship that we see and take it out (the 
letter) in the whaleboat." (This letter was addressed to 
W. H. Cohen, Mr. Cruikshanks. Pitt Street, Sydney.) 

Inch Clutha was very early settled, Mr. Thomas Red- 
path being the first settler. He was a passenger by the 
"Ajax" in 1849. and must have settled in the district in 
that year or early in 1850. He owned what was called the 

118 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Balmoral Estate, and for some time was the only settler 
at the top of the Island. He had a boat in which he 
ferried people across the river. The first church services 
in Inch Clutha were held in his cottage, and were attended 
by some twenty or thirty people. 

In about 1858 he established a store at Otanomomo, 
on the Puerua Stream, with a general assortment of goods. 
Small craft came up the river with goods, and near the 
store was a high tree which Redpath used to climb to see 
if any boats were in sight. This was the first general 
store in the Clutha district, and for a number of years 
Redpath acted as receiving agent for all stores arriving 
from Dunedin for the settlers. All produce from the sur- 
rounding parts was taken to the store for shipment out- 
wards, or for disposal to Redpath. He was the first, south 
of Dunedin, to own an entire horse. "Prince," and Robert 
Christie was employed by him as groom. 

About the same time as Redpath came, or very shortly 
afterwards, a man named Ramage settled on the Island, 
but, being a sailor, he did not remain long. One McHardy 
took up some land, but did not settle. The next settlers 
were Messrs. F. S. Pillans and William Ferguson, who 
had come out in the "Mooltan," and about the same time 
Shepherd, who was the first policeman in Dunedin. also 
took up land. His daughter was the first white child born 
in the Clutha district. 

In 1850. Mr Archibald Anderson leased the North 
Molyneux run, extending from Lake Tuakitoto to Manuka 
Island, and embracing an area of some 30,000 acres. He 
afterwards bought 2,000 acres, extending from the present 
railway bridge over the Molyneux to the Lake. He came 
once a month to the district to see how things were getting 
on. His first visit was made in company with John Shaw 
and a man named Powell. They were on foot, and, when 
they were crossing the Toko Plain, darkness came on. 
They lost the track, but ultimately struck the river at 
Manuka Island. Following the river down, they arrived 
opposite Redpath 's and crossed in his boat. Mr. Anderson 
-afterwards bought the Balmoral Estate from Redpath at 
2 an acre. On one occasion the "Geelong" came up the 
river as far as his place and took the whole family on 
board. For four years Mr. Anderson had a ferry boat on 
the river, crossing people at a charge of 6d. per trip. 

Other settlers on the Island at that early date (1850- 
1854) were Mosley, Willocks. James Wright, and Mitchell, 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 


1851 "Columbus." 

120 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

and a little later Bowler and Davie bought McHardy's 
place, while in 1858 or 1859 Messrs. Grigor, Barker, Smaill, 
and Darling settled down. In 1857 a section was taken 
up on Inch Clutha by the Clapcotts, Henry and Frederick., 
but from accounts received it must have been a little 
before this that the Clapcotts settled on the Island. 
Frederick Clapcott says that they were the first to get 
flour overland from Dunedin, but it was too expensive a 

On the north bank of the Molyneux were a Mr. 
BosAvald or Buswell, who afterwards sold out to Smith 
Brothers, and Joseph Maitland, who owned the Crescent 
Estate. In 1855 the only European settler at Kaitangata 
was John Lovell. who, for a while previous, had his sheep 
grazing on Lovell 's Flat, so named after him. As his was 
the only house between Tokomairiro and Iwikatea (Bal- 
clutha), Lovell was put to a good deal of expense and 
inconvenience by visitors, who often consumed all his pro- 
visions. On shifting to Kaitangata, he built his house 
near the Maori Kaik. which was at the junction of the 
Kaitangata Creek with the Matau, on its eastern bank, 
where there was some native bush. 

On the 4th of February. 1856. he had the misfortune 
to lose his only son, John, by drowning in the Clutha River. 
This young man attempted to cross the river by swimming 
his horse. He had failed to make the ferryman hear. so. 
as he had previously crossed by swimming, he evidently 
determined to do so again. The river was in flood, and 
he was washed off his horse and drowned. The body was 
afterwards recovered and buried on the point above the 
division of the waters; but some years afterwards the 
remains were transferred to the Northern Cemetery. 
Dunedin. Mr. Lovell Avent to the Home Country, but 
returned in 1864 to Dunedin. where he died. 

Mr. and Mrs. Twiss were the first white couple settled 
at Lovelies Flat, their house being a noted place of call 
on the road to Clutha. They afterwards shifted to Mil- 
ton. In 1857. William Aitcheson took up land close to 
Kaitangata. and about the same time the Frazers settled 
in the Tuakitoto district. Mr. James Frazer. sen., was a 
member of the Tuakitoto Road Board, and took an active 
part in forwarding the welfare of the district. In 1858 
W. H. S. Roberts lived close to Kaitangata, but in 1859 
shifted to Tapanui. where he stocked Ardmore Station 
with sheep and cattle. He afterwards owned the Conical 

of D uned in and South Otago. 121 

Hills Station, and was for three years at Waipahi. after- 
wards residing at Oaraaru. 

William Henry Sherwood Roberts was born at Tenby, 
October 16th, 1834; therefore was 76 years old in October. 
1910. His father was descended from an old Worcester 
family, arid was a captain in the Honourable East India 
Company's service, in the Bombay Native Infantry 
Regiment. His mother was a niece of the great Highland 
Chieftain. Cameron of Lochiel. 

On January 9th, 1855, W. H. S. Roberts left London 
on the barque "John Philips/' and landed in Nelson. 
Now Zealand, on May 5th. 1855 a long voyage of four 

On the 23rd April, 1856. Mr. Roberts left Nelson on 
horseback for Otago, in company with Messrs. Young 
and Davidson, travelling all the way overland, though 
the country was quite without roads or bridges except 
near the towns. In many parts there were no tracks or 
marks to guide a traveller; therefore, on hilly country 
the route was found by instinct, and on flat lands or 
plains by the compass, as at sea. 

Travelling to see different parts in the Middle Island, 
Mr. Roberts did not reach Dunedin till June 2nd, 1856. 
It was then only a small village, eight years old. The 
streets had not been formed, and a limpid stream, known 
as "The -Toita, " crossed Princes Street on its way to the 
harbour. From Dunedin to the Molyneux at Iwikatea 
(a bone scraped clean from the flesh), now Balclutha. 
there w r as a sledge track, but it was; quite impassable for 
wheeled vehicles. Mr. McNeil kept a ferry boat on the 
Molyneux, behind which horses were towed, and which 
was a great convenience to travellers, who were SIMV 
of a good meal, if they ground wheat in the* hand-mill 
first, and paid for the food. 

From Balclutha to Murihiku. or Southland, there was 
no track. Travellers were told of certain landmarks, 
such as Moa Hill and Popotunoa Wooded Cone, and were 
to keep to the ridges and avoid the swampy gullies, and 
so by exercising their "bump of locality" they found 
their way. with few exceptions. 

Mr. Roberts lost his cattle run in Southland by "The 
Land and Lease Ordinance, 1856." In 1859 he. together 
with Mr. J. S. De C. Baigrie. bought the sheep run on 
the Pomahaka, and imported sheep from Xelson and 
Australia to stock it. They gave the station the name 

122 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of Ardmore. In 1863 Mr. Roberts purchased Mr. Baigrie 's 
share, and he left the colony. On October 22nd, 1867, 
Mr. Roberts married the only daughter of Captain Peter 
Williams, who had been in New Zealand since 1829. 
Miss Williams was born at Port Chalmers in 1850. Her 
mother was also a very early colonist, having arrived at 
Waikouaiti in March, 1840, with her first husband in 
the barque "Magnet," belonging to Mr. John Jones. 

In 1871 the Provincial Government proclaimed the 
best portion of Ardmore Run into Hundreds, for sale in 
alternate sections for cash and deferred payments, which 
action ruined Mr. Roberts, with an immediate loss of over 
30,000, compelling him to sell out. He retired to a 
farm at Waipahi, where he remained till November, 1878. 
when he removed with his family to Oamaru. where he 
still resides. 

Other land-holders about Tuakitoto and North Moly- 
neux were David Forsyth (1859), James and John Ormis- 
ton (1856-59), John Dunbar (1859), Andrew Chapman 
(1858), and Messrs. Trumble, Westland, and Hutchinson, 
but whether any of these actually settled on their land 
the writer cannot find out. Coming back to Inch Clutha, 
we find that W. S. Mosley, already mentioned, first took 
up a section at the beach, near the mouth of the Molyneux 

When coming to his selection he chartered the 
"Endeavour" (Captain Sinclair) to take his family to 
Port Molyneux. Several times the little schooner reached 
the Nuggets, but when the captain saw the rocks he 
refused to approach near the land ; so the Mosleys were 
taken ashore by the Maoris, with whom they stayed for 
a week, at the end of which Mr. Mosley engaged a Maori 
named Kai Kora to take them in a whaleboat back to 

On arriving at his destination, the Maori refused to 
stop, although a high sea was running, and on the return 
trip he was drowned. Mosley had given him 16/- and 
a gun for the passage, and when his body was found 
the gun was found tied to it. 

Mr. Mosley then secured the loan of a pair of bullocks 
and a sledge from Mr. Valpy to go overland to Clutha. 
This was the first bullock sledge to go from Dunedin 
to Clutha. and a toilsome trip it was. When the party 
reached Tokomairiro it came on to rain, so a rough tent 
was made with cabbage trees for the women and children, 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 123 

while the men walked about all night trying to keep them- 
selves warm. When the Clntha was reached, they crossed 
in Redpath's boat, and remained with Redpath for a fort- 
night, at the end of which two Maoris took them to the 

At first and for some time they lived in a four-roomed 
cottage, built by a Mr. Burrell, who had left some time 
before. As all their things were on the "Endeavour," 
they had not much to eat, and were forced to subsist on 
pigeons and wild pigs. Sometimes they were able to buy 
potatoes from the Maoris, paying 2/6 for a bucketful. 
Mosley then dug up a piece of ground for potatoes and 
wheat. Three months later he got the Maori Chief to go 
round and tow the "Endeavour" into "Willcher Bay. The 
Maoris then assisted to carry the things to the house, and 
matters were much improved. 

The next year (1853) the Mosleys shifted to Inch 
Clutha, where a house was built near the edge of the 
bush, afterwards known as Mosley 's Belt. The work 
incidental to the making of a home steadily proceeded, 
and soon a smiling homestead took the place of the dreary- 
looking bush. Bullocks were broken to harness, and often 
sold as high as 62 a pair. By and by. when horses were 
introduced, Mosley sold all his bullocks and bought three 
horses, paying 95, 85. and 75 for them. These three 
were mares, and in a few years Mosley had a goodly 
number of horses, which he was able to dispose of at 
high rates. From 1862-1869 Mosley was a member of the 
Provincial Council for the Matau District. 

The first marriage in the Clutha District was cele- 
brated in 1854 on the Island, the contracting parties 
being William Mitchell and Katie Lindsay; Peter Ayson, 
jun., proclaiming the banns in Andrew Mercer's kitchen at 
Awakiki Bush. 

Balclutha. called by the Maoris Iwikatea, was not 
settled for some time after the first settlers came to Port 
Molyneux, Inch Clutha, and East Clutha. In the begin- 
ning of 1852 there was no habitation of any sort where the 
town now stands, but in the end of that year James 
McNeil. \vho arrived in the "Mooltan, " and who had 
been settled at Blanket Bay, near Dunedin, arrived, and 
for some time his bark hut constituted the town. All 
around was a flax swamp great, big. flapping flax, ten or 
twelve feet high while a short distance up the river was 
a lagoon, six or seven feet deep, surrounded by flax. 

124 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Early in 1853 McNeil established the first ferry. He 
had two suitable boats built in Dunedin, brought by sea, 
to Port Molyneux, and taken up the river to his site. 
These were the only means of conveyance at this point 
until about 1857, when the Government established a ferry 
and built an accommodation house, both of which were 
leased for a term to John Barr, but instead of paying any 
rent he was allowed 50 a year and rations for keeping 
them, his duties being to assist in crossing people and 

The accommodation house was built by John Hardy, 
who employed Messrs. Girard. Mills, and Butler on the job. 
It was the only Government accommodation house between 
Dunedin and Invercargill, until one was built at Popotn- 
noa, and another at Mataura Falls. 

James McNeil owned fifty acres of land round about 
his hut, fifty acres were attached to the accommodation 
house, and John Barr owned a hundred acres. The next 
hundred acres were owned by Alexander McNeil, the next 
hundred by John McNeil, while Andrew McNeil owned 
Invertiel. So far as can be ascertained these were the 
only settlers about Balclutha at this date. 

When crossing cattle by means of the boats the stock- 
men often had considerable trouble. They had to drive 
the cattle up where the groin is now. tie one or two to a 
boat, and drag them across the river, when the rest would 
follow. Very often some were drowned in the passage, 
and still oftener during the night the cattle would swim 
back, and next day the work would have to be done over 

Somewhere about 1861 the first punt was built. It 
was a sort of dug-out boat and extre7nely dangerous, but 
a little later was replaced by a bigger boat with a stage 
over it. While James Nicol, John Butler, and others were 
Avorking at it a serious accident was averted by the cool- 
ness and promptitude of one of the employees. In fixing 
the cable, the men had a boat, the only one on the works. 
One day. two men, Marshall and Thomson, were employed, 
when Marshall fell into the river. Thomson at once pulled 
off his boots and jumped after him. As he neared Mar- 
shall he called out: "Now. Marshall, if you do as I tell 
you, 1 shall take you out; if not, I won't. Put your hands 
on my shoulders and rest so. but don't on any considera- 
tion catch my legs, or we'll both drown." The advice WHS 
followed and both landed safely a considerable distance 
below the punt. Avhere McNeil's hut was. 

of Diinedin and South Otago. 125 

Accidents in connection with the punt were quite com- 
mon, and the Provincial Government in 1866 decided to 
build" a bridge, the contract for which was let on the 21st 
August, 1866, to William Murray, for the sum of 13.580 
6s. 8d.. but it cost nearly 17.000 before it was completed. 
The site had been selected in 1864 by an engineer named 
Greenlaw. but the work of erection was not proceeded 
with till 1867. The bridge was 679 feet long, with a width 
of 14ft. between the railings, supported by eight centre 
and eight abutment pile piers, two of the spans being 
40ft. each and six 15ft. each. The eight centre spans were 
80ft. each, while the piers were each composed of thirty- 
eight piles thirty-one being 16in. square and seven being 
18in. square -secured on the up-stream side by three screw 
piles 18in. in diameter, as fenders. The platform was 
suspended by twenty galvanised iron wires, 4 1 /^>in. in cir- 
cumference. Near the north end there was a drawbridge, 
which was 27ft. 6in. in height, to allow the steamer to 
pass. On the 8th of October. 1868, the bridge was opened 
for traffic, but during the great flood of 1878 it was 
partially washed away. The Government then erected the 
present bridge, which was built on cylinder piles. 

From 1858 to 1861. as settlement increased, many 
changes took place. John Barr sold out of the Ferry 
House to Thomas and Woods, and afterwards opened a 
store where the Import Stores are now. he himself going 
to reside at Te Houka on a farm which he had purchased 
from one Thomas Martin. In 1859 a sale of cattle took 
place at Balclutha the first event of any importance. 
The stock, tifty head, belonged to Willcher, and had been 
grazing on Archibald's run at Clydevale. They were put 
in a stockyard, where John Dunne's house now stands, and 
there they were disposed of by Mr. Reynolds. Of the 
values obtained little information can be gleaned, but it 
is said that some of the cows brought 25 each. In 1861 
another big auction sale took place. Mr. R. B. Martin being 
the auctioneer. 

In 1861, James Rattray began business as a black- 
smith, the first in Balclutha. His shop was where 
McKwau's shop is now, but at first trade was dull. Some 
little time afterwards it rose by leaps and bounds till, 
during the diggings, Rattray was kept working day and 
night. A set of horse shoes cost 25/-, and other work was 
in proportion. 

126 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

After the diggings, in 1861 and 1862, new settlers 
arrived Tuck, Battrieks. W. Ford, J. Melrose, W. Hope, 
J. Sharp, George Bain. Crawfords, and Ludlow being 
amongst the first. Peter Mason arrived shortly after- 
wards, while Jack Finn, one of the first boatmen on the 
river, also settled there. No doubt there were others, but 
the absence of reliable information makes it difficult to 
enumerate these. 

John MacKewan was the first baker in the town, and 
he was followed by John Algie. MacKewan 's residence 
was known as Jock's Lodge, and was a favourite resort. 
MacKewan was the first photographer in the Clutha. Dr. 
Garland was the first medical man, but he remained only 
a very short time. A year or two after the diggings broke 
out Dr. Gibson Smith settled in the town, and resided 
there till his death. He was a man of wonderful per- 
sonality, a great sportsman, a splendid judge of a horse, 
and, above all, a great and good physician. He was de- 
servedly popular, his name being almost a household word 
throughout the Clutha District. No matter at what hour 
he was sent for he would at once leave to attend rich and 
poor alike. He had two grand horses, "Sovereign" and 
"Jacob," it being on one of these that Sir George Grey 
rode when making his tour of the district in 1867. 

A good story is told aboiit the doctor's man, 
McAuliffe, who was a bit of a character. One night he 
had been indulging a bit. and as he rubbed "Jacob" down 
was heard soliloquising thus: "I am a fool, and I know it. 
and, 'Jacob,' you are a fool, and know it; but your master 
is a - fool and does not know it." In 1869 Dr. Smith 
married a Miss Williams, a friend of the Maitlands at The 
Crescent, near Stirling. 

Mr. Robert Grigor, who arrived at Inch Clutha in 
1858, and who was licensed as a surveyor in 1861. was the 
first surveyor in the Clutha. In 1862 and 1863 he surveyed 
the rural land up the river from Greenfield to beyond 
Tuapeka Mouth. He then surveyed the Ferry Reserve 
into quarter-acre sections, a sale of which boomed the 
place for a time, the upset price being 12 10/- each, some, 
however, going up at auction to as high as 50. Some 
time after this he started in business as a stock and station 
agent, but on the death of his partner he retired from it. 

In those early years sheep were a good price, ewos 
being 2, and wethers about 10/- each, but on the diggings 
breaking out wethers sold at 2 and 3. while ewes became 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 1-27 

cheaper. During the latter part of Grigor's time in busi- 
ness good ewes sold as low as 1/3 each, and thousands 
of mixed cattle at 30/- a head, calves thrown in. 

A Mr. Hawkins was the first butcher. If he went 
home later than usual he used to open the door, throw his 
hat in the room, and cry out: 'Ms it peace or war?" If 
the hat were thrown out, he knew it was war; and, vice 
versa, when he would enter. 

Tom Latta. an Australian, had a brewery in the town. 
Facing the main street, he had built an open shed in which 
he left his beer. If anyone wanted beer, he could take a 
bucket and have it filled for a shilling. If Latta was not 
present, people just helped themselves, leaving the shilling 
on the cask. When the street was being gravelled there 
were about a dozen drays at the job, and every time they 
passed the drivers had a drink. Towards the end of the 
day they were incapable of much work. In 1863 the old 
Crown Hotel was built for the Battrick Bros., the car- 
penters being A. Henderson. W. Nicol, James Dunnett, 
and J. Sinclair. A year or two afterwards the Newmar- 
ket Hotel was built for R. Smith by Craig & Gillies, of 

The Bank of Otago was the first institution of the 
kind in the place. It was opened by a Mr. Dalgleish, and 
afterwards managed by a Mr. Christie. Gradually the 
town increased in size and population. A church and 
school were erected, but these matters are dealt with else- 
where. Up the river, on the north side, were settled 
Messrs. R. Paterson and R. Moir, while towards Te Houka 
Hunter and Harvie had a farm at the upper end of Bal- 
clntha Flat, and Duncan and Robert McNeil were settled 
about a mile up the river. In about 1865 John Low, who 
arrived in the ship "Nelson/' 1802, started business as a 
saddler in the town. 

Thomas Martin, who had bought a farm from Edwin 
Meredith, was the first settler in Te Houka. He sold to 
John Barr. as previously mentioned, and in 1860 Robert 
Robson settled at White Lea. Robson was noted for his 
Lincolns. his merinos, and his thoroughbred horses, win- 
ning many prizes. He secured the highest prize for grains 
ever offered in New Zealand, 30 and a gold medal, for 
best 500 bushels of malting barley. In 1863 William 
Dallas bought land in Te Houka. 300 acres costing 1 an 
acre. The timber for his house cost 1 per 100ft. at the 
Glen Sawmills, and a further 15/- per 100ft. for carting 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

1851 "Chirti." 

1851 "Clara." 

MR. JOHN Ross 
1851 "Clam." 

1852 "Maori." 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 129 

it to Te Houka. The bricks for a chimney came from 
Tokomairiro. arid when completed the chimney cost 40. 
Later on. Messrs. Wilson, Duncan McNeil, the Moffats, 
Houlistons, and a few others settled in the district. 

James Wilson arrived in Otago in 1860 by the ship 
"Bosworth." On arrival he leased a one-roomed house 
in the North-East Valley at 10/- a week. His first work 
was harvesting for a man named Hastie at 6/- a day and 
found. He was then employed at East Taieri for about 
twelve months, when he shifted to Tokomairiro. where 
his wages were 60 a year. When the diggings broke out 
he went to Gabriels, where he was pretty successful. He 
then bought a team and began carting, paying 100 for 
one horse and 90 for another. Flour was 20 a ton, the 
cartage to the diggings costing at first 50 a ton, but 
afterwards dropping to 20. Oats cost 15/- a bushel, and 
bran 15/- a bag. After settling at Te Houka, Wilson took 
an active part in public affairs and church matters, being 
a member of the Clutha Koad Board and a deacon in the 
Balclutha Church during the incumbency of Mr. Morice. 

The Houlistons arrived in 1860, and along with the 
Moffats took up land in 1863. Adam Houliston brought 
the Moffats from the Taieri in a bullock dray as far as 
Milburn. where they were snowed up for three days. 
They had to engage a three-horse team to assist to bring 
them to the Clutha. After settling down, Adam and his 
brother started sod fencing for the neighbours, the price 
at first being 21 /- a chain, but it soon came down to 16/-. 
He then followed the threshing mill and continued this 
occupation for thirty-two years, after which he took up a 
section at Kakapuaka. The price for the first steam 
threshing in Te Houka was 1 per 100 bushels, or 5 a day. 
but in Houliston 's time the highest charge was 14/- per 
100 bushels. Mr. Houliston, sen., was a member of the 
Te Houka Road Board and a deacon in the Balclutha Pres- 
byterian Church. The Te Houka Road Board district 
extended from Balclutha to the Waiwera stream, the mem- 
bers of the first Board being: Messrs. Robson (chairman), 
Telford. McNeil, James Wilson, and William Dallas 
(clerk). Some years later the Ashley Downs Board was 
joined to Te Houka. and the combined districts were 
worked under the name of Te Houka and Ashley Downs 

In 1858 the run holders up the river on the north side 
were: Archibald Anderson, from Balclutha North to 

130 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Stoney Creek; Pillans, at Manuka Island; Maitland. at 
Pukepito; George and William Shand, at Greenfield; 
across the Tuapeka River were George Shand at Evans 
Flat, Bowler and Davie, while James Smith held ground 
about Gabriel's Gully, where Musgrave and Murray also 
had a run; then at Waitahuna, Mr. Cargill, of Dunedin, 
had a run. In 1863 the Government had three surveyors 
out, being under the impression that, if the runs were 
cut up, the diggers would settle thereon, and in about 
eighteen months some 60,000 acres were surveyed. When 
the auction sales came on the miner was outbid by the 
moneyed man, and so things remained as they were. 

In giving the details of the settlement of South Glut ha. 
or the South Molyneux, as it was generally called, it may 
be as well to state that three divisions will be made, the 
first extending from the old Jetty Shed at the Port Moly- 
neux township to Hilly Park, on the right hand side of 
the Port Road ; the second from the mouth of the river up 
the river bank district; and the third from about Hilly 
Park past and including the Awakiki Bush to the Puerua 
stream. The land had been first surveyed from Port 
Molyneux up as far as Pomahaka, the base line running up 
past Puerua behind Willowmeade, then down to the 
stream and up Steep Hill, all land being mapped out from 
this line, but for convenience sake the sub-divisions will 
be made as stated. A number of selections had been made 
in the Home Country in 1847 by intending settlers, and 
these will be given. In many cases selections were made, 
but the original selectors did not settle in the different 
districts, in others the original settlers are unknown, so 
it has been thought advisable to give in some instances 
the original selectors, and in others the original settlers 
where known. 

The only communication with Dunedin was by open 
boats, which landed settlers and goods at Willcher Bay, 
but records are not available from which to obtain the 
names of passengers. Custom-house documents, as well 
as those of the shipping agents, have long ago disappeared, 
and the newspapers are scant in information. The only en- 
tries found are in 1849. February 18: "Cutter, 'Catherine 
Johnston,' 10 tons, Armstrong, for the Molyneux. Pas- 
sengers: Mr. Ramage, Mrs. Hastie, and Mrs. Shepherd." 
Same day : ' ' Cutter, ' Mercury. ' Passengers : Mr. Chalmers 
and others." In the advertisement announcing her 
sailing, the agents state: "The fine fast sailing cutter, 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 131 

'Catherine Johnston,' 20 tons burden, has room for a few 
passengers and goods." On March 3rd the following 
entry appears: "Cutters, 'Catherine Johnston' and 'Mer- 
cury.' for the Molyneux. Passengers: Messrs. Fuller, 
Redpath. &." In March, 1849, George Hay, with his 
wife and family, the Chalmers, and some others, came to 
Molyneux in the "Jumping Jackass," Captain Teraki, 
with a Maori crew. This boat was clinker built, no nails, 
but just made with hoops for binding. The "Rhadaman- 
thus, '' another small craft, brought Redpath and others. 
The Hays were welcomed by the Maori Princess, Makariri, 
who plunged into the water and carried John Hay, then a 
baby, to the shore. Then they lived in a tent for some 
time, but shifted to where Dunn's place is at what is now 
Romahapa, where they stayed for about six months, then 
went back to the beach for three or four years. 

During their residence there, Mr. Hay and his son 
William cleared an acre of ground on the left side of the 
Kororo Creek, planting two crops of potatoes and one of 
wheat. Looking at the place now. one would think that 
it was all virgin bush. When new settlers arrived fires 
were lit on the hills at Coal Point, and when these were 
seen the Maoris or other settlers would set off to bring the 
new arrivals across the river, and soon all would be sitting 
round regaling themselves with potatoes and fish. In 
about the year 3853, George Hay purchased Fuller's pro- 
perty at Hilly Park, then called Addington, but more of 
this anon. 

The first selections about Port Molyneux were made 
in the Home Country in 1847, and were as follow: John 
Brown and others selected 50 acres, where the Presby- 
terian Church now stands, and which now belong to the 
Presbyterian Church Board of Property: Rev. John 
McDermid, also 50 acres, afterwards owned by George 
Balloch. and now by W. Carrick ; Wm. H. Cutten, another 
50 acres, lying south from the old Jetty Shed, and now 
owned by James Paterson ; David Garrick. 50 acres, lying 
between Kaka Point and the Pilot Station, now owned by 
E. McGregor and the Trustees of Jenkinson's Estate, and 
leased to J. Tilson; Charles Smith and William Mosley, 
50 acres each near Kaka Point; while Andrew Mercer 
selected 50 acres adjoining the site of the old Alexandra 
Hotel, and fronting the Molyneux River, now owned b. v 
Shiels Bros. 

132 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

When Mosley arrived in 1852, he lived in a four- 
roomed cottage, which had been built by one Burrell. who 
is said to have owned a 25-acre section some time before. 
Burrell was a retired Indian Civil Service man, and a 
confirmed opium smoker. He had brought a good supply 
of opium with him, but when it was exhausted he left, as 
he said he could not live where there was no opium to be 
had. Mosley afterwards shifted to Inch Clutha, and his 
property now belongs to the Bates family. In 1848 W. B. 
and A. D. Fuller made their selection of land near what 
is now Romahapa, the place being now called Hilly Park, 
which, as stated, was purchased by George Hay, and is 
now the property of William Hay. The Fullers and Alex. 
Chalmers returned to Port Chalmers, where they pur- 
chased cattle from one McClymont, and started off down 
to their new homes, which they ultimately safely reached. 

The Fullers were thus almost the first to have stock 
in South Clutha. After building a house they set to work, 
doing the hundred and one necessary things which all who 
started as they did have to do. Winter provisions were 
an absolute necessity, and for this purpose they went out 
pig hunting. They soon secured a good supply of pork, 
but getting it to the house was another question and 
entailed more trouble than the killing, every bit of meat 
having to be carried through very rough country on their 
shoulders. On another occasion, when they were out 
hunting, their house was burnt, blankets, food, clothing, 
all being destroyed. They also lost a sum of money. Some 
time afterwards. Mrs. Hay, raking among the ashes, found 
a sovereign. 

George and William Hay and Peter Ayson cut the 
Fullers' first wheat crop, which was stacked in a shed 
where Meredith had his sheep shorn. Afterwards the 
McNeil Brothers threshed it with flails, the three men 
working on the board together. The Fullers afterwards 
owned Popotunoa Run and Pomahaka, the country at the 
latter place being named by them the Burning Plain, no 
doubt from the fact that there was a hole of burning 
lignite on the property. This fire had been burning long 
before the Europeans came, and the Maoris had christened 
the place "Tapu-Whenua" (sacred ground). 

In 1849 James Smith selected fifty acres at what is 
now the Cloan Estate, owned by Shiels Bros. In 1851 
Edward Cockshutt took up a selection which was pur- 
chased by James Brugh. who, in September. 1856, made 

of Dnnedin and South Otago. 133 

his first selection of land, although he had been in the 
district some years earlier. In 1859 Brugh made further 
selections, and still later further increased his holdings, 
all of which are included in the Cloan Estate. Other 
selectors in 1856 were R. L. Begg and George Hay. 
Begg's first selections amounted to seventy- five acres, but 
in 1858 and 1859 he took up other seventy-five acres. In 
1860 he leased part of his land to Andrew Lees, who ulti- 
mately shifted to the Owaka District. Begg's property 
passed into the hands of Messrs. Tilson and James Pater- 
son, each securing a part. Hay's selection now forms 
part of the Hilly Park Estate. In 1857 George Willcher 
took up fifty acres, now owned by Shiels Bros., and in 
1858 Mrs. Janet Dalziel selected twenty-five acres, part of 
which is now owned by James Tait and part by William 
Hay. In the same year Robt. Carrick took up seventy-five 
acres, now owned partly by James Paterson and leased 
to A. Mitchell, and partly by D. Tilson. In 1860 Thomas 
Russell took up a section lying a good bit south from the 
old Jetty Shed, and next to the Domain, while W. Win- 
thrup and James Paterson made a selection near the same 
quarter. These sections are now owned by D. Tilson and 
James Paterson, the latter also owning the section taken 
up by James Thomson in January, 1860. 

In March, 1860, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Tilson settled 
on the property now owned by Alex. Tilson. For some 
years they experienced a good deal of rough life. Their 
first house was a rough whare, made of posts, the battens 
being tied with flax and roofed with thatch. On one 
occasion, during a gale, it was blown down. Their land 
cost 10/- an acre, and for a considerable time all the cul- 
tivation was done with the grub hoe and spade. All the 
cooking utensils they had at first were a kettle and a 
saucepan. Their first cows cost 20 each, and were very 
poor specimens. The first butter Mrs. Tilson made was 
churned in a bottle. For company at night they had a 
little black pig. which camped in the outside corner of 
the chimney. While sitting sewing Mrs. Tilson often 
spoke to it. and "Grumph, grumph," was its reply. On 
several occasions they were hard put to it for food. Once 
they ran out of matches and had no fire all day until 
evening, when two Maoris visited them and lit a fire by 
rubbing two sticks together, so for a change they had 
their breakfast at. night. 

134 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

During 1860 James Shiels took up 100 acres, lying 
south-east of Hilly Park. In 1861 he paid a visit to the 
district to see his property, but did not settle on it until 
1864, when, in company with James Paterson and James 
Tait, he hired two drays to bring his family from Dunedin. 
For some time Shiels lived in a house belonging to one 
Doig, but soon set to work to get his own built. The 
timber was taken from his own bush and sawn by John 
Tuck, the cost being 2 per 100ft. ; the roofing iron cost 
40 a ton in Dunedin, while the cartage cost 30/- a ton ; 
dressed flooring boards cost 2 a 100ft. Provisions were 
dear sugar costing 7d. a pound, and it was pretty black 
and sandy at that; tea was 4/- a pound, treacle 6d., butter 
2/6, eggs 2/6 a dozen, and bread ]/- a l a 'f- A woman, a 
new arrival, was so horrified at the high prices that she 
exclaimed to the storeman that she could get them for 
half the price at Home. The storeman turned round pretty 
sharply and said: "Well, ye had better gang Hame and 
get them." Shiels was clerk to the Road Board formed 
in later days. Major Richardson being chairman. On one 
occasion the Major was late for the meeting, when he 
excused himself by saying that the day before he had 
engaged a sailor to work about the place, and, as he was 
going out, he had told him to kill a sheep. The sailor 
killed the biggest sheep he could see, and when he, i.e., 
the Major, returned, he found that the man had killed 
one of his best rams which had cost 10, and the best of 
it was, he concluded, "We couldn't eat it."' 

In February, 1861, James Tait made a selection, now 
held by James Tait, jun., while in the same year Robert 
Crawford, H. F. Begg, and William Logan made their 
selections. Crawford's is now owned by Alex. Tilson, 
Begg's by James Shiels, and Logan's by one Charles King, 
of Dunedin. On March 18th, 1861, William Stewart took 
up two sections of twenty-five acres each, one of which 
he still retains. He disposed of the second to a W. Curran 
for a horse. Unfortunately for Stewart, the horse died, 
so he had nothing for his section. Towards the end of 
this year Samuel Begg selected 225 acres, all' of which now 
belong to James Paterson, who has let to Adam Paterson, 
who again has sub-let to A. T. Mitchell. 

In the early part of 1862 Alexander Gumming and 
James Baird took up land, now owned by James Paterson, 
while about the same time A. C. Begg selected a portion, 
now occupied by A. Wylie. and John McEvoy took up a 

of Ditnedin and South Otago. 135 

section now owned by Charles King. In the middle of the 
year James Porteous took up two 25-aere sections, now 
owned by P. G. Wright, and in 1868 took up other sections 
totalling 100 acres, part of which is owned by P. G. Wright 
and part by Joseph W. Hammond. Wright also owns a 
section taken up by H. Livingstone. In December, 1862, 
James Scott selected fifty acres, now OAvned by John 
Me Master, of Saddle Hill." 

From the mouth of the river, up the river bank, the 
selections were few, embracing those of Messrs. W. Hope. 
D. McKay, Hislop, Wm. Wilson, D Dunlop, W. Colville. 
Hugh Black, Hodge Bros., K. McKinlay, and A. Melville. 
Hislop, Wilson, and Colville selected in 1861, and their 
properties now form part of the Otanomomo Estate, while 
Dunlop 's place was recently occupied by James Stevens, 
who sold to Aitkenhead. Black and Melville also selected 
in 1861, but Black afterwards disposed of his interests to 
Melville. w r ho also purchased McKinley's selection of 1862. 
Of the Hodge Bros., no certain dates can be given, but 
their property is now part of Otanomomo. Both brothers 
w r ere killed in the great explosion which took place in 
1879 in the Kaitangata Coal Mine. In 1860 W. Hope and 
D. McKay made selection of what is now the property of 
Benjamin and Matthew Taylor. Part of Waitutu. lying 
north-west from the township at Port, and extending 
along the Puerua stream for a considerable distance, was 
first taken up by J. B. Clarke in 1856. Clarke disposed 
of his interest to Lewis, who was the first to mine coal at 
Coal Point. Lewis sold out to George Scott, and Waitutu 
is now owned by Barker, who has leased it to one Cowie. 
McAndrew & Co. had a section of twenty-five acres in 
this quarter, and it also forms part of the estate. 

Coming up the district to what is now Romahapa. we 
find that in 1848 the Chalmers Bros, selected land at 
Awakiki Bush, taking up fifty acres at the east end. This 
selection must have been made in the Home Country, as 
the brothers did not arrive in Otago until January. 1849. 
shortly afterwards settling down on their selection. Two 
small hills in the neighbourhood were called by Nat. 
Chalmers "Concentration" and "Contiguity." Captain 
Cargill always objected to the early pioneers taking up 
land far from headquarters, so when ho heard that the 
Chalmers and others were going to South Molyneux h^ 
said : "Nonsense ! Church and market, concentration and 
contiguity; settle on the tens." Chalmers was so tickled 

136 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

with the idea that he named the two hills thus. The brothers 
afterwards purchased part of the Moa Hill Estate. Kai- 
hiku, which they sold to Meredith. They also took up the 
Moa Flat Station, in the Tapanui District. Their selection 
in Awakiki is now owned by David Dunn's family. In 
1849 J. H. Stirling and R. Craig made selections in the 
bush, the former's place being now in the hands of Miss 
Spiers, the latter 's in those of Irving Dent. Stirling did 
some clearing, but did not remain long on his land, shifting 
to the beach, where he built a house about half-way 
between Erlstoke and Kororo Creek. In February. 1850, 
Wallace took up a farm which was afterwards owned by 
James Johnston, and now by Lefevre. In the same year 
the Archibalds, Thomas. Alexander, and Andrew, settled 
in the same quarter. They afterwards shifted to Clyde- 
vale, and their property at Awakiki passed into other 
hands, being now owned by Lefevre. It may be stated 
that Andrew Archibald died at Cheviot House, and is 
buried at Puerua. During the same year Alex. Swan 
took up part of the Cheviot House Estate, but did not 
settle on it. It is said that Andrew McNeil bought 
Wallace's place in 1851, but whether he did so or only 
squatted in the bush is uncertain. 

In 1851 Andrew Mercer settled in the district, and 
from records supplied from the Land Board, 1858 is the 
date given when he took up part of the Cheviot House 
Estate. In 1854 there were only five families settled in 
South Clutha Messrs. Hay. Brugh. Willcher, Archibalds, 
and Mercer. Mr. Robert Mercer gives the following par- 
ticulars of Andrew Mercer: "Andrew Mercer was a 
native of Dunfermline. Scotland, and arrived in Otago in 
1848 by the 'Philip Laing.' Before leaving Scotland he 
had entered into partnership with George Ross, and they 
bought orders of choice of land under the existing Land 
Regulations. Mr. Mercer was married in Dunedin on the 
31st December, 1849, by the Rev. Thomas Burns, to Jessie 
Munro, who arrived in the ship 'Mariner' in 1849. On 
retiring from business in Dunedin he removed to his selec- 
tion of rural land at South Molyneux, making the journey 
overland on foot, his wife, child, and sister, together with 
stores, being sent round to Molyneux in an open boat in 
charge of Antonio Joseph. 

The sea voyage was a memorable one, being tedious 
and fraught with danger. The two ladies were badly 
bitten by the sandflies, the child, Robert Mercer, of 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 137 

Dimedin South, also having his face and hands all swollen 
with the bites. For over a week the ladies put up with 
the terrible discomforts, but at the end of that time they 
besought Mr. Joseph to land them. This he did near the 
Kuri Bush, and no inducement could prevail on them to 
continue the journey by sea. In speaking of this journey 
in after years, Mrs. Mercer often referred in grateful 
terms to the great kindness shown to them by Edmund 
Smith, who resided in the Kuri Bush District. After a 
short stay to recruit, the ladies performed the rest of the 
journey on foot. With neither roads nor bridges they 
found it a terrible undertaking, and it was no wonder that 
Joseph reached the Molyneux fully a week before them. 

Mr. Mercer's first home in the Awakiki Bush prov- 
ing unsuitable, he made a second one on a selection called 
Jessiefield. D. P. Steel took up the next section to it. and 
for some time they worked both sections together. 
Mercer was a carpenter by trade, and did a good deal of 
work building houses for new arrivals. It was said of 
him that he was a handy and very useful man in the 
district, assisting in church work, and fulfilling the duties 
of undertaker, beadle, deacon, elder, and precentor. In 
1854 he took up the census in South Otago. doing the work 
on foot. 

On 19th April, 1852, his eldest daughter, Annie, AVRS 
born, and up to the time the child was eight months old 
no opportunity occurred to enable the parents to have her 
baptised. Mrs. Mercer resolved to wait no longer, but set 
oft' to walk to Dunedin. carrying her child in her arms. 
After she had completed the first day's journey heavy 
rains came on and all the streams were Hooded. While 
crossing one of these she and her child were nearly 
drowned, but kind Providence protected them. and. after 
a weary and trying three days' journey, they arrived in 
Dunedin. where Dr. Burns christened the baby. The 
return trip was made also on foot, but under somewhat 
better conditions. 

This child, Annie, nearly lost her life on two other 
occasions, the first happening at Awakiki Bush, when wild 
pigs attacked her; the second at Jessiefield, when a mad- 
man nearly strangled her, it taking the parents all their 
time to pull him off the child. This madman was one of 
the first to go to the lunatic asylum in Dunedin, where he 
remained for over fifty years. Others of the family born 
in the district were Hector, now in business in Dunedin. 
and Alexander, now a commercial traveller. 

138 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Mrs. Mercer was an ideal colonist. She underwent 
the trying circumstances of a life totally different to what 
she had been accustomed, without a murmur, putting a 
stout shoulder to a "stae brae," and proving herself in 
every way a meet help to her husband in all the labours 
incident to settling in a new land. She was as a mother to 
the newcomers, lodging them on arrival, encouraging them 
by her cheering words, tending them in sickness, and in 
every possible way showing a friendliness and readiness 
to help that endeared her to all. She was of a most 
charitable disposition, and there are many in Otago who 
have profited by her counsel and assistance. About 1859 
the whole family returned to Dunedin, the farm having 
been sold to D. P. Steel, while the stock was driven by 
A. Petrie to the Clutha Ferry, where it was sold at 
auction by R. B. Martin. The trip to Dunediu took three 
days, the party being taken in two carts driven by James 
Mclntosh and Sam Barnes. 

In 1857 John Shields took up a section in front of the 
Awakiki Bush, and in 1859 took up another lying near. 
Both of these are now held, partly by Robert Shields and 
partly by William Paterson. Part of the Cheviot House 
Estate was taken up in 1857 and 1858 by D. P. Steel, who 
also bought Mercer's property, and in 1859 took up part 
of Underwood. Cheviot House ultimately passed through 
several hands, Thomas Ord buying Steel out and also in 
1861 taking up a section in his own behalf. He then sold 
to Simpson, who again sold to the present occupier, Gillies 

Underwood was sold to Morton & Sons, and is now 
owned by W. and A. Morton. Andrew Shields, and Weir. 
D. P. Steel was a member of the Provincial Council of 
1860. He was not so well adapted for political life as his 
colleague, Sir John Richardson, and did not speak much 
in public, but on committees his services were invaluable. 
In private life he was much appreciated. He was very 
highly respected and much missed by his Clutha friends 
when he left to make his home in Victoria, where he died 
a few years ago. 

In 1859 a goodly number of selections were made, the 
records giving James Johnston, at the east end of the 
Awakiki Bush, now owned by Lefevre; Peter Dunn, owned 
by Miss Spiers; Alex. Mutch, whose property was after- 
wards purchased by C. H. Sterndale and then by Irving 
Dent ; David Dunn, in the open land clear of the bush, now 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 139 

in possession of the Dunn family ; W. R. Perkins, who took 
up part of the Cheetwood Estate ; Robert Christie, now in 
the occupation of R. S. McKenzie; John Dunn, and W. 
France. Dunn's place passed into the hands of James 
Johnston, and belongs to Lefevre, while France's property 
belongs to McVicar. 

Robert Christie came to South Clutha in 1854. and 
was present at the first church service held by Dr. Ban- 
nerman. He was employed for some time by James Brugh 
and Thomas Redpath, then he settled in the Awakiki Bush 
at Puerua, buying the third part of a 50-acre section from 
Mr. Strode, the Administrator, at 3 an acre, but through 
something illegal the Government bought it back at 2 
an acre. He then bought seventy-five acres at 10/- an 
acre. Every season for thirty years he went shearing, 
and had the pleasure of giving some old identities their 
first lesson in that art. Robert Grigor, Nat. Chalmers, 
Judge Gillies, and G. W. Hutchins being amongst the 
number. Christie was the first postmaster at Puerua. his 
successors being Thomas Stark, W. Wilson, T. Wilson, and 
W. Paterson. the last of w r hom now occupies the position. 

The Dunn family were natives of Perthshire, Scot- 
land, all the members arriving in Otago during the 
'fifties. David Dunn was a passenger by the "Rajah"' 
in 1853; James, Peter, and Janet arrived by the "Sir 
Edward Paget" in 1856; and John, with his wife, mother, 
and youngest brother, George, by the " Strathfieldsaye " 
in 1858. James was a shoemaker by trade, and shortly 
after his arrival in South Clutha started in business. lie 
was the first bootmaker in the South Clutha District. He 
often tanned his own leather, using birch bark for the 
purpose. For lime, he collected shells at Port Molyneux 
and burnt them in a small kiln which he built near his resi- 
dence. Many a time he walked to Dunedin for material, 
which he carried home rather than depend on the schooners, 
which were very uncertain in their arrivals. Peter Dunn 
was an active member of the South Molyneux Road Board, 
and. like many other early settlers, threw himself with 
heart and soul into any work that was for the advance- 
ment of the district. 

France was a very handy man. He built the lirst 
lock-up in Dunedin. and often said he ^vas the first man 
to be locked up in it. He often told the story with great 
gusto, as if he were pleased with such an honour. Finding 
him one day blowing away with a pair of bellows at what 

140 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

he thought was a fire in order to fry a steak, although 
there was no sign of fire, Mr. Mercer brought him to South 
Clutha, where he started a smithy in the bush. 

In I860 Daniel McEwan took up a selection in front 
of Hilly Park, at what is now Romahapa, and owned by 
W. Watt and others, while in the same year Alexander 
Anderson, G. S.. Brodrick, and Alexander Johnston made 
selections, partly in the same quarter and partly between 
the Awakiki Bush and the Main Port Road. Anderson's 
selection is now in the hands of A. Anderson, lately store- 
keeper at Romahapa, while Brodrick's and Johnston's are 
held by R. S. McKenzie. 

In 1856 A. S. Begg came to South Molyneux in the 
schooner "Star," Captain Blackie, who had with him as 
first mate Charles Hay ward, late of Catlins River. Mr. 
Begg stopped for a short time with James Brugh, until 
he settled at the Glen. He was not long in the colony 
when he sent Home for a sawmill and flourmill plant. The 
flourmill was the first in the South Clutha district, and 
the sawmill the first south of Mosgiel. During the course 
of erection the Gabriel's Gully diggings broke out. and 
the men struck work and went off to the diggings. 
During their absence Mr. Begg went to Dunedin, where 
he purchased a bullock dray, and shipped it to Port Moly- 
neux. This was the first wheeled vehicle in the Glen. 
The sawmill was a primitive affair; there was no big 
breaking-down bench, the logs being split into pieces 
which could be put through the breast bench. The mill 
was driven by a 16ft. over-shot wheel, afterwards sold to 
Mr. Gilroy, of Stirling, and now owned by Mr. Smith, of 
Greenfield. The Alexandra Hotel at Port Molyneux was 
built of timber cut at this mill, and part of the furniture 
was made at the mill by one John Inglis. The prices for 
timber were 20/- per 100ft., the hand sawyers getting 25/- 
per 100ft. 

The first Hour millers employed by Begg were D. and 
P. McVicar. and a man named Jimmie. On one occasion, 
when returning from his work in the dark, Jimmie lost 
liis way. He was missing for a week, when a Mr. Suther- 
land found him in an old hut in a dying condition, but 
by good nursing his life was saved. The Beggs had been 
passing the hut every day. .but had never thought of 
looking in it, as they believed he had left the district. 
One year there was a splendid crop of wheat, and, as there 
was no sale locally for the flour. George Begg was sent 

of Dunedin and South Otago. Ml 

with a load of 30cwt. in the middle of winter to Tapaiiui 
to try to sell it. When he reached the Pomahaka River 
it was in flood. Near by was an old stockyard, so he 
hitched two bullocks to some of the posts, pulled them out, 
and used them as a stage on the dray to keep the flour 
above the water. The trip took two weeks, but the flour 
was all well sold. Mr. Begg afterwards had two teams 
carting to Miller's Flat, the carting being done in winter 
and spring. He also started flax-milling in the Glen Dis- 
trict, and here it may be said that the first flax-mill in 
the Clutha was in the neighbourhood of Coal Point, 
worked by one Mansford. The next was at Port Moly- 
neux. the building having been brought from up the river, 
where it had been used as a grain shed. The engine was 
brought from Dunedin by sea in the "Taiaroa, " and was 
pulled into the mill by the schoolboys and men who hap- 
pened to be about when it arrived. En those days the flax 
was put into tanks of hot water, but this mode of dealing 
with it was not a success. This mill was started by Capt. 
Murray, who had first tried milling the flax on board the 
"Tuapeka." It was then run by Murray and Miller, and 
afterwards by Wyllie, Balloch & Co. Cousins and Tosh 
then started a flax-mill at Balclutha, but when Begg made 
up his mind to start at the Glen they sold him the 
machinery. The price of dressed fibre was 28 per ton. 
but it had often to be sold for from 32 to 14 in Dunedin. 
Some of the farmers were paid a royalty of 2/6 per ton 
for the green flax, while others gave it free, being glad 
to get rid of it. Later on Miller and Brugh started a mill 
at Barratta Creek, and here a man named Ironside had the 
misfortune to lose one of his arms, which was caught in a 
cog wheel. 

Coming again to the settlement, we find that in 1861 
"Wm. Mclnnes took up part of the old Lansdowne Estate, 
other parts being taken up in 1862 by James Porteous. and 
in 1863 by Donald Henderson. Lansdowne has now been 
cut up and is in the hands of various holders. Other 
selectors in 1861 were James Dunn, north of Hilly Park ; 
James McEwan and Robert Chalmers, near the Puerua 
stream. McEwan 's property near Romahapa is now 
owned by Kilgour & Sons, while Chalmers' is owned by 
John Shields. In 1862 William Stewart took up what is 
now McVicar's, Duncan McLennan selected what is now 
Lefevre's, and Robert Banks took part of the Cheetwood 
Estate, while John Johnston took up a farm on the right 

142 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

hand side of the main road, now owned by Mrs. Johnston. 
George Dunn also made a selection, now owned by Miss 
Spiers, while John Colvin had a section, now divided 
between Mrs. Johnston and R. S. McKenzie. 

Nearer the Puerua stream, in 1849, C. Brotherston 
and May Taylor made a selection of part of the Willow- 
meade Estate, while William Perkins took up part of 
Cheetwood. In 1858 Dr. Thomas Burns and Edward 
McGlashan secured the property on which the Puerua 
Manse now stands, and in September of the same year 
J. H. Perkins took up a section, adjoining a selection made 
in 1857 near the Puerua Bridge, and now owned by W. 
Murdoch. In 1857, 1858, and 1859, Sir John L. C. 
Richardson took up a large part of the Willowmeade 
Estate, most of which is now owned by James Lamoiid. 
200 acres being owned by Mrs. Dent. 

Sir John Richardson arrived in Otago in 1856, in tho 
"Strathmore." He had paid New Zealand a running visit 
some years before, and was then so highly pleased with the 
country that he determined to return to it. As stated, he 
took up land at Willowmeade, and this was his home till 
his death in 1878. In 1860 he was elected to the Provin- 
cial Council, representing Clutha along with D. P. Steel. 
He was chosen Speaker of the Council, and in 1861 
received the honour of being elected Superintendent of 
Otago, when he successfully organised the police and other 
departments, which developed during the sudden gold 
influx. He afterwards represented Dunedin in the House 
of Representatives, and later was nominated Speaker in 
the Legislative Council. He thoroughly identified himself 
with the settler's life, and was ever ready to help others, 
especially the new arrivals. Once he received a visit from 
Governor Sir George Grey, who Avas touring Otago. Sir 
John was a man of some literary attainments, and a fre- 
quent contributor to the Press. He was of noble disposi- 
tion and a most enlightened friend of education ; foremost 
in philanthropic movements, and was revered and 
honoured by people of every degree, having every quality 
that endears man to his fellow men. 

In 1861, behind Willowmeade. William Cadzean took 
up the land now owned by Mrs*. Dent, and about the same 
time J. Dobson made a selection in the same quarter; this 
is now in the possession of John Christie. Further up. 
Peter Hutton and Andrew Fleming made their selections. 
Hutton's being now owned by the Dent family, while 

of Dunedin and South Otago. H3 

Fleming's is owned by Mrs. Souness. In .1862, W. J. 
Murdoch increased his holding by taking up the land near 
the Puerua Bridge now held by William Murdoch. Other 
settlers about this time, or maybe a little later, were W. 
Whytock and A. Ledingham, Whytock's property being 
purchased by Messrs. Ledingham, Me Vicar, and D. Dunn. 
Not far from Ledingham 'sj A. Henderson had a section 
now occupied by one Magon. 

A very much later settler was Daniel McLaren, who, 
however, must be classed as an old identity, as he arrived 
in Otago in 1858. Shortly after landing, McLaren got a 
job carting stones from a quarry in Caversham. In 1860 
he worked for Major Croker at Meadowbank, Clarksville. 
and when the diggings broke out he set off for them. In 
1862 he went Home for a trip, returning in 1863 in the 
"Silistria. ? ' After some ups and downs he found his way 
to the Clutha, where he worked for Donald Boss at 
Wharepa, and afterwards for Somerville Bros., fencing 
and doing odd work. At this time wire fences were 
coming into vogue, the wire costing 23/- per cwt. After 
shifting to Puerua. McLaren was surfacman on the roads, 
and his account of patching the roads shows the peculiar 
method adopted. When the roads were repaired the men 
had to cut flax and tie it in bundles. They then put the 
bundles into the ruts and holes to help to carry up the 
drays ; when the roads got dry they had to take out all the 
bundles of flax and fill the holes with clay. The engineer 
would not allow the clay to be put on top of the flax. 

Previous to 1861 there is very little information to 
be had about Port Molyneux as a township. It was 
always spoken of as the Beach, as it was in the vicinity 
that the settlers' stores were landed, and it was not till 
roads were being made and a river steamer began to ply 
on the Clutha that the place commenced to advance. A 
church, used as a school, was built, stores were opened, 
and it seemed as if Port Molyneux would be quite a 
flourishing town. On December 5th, 1861, the Port was 
declared a Port of Entry, Edwin Rich being its first 
Collector of Customs. On March 7th. 1862, .Tames Pillans 
Maitland was gazetted as the Collector. The proclama- 
tion was cancelled in May, 1866, when a notice appeared 
that Port Molyneux was no longer a Port of Entry. 

The first general store was opened by A. C. Begg. 
near the mouth of the Puerua, and by 1864 there were two 
hotels, the Commercial, managed by R. McLay, and the 

144 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Alexandra, first by Evelyn Lockley, then by Aneell : 
three or four stores kept by A. C. Begg, R. L. 
Begg. Thomson and Mailer, and A. Gault : a 
baker, Aneell ; a shoemaker, C. Finlaysou ; a butcher, 
McKinlay; a paperhanger, John Palmer. There was 
a large number of various tradesmen, carpenters pre- 
dominating, and it is said that as many as twenty-two 
carpenters were kept busy building houses. The only 
brick house in the place was built by Frazer Bros., who 
leased it to Captain Murray, the bricklayer being one 
Binnie. his kiln being just in front of the place where the 
house was built. The first lighthouse keepers at the 
Nuggets were Cardigan and Cunningham; one Hoggart 
was pilot, his successor being John Burn, afterwards 
Custom-house Officer at Dunedin. The first blacksmith 
was D. Mclntosh. who still carries on his trade in the 
Ahuriri Valley. Among the carpenters were Walter 
Nicol, now of Kaihiku, A Henderson, late of Balclutha. R. 
Meikle, of Dunedin, and McKay and Fraser. The police 
were represented, first by Sergeant Cobden. then by Con- 
stables Bailey and Albert. 

During 1864 what might be termed a gold rush on a 
small scale took place, and in July of that year some 
seventeen miners were at work washing the black sand 
which had accumulated on the beach. Many were sup- 
posed to make some fifteen shillings a day, others from 
an ounce to an ounce and a half per week. It was believed 
that a lode of this particular sand might be discovered in 
the neighbourhood, and a party of miners went pros- 
pecting, but their explorations were a failure. It was 
subsequently supposed that the sand had been brought 
clown by the Clutha River, then thrown on the beach by 
the tide, and this supposition was ultimately proved to be 

For some months the Port boasted of a doctor, a Dr. 
Cowie. but the inhabitants refused to be ill, and the doctor 
was forced to shift to other quarters where they were 
more accommodating. Some of the business places fre- 
quently changed hands, and their numbers gradually 
became reduced. The Commercial and Alexandra Hotels 
were in turn purchased by John Hartley Jenkinson in 
1866, previous to which he had been storekeeping in Bal- 
clutha. Brown's store was bought by Brewer & Levison. 
then by James Paterson. and is now in the hands of Ada in 
Paterson. C. V. Brewer was the first Postmaster, then 

ol D lined in and South Otago. 145 

James Paterson. who held the office for over forty years. 

The cancelling of the Port as a Port of Entry, the 
withdrawal of the steamers, and other things combined 
to divert the trade, and after the great flood of 1878 the 
prospects of the town were ruined. Many people left, all 
the stores except Mr. Paterson 's were closed, and the place 
gradually sank to a mere shadow of its former self. But 
all this is almost present-day history, and is only repeated 
to show what vast changes may and do take place in a 
very few years in a young country settlements once 
thriving centres now hardl}" recognisable, others of later 
day llourishing commercial centres. 

The Glenomaru and Ahuriri Districts were not settled 
till well on in the 'sixties. Donald McDonald is said to 
be the first who settled in Ahuriri. He had been shep- 
herding for James Brugh for some years before taking 
up land, his wages being 60 a year, and rations for two 
children. In 1864 his eldest daughter was married to 
Walter Xicol, and is resident in Kaihiku District. Other 
settlers in Ahuriri were Henry Lattimore, William 
McLean. '\Y. Me Lay. and soon after them Lyndsay and John 
McColl Smith. The first church services in the district 
were held in 1866 in McLay's house. The first teacher was 
Thomas Roscoe, who was succeeded by a Mr. Quaerina. 
who was again succeeded by Win. McLelland, who was 
transferred to North-East Harbour, where he died. Mrs. 
( 1 arrick was then appointed to the school, being in turn 
succeeded by Miss Sherriff. Lately another school has 
been opened in Ahuriri Flat, the teacher being Miss 

rntil 1865 the Catlins District was practically un- 
known, at least so far as settlement is concerned. In that 
year Simon Saunders took up the first selection in Owaka. 
Saunders was a master mariner, and a native of Aberdeen. 
lit 1 came from Melbourne in 1861. and was not only the 
first to take up land in Owaka, but also the first to settle 
in the district. He took with him two men to build a 
house, one being a carpenter named Dixon. but they knew 
so little about timber that they split all ribbon wood trees 
for the timber. Saunders stayed for three years, when he 
went back to sea, but was never heard of again, the 
supposition being that his vessel had foundered with all 
hands. When he first went to the district in February. 
186"). he chartered a small vessel to take his men and 
chattels, and in Julv of the same vear he took his faniilv 

146 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

down in the ''Nora." Some time afterwards he took two 
horses overland by a blazed track past where the Owaka 
Jetty now is. 

Between his two trips, another settler, named George 
Harle, arrived in the district, and shortly afterwards John 
Smith took up a farm between w r hat is now Logan's and 
Mclntyre's. Other settlers were John Rae, W. Owens. 
Mclntyre, and Charles Hayward. The first sawmill in the 
district was started by McGlashan, and was the means of 
bringing a large addition to the population. The first 
school was put up by subscription, the first teacher briny 
a Mr. Thomson, who was succeeded by Mr. Hungerford. 
When a neM T school was erected, the teachers in order were 
M c-Andrew, Speed, and. after a long vacancy, Bryant, 
who was succeeded by the present teacher, Andrew 
Chesney. The first church service was held by Mr. Ban- 
nerman in John Rae's house. Owaka was the last of the 
out districts to be settled as a separate charge, the Rev. 
A. McLaren being the first placed minister. 

of Diinedin and South Otago. 147 



In 1850. Edwin Meredith, a Tasmaiiian. established a 
sheep station of 80.000 acres in South Molyneux. His 
homestead was near Otanomomo, on the south-east side of 
the Puerua stream. He had also some land in the Te 
Houka district, but did not retain it for any time, selling 
the freehold to Thomas Martin. He afterwards owned 
part of Moa Hill in Kaihiku. He grew very dissatisfied 
with the returns, so went back to Tasmania, leaving a Mr. 
Hobbs as manager. The sheep were shorn in 1850, being 
the first sheep shorn in the district ; one of the shearers 
was Thomas Hastie. still living in Oamaru. In 1853 
Meredith took up the Popotunoa Hun. No. 2-1, but held it 
only for a few months, when he disposed of it to Alfred 
P. Fuller, who occupied it until 1858. when he sold out to 
Henry and Frederick Clapcott. 

In 1852 John Shaw settled on the south bank of the 
Molyneux. calling the place Finegaucl. after his old home in 
the Highlands of Scotland. Besides the freehold, he shortly 
afterwards took up Run No. 72. extending to the Wharepa 
Bush. His first trip to Clutha was in company with 
Archibald Anderson and a man named Powell. In com- 
pany with Mr. Pillans. the party went all over South 
Molyneux, and Shaw took a fancy to Finegand. His first 
sheep Avert- bought for him from Hyde Harris, of the 
Taieri. by Mr. Anderson. 

Mr. Shaw and his sister were noted for their liberality 
and hospitality. If both had occasion to leave the home- 
stead together they invariably left a table spread for 
travellers, the early settlers 7 houses being more like 
Tsoarding-houses than anything else, their owners having 
so many calls on their hospitality. After his sister's death 
Mr. Shaw married a Miss Taylor, and had a family of two 
sons and two daughters. Miss Shaw deserves a special 
place in the History of Otago for the manner in which 

148 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

she did her life's work, cheering many by her example 
and loving counsel, but especially by her warm-hearted 
hospitality and untiring kindness. Her first house was a 
cabbage-tree one with a background of bush, a large 
lagoon on one side and the winding Molyneux on the 
other making the place almost an island. The garden was 
carefully laid out by Mr. Shaw, and tiowers and fruit 
grew abundantly in the fertile soil. Those who knew 
Miss Shaw will always hold her in loving remembrance. 
However many claimed her hospitality, all were welcome ; 
though the table was spread many times in the day. there 
was always a comfortable meal for the traveller, and rest 
and shelter provided kindly and generously. Many a 
time, when the house was full of visitors, she would give 
up her bed and make a shake-down for herself in the 

Boats were towed up the river as far as FinegamL 
where provisions and goods for other settlers were landed. 
They were then taken to their different destinations by 
bullock sledge, or across the river in Mr. Shaw's boat, 
for the convenience of the Island settlers. Large numbers 
of settlers in the surrounding districts were deeply in- 
debted for assistance to Mr. Shaw, whose advice nd aid 
were always willingly given. Mr. Shaw became famous 
as a sheep breeder, and his breed of sheep were known 
all over the province. He took up the run now known as 
Lochindorb. and held it till March, 1861. when he sold it 
to Thomas Ord. He also bought part of the Otanomomo 
SAvamp, down the centre of which he and Mr. Telford cut 
a large ditch to drain the property. Finegand is still 
owned by the Shaw family, but the greater part has been 
leased to John Dallas. 

In 1853. Peter Ayson. the first small farm settler in 
the Wharepa District, arrived in the Colony. Before- 
leaving the Home Country he had purchased the right 
to a property in Otago under the then existing land regula- 
tions. This property consisted of fifty acres rural land, 
ten acres suburban land, and a quarter-acre town section. 
On his arrival he sold his town and suburban lands, and 
selected his rural land at Wharepa, calling the place 
Corydon. after his old home. This original fifty-acre 
section he afterwards, at irregular intervals, extended, 
until he finally secured a fine farm of about SOO acres, on 
which he resided till his death, when the property was 
sold. D. Murray, the present occupier, being the purchaser.. 

of D lined in and South Otago. 


1853 "Rajah" 
1848 "Blundell." MKS. I'KTEK Avsox 

1853 "A' oytil Albert:" 
1853 "7?mw/ Albert." 1 

150 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Mr. Ayson had brought with him a complete outfit 
of carpenter's tools and other implements, which he and 
his eldest son. Peter, carried on Iheir backs to their new 
home. They were seven months at Corydon. building a 
hut. digging ground, and planting potatoes. &c. Once a 
fortnight on the Saturday they visited Finegand. where 
the Sunday was spent. They were the first to mark out 
what is still called Shaw's Trade, by sticking up. poles at 
certain distances apart. Mr. Ayson then went to Dunedin 
for his family. They were all taken on the Monday as 
far as Mr. Culling's farm on the Taieri by Mr. Culling, 
the only man in that district who had a dray and a pair 
of horses. Next day they reached Scrogg's Creek, where 
they were taken across the Taieri River in Harrold's ferry 
boat. The third day they reached the head of Waihola 
Lake, where they were met by Messrs. Salmond and John 
Cargill, each Avith a sledge and a pair of bullocks, and 
taken to Smith's house at Tokomairiro. Thursday being 
very wet. they remained there until it cleared up. On 
Friday night they camped in a shepherd's hut, and it was 
bitterly cold. Saturday turned out very rough, snow 
came on. and they did not care about making a start, so 
Salmond said if they were not going on he would not 
stay over Sunday. Leaving in a blinding snowstorm, they 
had great difficulty in making any progress. Late in the 
afternoon they reached Balclutha. where James McNeil 
made them as comfortable as he possibly could. Mr. 
Shaw then took them to Finegand. where they stayed 
until the following Wednesday, when John McNeil, with 
a sledge and four bullocks, took them to Wharepa. so a 
long and tedious journey, made under great difficulties. 
was happily terminated. 

All their boxes had been sent to Port Molyneux in 
the "Endeavour." but she was three months in arriving, 
and during that time they suffered many privations. 
When she did arrive she managed to get up the river to 
near Finegand. so the Aysons were the first to get their 
stuff so far up the river, others having to be content with 
getting theirs landed on the beach at Port Molyneux. 
whence it had to be carried over Kaka Point and boated 
up the river. During his first year's. residence, Mr. Ayson 
bought 100 sheep, but. owing to the whole country being 
taken up in runs, he did not keep them long, going in 
instead for cattle. After his land was fenced he again 
went in for sheep, and became- a famous breeder of 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 151 

merinos. The first land cultivated on Corydon was dug 
with the grub hoe and spade, the wheat crop yielding 
eighty bushels an acre. Then John McNeil was engaged 
to plough a small area, for which he was paid 1 a day. 
and had to be supplied with a driver. McNeil was thus 
the first to turn a furrow in the district. 

About twelve months after Mr. Ayson's coming to 
Wharepa, Gordon and Ross took up a section or two in 
front of the bush, further to the west than Cory- 
don, and now owned by William Ross. For 
several years previous Gordon had been shepherd- 
ing for Meredith, and had built a hut, which 
was the first built by a white man in the district. 
He was a great character, saying and doing many amusing 
things. He once stated that he had had an awful row 
with -lob Dabinett, another early settler. "It was a deevil 
of a row, but not one of us spoke a word " Once when 
galloping along Shaw's Track he was thrown from his 
horse. On being asked if he were hurt he cried out : "Oh, 
yes. my neck is broke; but never mind me, catch the 
mare.'' While shepherding at Moa Flat, Gordon was 
challenged to run a race. The wager was eagerly taken 
up. but Gordon was much too fast for his rival, who soon 
gave up. Gordon was the owner of a dog which con- 
tinually followed him, and during the race it followed so 
closely that, hearing the patter of its feet, he thought it 
was his opponent still running, so he kept on to the win- 
ning post, where he was much astonished and disgusted 
to find that he had been racing his dog. 

He was the first white man to climb Mount Benger. 
a very difficult climb, as the ground was covered with 
"Wild Irishmen." After he had taken up his land at 
Wharepa. he was rushed by a bull belonging to Job Dabi- 
nett. and afterwards, on relating the story, said he was 
miK-h surprised, as they, i.e., the bull and he, were on the 
best of terms, as he had known him (the bull) since he 
was a calf. Sandy was very methodical in his ways and 
extremely confidential in his manner. On one occasion 
lie went to the sawmill, where he took the manager about 
a hundred yards away from the other men on the pretext 
that he had a grand secret to unfold. It turned out that 
he wanted timber to build a house, as he was thinking of 
getting married. "Have you asked the lady?" was the 
query. "No; but just look here now. I know by the glint 
of her e'en, she'll just shoot (suit) me." was the reply. 

152 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

He always tied his stacks well down. One day a 
visitor found him beating them with a long wattle, and 
on being asked what was the matter, Sandy said: ''Just 
you look here now. Robert. I have control over all the 
beasts of the field but these cursed fowls." and here 
another whack dislodged several of these troublesome 
beasties. Once when branding cattle he was observed to 
jump back. Giving a bullock a punch in the ribs, he 
yelled : "Oh. the brute, he put his foot on my hoof!" On 
another occasion water was very scarce, and the well was 
visited, when Gordon said: "There is no way unless we 
put the hole to our mouths." He was the first scab 
inspector in the Clutha District, and always got Mr. Shaw 
to write his reports, thanking him by saying: "Tt is just 
grand, Mr. Shaw. It will do fine." 

The next settlers to arrive were the Somervilles and 
C. H. Street. The Somervilles took up land at the east 
end of the bush, John Somerville building his first house 
just through the bush, but a j^ale bleAV the thatch off, 
and Mr. Brown, a brother-in-law of Mr. Somerville. would 
not rest until the house was shifted to its present site 
on Chester Hill. John Somerville was born at Edgehead. 
in the parish of Cranston. Midlothian, Scotland, 
on the 6th April, 1828. and came to the Colony 
in the ship "Blundell, " along with his parents 
and other members of the family, landing at Port 
Chalmers on September 21st, 1848. the "Blundell" 
being the fourth ship that came to Otago. On arrival 
the family took up their residence at Anderson's Bay. 
Some of the members of the family soon afterwards 
purchased a pair of flour stones, one foot in diameter, 
and with these they ground by hand tin- first flour made 
in Otago, and for a while supplied the whole of Dunedin. 
On August 9th. 1855. John married Margaret Oughton, 
daughter of George BroAvn. of Milton, and in company 
with his brother Thomas came to the Clutha in the same 
year. About 1860 his brother James joined him. and 
about 1863 the brothers opened a store and flourmill at 
Waitepeka. In the early days of the Clutha they made 
"Waitepeka a very busy centre. John Somerville took an 
intelligent interest in public affairs, and was for many 
years clerk and engineer to the Wharepa Road Board, 
a member and Chairman of the AVharepa and Waitepeka 
School Committees; and, on the county system coming 
into operation, he was returned as one of the first coun- 

of D uned in and South Otago. 153 

eillors for the riding, serving a second term. In the fifties 
he was collector of the poll-tax that was levied for 
educational purposes. In the course of his long career, 
Mr. Somerville was often appealed to for advice by the 
early settlers. He was a man of wide experience, mature 
judgment, and unimpeachable integrity. Publicly and 
privately he was held in high esteem by all who knew him ; 
his actions were at all times above reproach, and he was 
ever actuated by the highest motives honourable and 
upright in all his dealings. On one occasion he was 
engaged by a party to go to the diggings. He had 
bullocks, but no dray, and a sledge would not do. so he 
ami his brother set to work to make a dray. The wheels 
were ma'de of wood, a tree being specially selected for 
the purpose of making them. The axle was a wooden 
one, and a long pole extended out far enough to yoke the 
bullocks. The trip was successfully made, and on his 
return home John unyoked the bullocks near the house. 
There was plenty tutu on the hill, and next morning two 
fine animals were found dead, the pecuniary result of the 
trip being thus a minus quantity, as bullocks were very 
dear. Somerville 's property is still owned by the younger 
members of the family. 

C. H. Street, who arrived by the "Maori" in 1852. 
selected his land between Gordon and Ross's place and 
Cory don. This selection was afterwards owned by Job 
Dabinett, who arrived in 1856 by the "Isabella Hercus. " 
and is now owned by John Gordon. Street was a great 
land speculator, and. in company with Kobt. Gillies, took 
up land all over the district. Thos. Ballantyne Gillies 
settled on the Rocklands Farm, at the extreme west of the 
Wharepa Bush. He disposed of this place to W. W. Waite. 
the first schoolmaster in Wharepa, and he again disposed 
of it to Walter Anstruther Bows and Alfred Francis 
Oswin. Waite, Bews. and Oswin also made selections in 
addition to their purchases. Rocklands afterwards came 
into the hands of W. S. Mosley, who sold it to George 
Smith, who again sold it to Wm. Marshall and Alex. 
Smith, the latter 's place being after wards owned by 
Alex. Johnston, who recently sold to one Benson. 
Both Bews and Oswin were men of good position 
in England, and highly educated. Mrs. Bews was related 
to Lord Roberts. Mr. Bews was afterwards appointed 
Otago Provincial Engineer, and subsequently for some 
years TOAVM Engineer at Tnvercargill. About 188f> he went 

154 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

to Victoria, where he died at Geeiong on September 3rd. 
1901, aged 68 years, leaving a family of five, his wife 
having predeceased him. Another account says that he 
was the brother of Countess Roberts, and was son of 
Captain John Bews, of the 73rd Highlanders. Alfred 
Oswin was born in India in 1837. and educated at King's 
College, London. In 1854 he left London for India, hav- 
ing been appointed to a position in the Indian Navy. In 
company with W. A. Bews, he came to Otago in 1859, and 
settled at Wharepa. but later on left to act as Sub- 
Treasurer to the Otago Government. About the year 1879 
he was given a position in the Government service in 
Wellington, where he died 011 February 10th. 1900, leaving 
a family of five daughters and four sons, bis wife having 
predeceased him fourteen years. 

During his residence in A\ r harepa. T. B. Gillies acted 
as enumerator in the Cultivation and Live Stock Depart- 
ment for the Clutha and southward, his beat extending 
from Clutha to Biverton. He afterwards became Judge 
Gillies. Captain Bews. brother of Walter Bews and a 
retired Indian officer, died in 1863 at Rocklands, being 
buried in front of the house, but in 1872 his remains 
were shifted to the Wharepa Cemetery. Here it may be 
said that the ground for the cemetery was given by Mr. 
Street, the first person buried in it being a brother of 
Captain MeKenzie. 

Other settlers in front of the bush up to about 1857 
were Job Dabinett, previously mentioned, and James 
McNeil. Junr. Dabinett 's first house was built of wattle 
and dab. thatched Avith rushes, and containing four rooms. 
The next house was built of pit sawn timber, and con- 
tained six rooms. The furniture was all hand made, being 
shaped with axes and knives. Dabinett 's property is now 
held by John Gordon, and McNeil's by William Ross. 

The first settler in the open country was William 
Blaikie, who about 1862 settled on a farm near where 
the Wharepa Railway Station now is. This farm is now 
owned by David Farquhar. Mr. Blaikie built a sod house, 
and sowed four acres of wheat, which he threshed with 
the flail. As he was threshing, a man named Bill Ranking 
asked him if he would sell a bag of oats. When the bag 
was filled the price was asked, but Blaikie said he did not 
know. Rankine asked if 1 would do. and that amount 
was gladly accepted. 

of D uued in and Sont/i Ota go. 


156 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

About the same time Adam Borthwick took up the 
Carterhope Estate, where he lived in a Jittle sod whare 
until the homestead was built. Carterhope has been 
lately cut up, and the greater part is now owned by 
neighbouring settlers, Thomas Telford owning a part con- 
taining a quarry of good building stone, and a part 
bordering the lower course of the Kaihiku stream. 

On the Wharepa side the settlers in 1862 were James 
Stewart and David Hudson. Hudson landed in Welling- 
ton in 1857 by the "Cresswell,'' but stayed only three 
months there. He then walked to Wanganui. but not 
getting any work returned to Wellington, whence he 
departed for Christehurch. He was employed at Timaru 
by the Provincial Government of Canterbury, for five 
months cutting tussocks to make a track to guide people 
over the Canterbury Plain ; but owing to there being in- 
sufficient funds the work was abandoned. Hudson ulti- 
mately made his way to Dunedin. where he was employed 
by Macandrew. On the trip down from Timaru he had the 
novel experience of being half rowed, half carried across 
the Waitaki River. The canoe in which he and his mates 
were crossing grounded amid stream, when one of the 
Maori women rowing carried them the rest of the distance 
on her back. For some time Hudson was employed 
making roads about Dunedin, and working on the Taieri. 
Towards the end of 1862 he ami James Stewart bought 
land at Wharepa. but, getting the gold fever, both went 
for a time to the Xokomai rush and other goldfields. 

In 1863 John Greig took a farm opposite Hudson's, 
now owned by Hudson and Russell, and in the next year 
John Wright settled on the property now held by Jas. E. 

John Wright arrived ii\ Otago in February, 1>(iu. 
by the ship ''Gala." and in 1864 took up land at Wharepa. 
150 acres at 10/- per acre. This purchase he made with- 
out seeing the land. Shortly afterwards he walked out 
to see it, but not being much impressed with the look 
of the ridges, he offered it to Mr. Thomson, of Moa.IIill. 
for what he paid, but could not deal. In the spring of 
1864 he moved out from Tokomairiro to Wharepa. where 
he and his family lived with Davit! Hudson in a sod whare 
until a good clay "biggin" was erected among the 
tussocks on the farm. He ring-fenced the whole property 
with sod fences, being assisted by his younger brothers. 
George (now of Fiji) and William ''now pastor of 
Columba Church. Oamaru). 

of D lined in and Sont/i Otago. 157 

He did a lot of contract ploughing, <fcc.. for Adam 
Borthwick. of Carterhope, the swing plough and two 
horses in those days constituting the team, and the price 
for ploughing 1 per acre. From Mr. Borthwick he also 
bought his butcher meat in the shape of merino sheep at 
a standard rate for a long time of 1 per head. Avhether 
large or small, ewe or wether. Along, with many others 
of the early settlers, he owed a big debt of gratitude to 
Mr. Borthwick, who was always ready to give work to the 
settlers at big pay. as well as to stand by them in financial 
troubles. When the Nokomai Diggings broke out. the 
gold fever seized Wright, and he set off to try his luck. 
Mr. Borthwick missed him from the farm, and at once 
went to Airs. Wright and made the inquiry, "Whaur's 
"Wricht?" On being told that he was off to the diggings, 
the old gentleman gave an emphatic "Humph!" and said. 
"Tell the man tae come back tae me. an' I'll gie him a 
pund a day tae plew for me." This message was duly 
sent, and apparently had a greater glamour than the 
Xokomai, as "Wricht" was soon "plewing" again among 
the Carterhope tussocks. 

He took his share of work going in those days in 
lioad Board. School Committee, and Church. In the latter 
he took a great interest, being associated as an office- 
bearer with the Wharepa congregation from the time that 
the first minister was placed in it. 

Mid- way between Wharepa and Toiro in 1862 there 
were only two settlers. Messrs. D. P. Milligan and Donald 
Ross, who had both arrived in 1861. They stayed for a 
short time with Gordon and Ross, and then went to the 
diggings, where they remained for four months. On their 
return they settled down. They took out a license costing 
5 to cut timber in the bush, and cut sufficient to build 
two houses. In company with John Crawford, Milligan 
then cut sufficient timber to build two barns. Shortly 
after this Milligan married Jane Kerr. the second mar- 
riage in the district, the first being John McNeil and 
Margaret Ayson. a daughter of Peter Ayson. Corydon. 
Milligan ? s farm is now in the hands of John Gordon, who 
married the only daughter of the family. Mr. Milligan 
WHS a member of the first Wharepa Road Board, the 
others being James and John Somerville and Henry Hogg. 
John Somerville acting as clerk. 

The next farm to Milligan 's was occupied by George 
Munro. who had arrived in the early part of 1861. At 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of Diinedin and South Otagp. 159 

first Munro lived in a house at Wharepa Bush, belonging 
to Job Dabiuett. Being a stonemason, he built his own 
residence of stone the first stone house in the Clutha. 
Munro paid 25/- an acre for ploughing, and 10/6 a bushel 
for the first oats he sowed. He sold stooks of oats at 
3/6 a stook to John Sinclair, who had bought a farm 
on the west side of Milligan's place. The land where the 
Wharepa Church stands was part of Munro 's property, 
being his donation to the building fund. The manse glebe 
was also his property, and was sold by him to the church 
authorities for 5 an acre. 

When puggeries came into fashion. Munro was 
strongly opposed to the use of such vanities, as he called 
them, and one day, seeing the minister wearing one. said: 
"Xo wonder the judgment of the Lord is coming upon 
ns when our ministers are knocking aboot with 'buggeries' 
on their bonnets." 

Opposite Munro 's and bordering the manse glebe was 
Colin McKenzie's farm, afterwards purchased by Munro. 
This place, as well as Munro 's other farm, was pur- 
chased by Thomas Riddell, a sou of the Riddell who. in 
1868 or 1869, had purchased John Sinclair's and Donald 
Ross's farms, both of which are now occupied by another 
son. William Uiddell. Thomas Riddell recently sold out 
to AVilson Bros. In about 1857 John Strachan 
arrived, and up to 1861 or 1862 lived in a hut in front 
of the bush. Ultimately he settled near AVharepa Railway 
Station, where he began business as a bootmaker, the 
second in the district. Strachan was a good tradesman, 
but was a bit deaf. When he did not want to hear, he 
pretended to be very much worse, than he really was. He 
was a witty individual, and delighted to take a rise out 
of his customers. On one occasion a minister told him 
that he ought to have two prices for his boots one for 
the rich squatters and another for the poorer folks, the 
wealthy man being well able to pay a stiff price. Strachan 
thought it was a splendid idea, and he would just adopt 
it. Some time afterwards the minister was getting a pair 
of boots, but on his asking the price Strachan startled 
him by asking. "Do you keep sheep?" "Oh, no," was 
the reply. "Oh. yes you do. You have a good flock, and 
shear them well; yours is the big price," was the unex- 
pected retort of the worthy shoemaker. 

On another occasion, when going to a concert. 
Strachan was very fidgety about the state of the tyres 

160 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

on the wheels of his cart, but. an'ter pay ing a visit to the 
neighbouring hotel, he. on the return journey, forgot all 
about them. On being asked how they were lasting, he 
jovially replied. "Oh. 31 r. - (the hotelkeeper) is a 
grand man for the tyres; get the whup, and let's see how 
Charlie can gang." Laying on the whup with a ven- 
geance, the party came along at full gallop, but reached 
home safely, when he said that. Chisholm had made the 
wheels right, he being a very practical man. 

The Wharepa Church folk Avere once hard put to it 
to get a precentor for the services, when Strachan 
jokingly said: "James (an old crony) and I could dae it 
fine. 1 canna sing, but James is a good singer, but he 
canna mak' the faces. If he will sing, I'll stand in front 
and mak' the faces for him." 

Towards what, is now known as Toiro. the first settlers 
on the flat were John and Isaac Sarginson. who arrived 
in 3861. their neighbours in 1862 being George Poison, a 
retired detective, on the one side, and John Crawford on 
the other. Most of this land was covered with tussocks 
and flax, but a great fire swept the country side and 
exposed great totara logs and various other timbers on 
Crawford's farm. Sarginson 's property as well as Craw- 
ford's is now owned by a Mr. Clarke, while part of 
Poison's belongs to Robert Ayson. the remainder being 
included in Corydon. Other settlers in the same line of 
country were William Kerr. now Sarginson 's. Hogg Bros., 
now Fletcher's, Monfries. also Fletcher's, W. and P. 
Renton. now Paul Renton's, and D. Lawson. now Tweed 
Bros., all of whom arrived in about the end of 1862. In 
1863, Donald Sutherland took up a small farm where 
Charles Davis now is. In 1864 Kdniund Couston settled 
at Kent Farm, and about the same time George Slawson 
took up his residence next to him. Couston and Slawson 
were both much earlier in the district, but had not settled 
down. Slawson 's place is now owned by James Laing. 

Couston arrived in 1858. and was employed by the 
McNeils for some five or six years. In 1863. while 
boating on the river with another man. he picked up off 
Barnego the body of a man who had been drowned oppo- 
site White Lea. They took it to Balclutha. where it was 
buried on the reserve near a large blue gum. In 1864, 
Couston bought 100 acres of land at 1 an acre, his appli- 
cation being the first to be put in after the rise in land 
values. The timber for his house came from Dunedin to 
Finegand, and was sledged to the site. 

of I) lined in and South Otago. 161 

Jn these times a good deal of carting went to Fort 
Molyneux, but the roads were in a terrible condition, the 
axles of the drays often dragging for chains in the mud. 
Carters had to rise at 4 a.m.. and often had to prepare 
their horse feed before making a start. It was usually 
nine or ten o'clock at night when they returned. Couston 
often walked from Balclutha to Dunedin in a day, leaving 
at- 7 and arriving in Dunedin before the people were 
in bed. Once he left Balclutha with a Mr. Spooner, who 
was riding. They crossed the punt at Balclutha together, 
and again were together crossing the Taieri punt. 

About 1862. one Mooney took up the farm which, in 
1865, came irfto the possession of the Sheddans, while 
further along Sandilands and Hadden settled on the farm 
known as Annfield, for many years leased by William 
Mnnro. an 1860 arrival, and HOAV occupied by George 
Downie. When they first arrived a snowstorm came on. 
the snow lying six inches deep. All the time they had 
to live in a tent. When the snow cleared off they built 
a sod house, getting the joists for the roof from the Jew's 
Bush. Half of the house was used as a dwelling, and the 
other half as a stable. James Hadden was a blacksmith 
by trade, and was the first to carry on his trade at 

Next to Sandilands and Hadden was Martin Fa hey. 
whose family lived in a- tent, until one night a gale tore it 
to ribbons. They then stayed with Sandilands. occupying 
the stable half of his house, until they got a hut built for 

Above Fahey's the land was taken up by Lewis Bros.. 
Port eons and MeCaig. and a little later by James Falconer, 
who about 1865 purchased a block owned by James Fraser 
Ayson. now owned by William John Keys. Below 
Fahey's. towards Balclutha. were Coghill and McAddie, 
the latter being settled on the top of the Four Mile Creek 
Hill, while about the same time Dawson took up the 
Netherby farm. At what is now called Kakapuaka the 
land was nearly all taken up by a run, owned first by 
Edwin Rich, then by William Brown, whose manager was 
one Andrew Melrose. Near the Four Mile Creek, Charles 
Gordon, who was killed while working a horse-power 
machine, owned a small farm. Breadalbane, south from 
Rich's run. was taken up by Duncan Ferguson, who was 
drowned in the Waitepeka stream, his farm being after- 
wards purchased by William Brown, and now owned by 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Houliston. Below Breadalbane. but nearer the Pnerua, 
a man named Bishop had a section, and A. C. Begg took 
up what is now known as Woodburn farm. On Redpath's 
death his property was purchased by one Bamford, and 
later on by W. Telford. It now forms part of the Otano- 
momo Estate. The homestead on this estate is built of 
stone from Wharepa. being quarried on the Carterhope 

For some years the only settler at the back of the 
Wharepa Bush was James Ayson. who occupied the Hill- 
side farm, arriving somewhere about 1859. Mr. Ayson 
arrived in the colony in 1853, and spent most of the inter- 
vening years shepherding for various runholders. In 1856 
he purchased a farm at Tokomairiro River, but sold 
out to Charles Falconer, shortly afterwards settling, as 
stated, in Wharepa. Some years later his brother, 
Alexander Ayson. the first teacher in Tokomairiro. took 
up the property known as Mark Hill, and still later John 
Rk)ss arrived from Ardmore Station, where he had been 
shepherding for W. H. S. Roberts, and took up Rbsehall 
farm. Hillside is now owned by Henry Robinson. Mark 
Hill forms part of the Glenfalloch Estate, and Rosehall is 
in possession of John Ross, jun. John Ross was engaged 
by Mr. Roberts at Invercargill in 1863. Mr. Roberts had 
bought a spring cart and horse to take him and his family 
to Ardmore. When they reached the Long Ford, the 
Matuara was in flood, yet they attempted to cross. The 
water ran in through the horse's collar, and frightened 
the horse so that he would not move. Ross and Roberts 
got out, up to the armpits in the river, but could not get 
him to move, so they carried Mrs. Ross and the children 
back to the bank, then took out the horse and dragged 
back the cart themselves. They managed to get a bullock 
dray to take them over, but had to camp out all night 
in their wet clothes. 

Following the settlement from the Wharepa Bush past 
Somerville's, and along the front of the hills to the Puerua 
stream, we find that in 1856 William Young, whose land 
is now occupied by H. Sandford. settled near Somerville's 
property. Mr. Young and family arrived in Otago in 
1849 in the ship "Mary." He was a carpenter by trade. 
and assisted to build many of the houses in th'e Clutha 
settlement. For a short time he acted as Postmaster in 
Wharepa. and also opened a small store in the district. 
His son. Samuel, afterwards in company with George 
Dabinett carried on business in the Owaka district. 

of D nncd in and South Otago. 163 

The next settler was Robert Sutherland, who. in 1856, 
with his wife, walked from Dunedin to Wharepa, taking 
four clays to do the trip. For a year they resided in a 
small whare, and then shifted to a house built by Suther- 
land and Thomas Tolmie. This house is still standing, 
and speaks well for the thoroughness with which the 
earJy settlers did their work. Sutherland was the first 
bootmaker in the district, but failing health compelled 
him to relinquish his trade, and he turned his attention 
to farming. He Avas the first to grow the now famous 
Sutherland oats. While walking through a field he 
noticed an oat head, which appeared to him to be much 
superior to any of the others. Taking -it home, he sowed 
the few grains in his garden, each year increasing the 
area, until he had secured enough grain to sell some to 
his neighbours, a bushel being the limit to each purchaser. 
One day, while talking to Sam Young. Sutherland won- 
dered what he could call the new oats, when Young said, 
"Why not call them 'The Sutherland oats?' " and Suther- 
lands they were accordingly named. Mrs. Turner now 
owns Sutherland's land. 

Between Sutherland's and Young's -lames Brytlone. 
the first teacher at South Clutha. took up a section, right 
in the bush. He resided on it till his death, when the 
first auction sale in Wharepa was held. He having died 
intestate, his property was put up for sale. Mr. D. P. Steel 
acting as sheriff and auctioneer, and Mr. John Somerville 
as clerk. 

About 1857 Dr. Manning, the "John Wickliffe" sur- 
geon, settled in Wharepa. not far from Robert Suther- 
land's. For some years he was the only doctor in the 
Clutha, his practice extending from the Molyneux to 
Tapanui. The doctor's first house, erected by some of 
the neighbours, was known as "Woodeud." so called from 
its situation at the end of the bush. The doctor was a 
difficult man to deal with, but was a clever physician 
as Avell as a good surgeon. He dispensed his own medi- 
cines, and some of his prescriptions are still to be had in 
the district. He was a man of strong likes and dislikes, 
and often refused to attend particular individuals. Once, 
when returning from attending a patient, he remarked 
about a certain individual : "My word. I wish that old ras- 
cal would break his leg and give me the chance to set it, 
when T would put the back part foremost: I don't like 
him; he is a bad beggar." Being once invited to a 

164 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

wedding, the doctor was asked to carve a turkey at the 
breakfast. The officiating minister asked the blessing, 
but he was so long about it that everybody grew tired. 
When he had finished, the doctor, rubbing his knife 
briskly on the steel, remarked, "Capital grace, capital, 
but, just like my turkey, it wanted carving." 

In 1858 Mr. and Mrs. Win. Sutherland settled at the 
extreme east end of the Wharepa Bush. William and 
Adam Sutherland sawed all the timber for Redpath's 
store, and for Major Richardson's house at Willowmeade, 
Puerua. In 1857 Thomas Tolmie settled near the Jew's 
Bush. He was a carpenter, and along with Wm. Young 
built the first manse at Puerua. 

In 1859 James Robertson, who had been shepherding 
for C. H. Kettle at Totara Island, took up 130 acres of 
land in the neighbourhood of the Jew's Bush. Next to 
Robertson's, but nearer the Puerua Stream, were the 
Roscoes, who sold to one Curtis, who again sold to A. 
Petrie, who in 1858 bought another section near the bush. 
In the same year John Geggie purchased land near the 
Puerua, and in 1859 shifted his family from Waitahuna 
to his new home. Later on he purchased another farm 
belonging to Geo. Taylor, who had made his selection in 
the open land, and had purchased the property of one 
Dare, an ex-clergyman, who had settled there in 1859. 
During the next few years, up to about 1862, Messrs. 
Thos. Chalmers, Gilfillan, Dalgleish, Lamond, and John 
Grant settled in the vicinity of the Jew's Bush; while 
nearer Wharepa Edward Todd and Weir and Wilson were, 
settled. Squatted in the bush were several working men 
Boswell, Noble, and Hall who were usually employed 
sawing, or working with neighbouring farmers. Some 
years later Hugh Gunn took up land right at the back 
of the lower end of the bush. Avhile David Smith settled 
near Robert Sutherland's property. 

Mrs. Gunn states that on arriving in Wharepa she 
had to live in a whare belonging to Robert Sutherland 
until her husband could get his own house, a wattle and 
dab one. built. At first there was no track through the 
bush, and she had to carry her produce, eggs, and butter 
as best she could through tall flax, and over creeks often 
swollen with rains. Flour and other heavy goods were 
left in Sutherland's barn, and carried piecemeal to the 
house. When her husband was away from home a fre- 
quent occurrence she had all the carrying to do. as well as 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 165 

attending to her cows. Her first cow, which cost 13, 
WHS poisoned with tutu, and for a long time very con- 
siderable loss of stock from the same cause took place. 
The old wattle and dab house still stands as sound as 
ever, except that the thatch has given place to iron. 

Sometimes in these early days of the settlement pro- 
visions ran short, and recourse would be had to a neigh- 
bour to supply the necessary article. On one such occasion 
tea gave out. and Mrs. Geggie went to borrow some from 
Mrs. Bannerman. She could not cross the stream, which 
was in flood, but a vigorous coo-ee brought Mrs. Banner- 
man to the river-side, and the wants of the borrower were 
made known and gladly acceded to. Unable to pass the 
tea from hand to hand, it was decided by Mrs. Bannerman 
to put it in a bag and throw it across. The attempt was 
made, but the parcel, instead of reaching the expectant 
hands of the borrower, fell into the water and floated 
merrily down the stream, closely followed by an anxious 
lady on either bank. A short distance down the stream 
the current floated the precious parcel close to the bank, 
where it was promptly secured, much to the relief of both 
parties, and none the worse for its untimely immersion. 

Towards the end of 1862 William Dalgleish took up 
land at Waitepeka. and arrived in the district in 1863. 
Hf had been in the employ of Gordon Rich, a runholder at 
Wairuna. from 1857. On arrival he, with his family, 
lived for nearly twelve months in a sod whare a simple 
"but and ben," thatched with rushes and snow grass 
tussocks. A larger house of wattle and dab, with shingle 
roof, and containing four rooms (two upstairs and two 
down), was then built, and occupied for nearly fourteen 
years, when the present residence was built. 

Gilfillan was a passenger by the "Blundell" in 1848, 
and remained in and about Dunedin, working at his trade 
as a carpenter, until 1862, when he shifted to Wharepa. 
His first purchase of land was made at 1 an acre, his 
farm having an area of 134 acres. He built a wool shed 
for Campbell at Glenfalloch. the timber having all to be 
carried out of the Kaihiku Bush. 

Weir and Wilson had the first sawmill in the Wharepa 
Bush, the machinery being erected by John MacFarlane. 
When the project Avas spoken about, some of the local 
bushmen and pit sawyers laughed at the idea, one Hall 
saying that there was not enough water to drive a mill, as 
one cow could drink it all. Notwithstanding, a dam was 

166 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

built and the mill started. 80 successful was it that the 
pit sawing was completely outclassed. Weir and Wilson 
worked the bush, as they thought, thoroughly out. but 
after they left Begg and Sheddan started another mill 
a little higher up the bush, and for some years did very 

As all the timber previous to Weir and Wilson's 
sawmill was cut by hand, a description of pit sawing may 
not here be out of place. The bush was first inspected, 
and wherever the greatest number of trees suitable for 
timber was found there a pit was built. This was done 
by cutting a scarf into two trees about twenty feet apart 
and about six feet from the ground; then the end of a 
good-sized sapling was placed in the scarf at either end, 
supported by two or three forked ones let into the ground, 
care being taken that the forks were wider than the 
plates (side saplings) so that they would not split. This 
formed one side of the pit. the other being made in a 
similar fashion. Two pieces of wood were then placed 
across the top to hold the log. Two skids or fair-sized 
trees were put in position to enable tlie tree which was to 
be sawn to be rolled to the top of the pit, and stays were 
put between the sides of the pit to prevent its collapse. 
Next a suitable tree was felled, cut into lengths, the bark 
knocked off to make it slide on roots or other obstacles, 
and by the aid of blocks and tackle each length was 
dragged to the pit. In later years this was done by 
bullocks; in the very early days these were not procurable. 

After the log had. by much hard work, reached the 
pit it was rolled up the skids on to the top, leaving about 
six feet underneath for the pit man to work the saw. 
After the log had been marked with a worsted thread 
soaked in charcoal and the top and bottom line got per- 
fectly plumb, a saw seven feet long was used, one man 
standing on the top of the log and the other in the pit. 
The man on the top had the harder and more difficult 
part to perform, as he had not only to lift the saw for 
each stroke, and regulate the cut by allowing it to descend 
as lightly as possible from a light hand otherwise the 
hooked teeth would catch and no progress be made but 
he had to balance himself on the top of the log, no easy 
matter, especially when cutting through the side lines on 
the log. When the log had been cut in flitches or squares, 
it was easy to cut these into boards and scantling. 

of Dnnedin and South Otago. 

MAJOK RICHARDSON 1856, "Strathmore* 

MK. W. H. S. ROHKKTS 1855. "John Phillips. 

168 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

After this digression we return to the settlers in the 
open country bordering the Puerua from Taylor's farm. 
In 1858, C. and J. Perkins took up land on both sides oi' 
the Puerua stream below Murdoch's. This was after- 
wards bought by Archibald Mercer, and is now owned 
by John Mercer. In 1863, William Morton bought his 
farm, and about the same time Messrs. Quertier. William 
McKenzie, Donald Stewart, Nathan Veitch, William 
Downie. J. W. Thomson, C. Hay ward, William Brown. \V. 
Harrhy, and James Marshall settled in the district. Mor- 
ton did a good deal of work contracting, the chief roads 
in the district being metalled by him. John McKenzie 
lived for some time near the Pueriia. at a small bush, still 
known as McKenzie 's Bush. He had the first flax mill in 
the Waitepeka district. This mi]! was a two-horse power 
one. fitted with wooden strippers, and the flax was split 
into blades and not scutched as in the present method. 

In addition to those who thus early settled on the 
land, there were a few early arrivals who \vere employed 
by the settlers, of whom some are still alive in the district. 
The chief of these are Mr. and Mrs. Stoddart. Mr. and 
Mrs. Pahey. and Mrs. Clement Grant. Others there were. 
no doubt, but nothing definite can be obtained about them. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stoddart arrived in the colony in 1863 
in the ship "Mataura. " Stoddart came straight to 
Wharepa, where he arrived some six days before his wife. 
He was first employed by David Monfries. then by John 
Crawford, his wages being 60 a year. Other employers 
were James Ayson and Somerville Bros., with the latter 
of whom he remained for thirteen years. He states that 
in 1863 flour was 5 per 2001bs., sheep 1 a head, beef Is. 
a pound, butter 2s. and 2s. 6d. a pound, and pork 9<1. 

Patrick Fahey arrived in 1864, and after landing at 
Dunedin walked out to Balclutha. He was first employed 
by Dr. Manning at 65 a year, then by Weir and Wilson 
at the sawmill, and afterwards for about forty years by 
the Somerville Bros. 

Mrs. Grant, nee Catherine Hall, arrived in Dunedin 
with two shillings in her pocket. She gave one to her 
cabin mate to enable her to get her box taken to the 
Barracks, and used the other herself for a similar purpose. 
After staying three weeks in the Barracks she was engaged 
by Mr. Telford to go out to Clifton, her wages being 35 
a year. On October 2nd. 1863. she was married, and went 
to live 'on the Carterhope Estate, where her husband 

of D uned in and South Otago. 169 

worked for Mr. Bortlnvick. They lived in a little hut 
without AvindoAvs. the only light being from a hole above 
the door and from the wide earthen chimney. For three 
years they lived in this little place, when they shifted to 
a stone house, built on the property by George Munro. 
This house was first occupied by Ronald McDonald, father 
of Angus McDonald, the present clerk of Clutha County 
Council. After many years of service on the estate. Mr. 
and Mrs. Grant shifted to Balclulha. where they built the 
Coffee Palace. Mr. Grant died some years ago, when Mrs. 
Grant retired into private life, a respected resident of the 

Charles Henry Kettle, at one time the Chief Surveyor 
for Otago, occupied all the country from the top of the 
f^aihiku Ranges to the Clutha River, and from the Kaihiku 
stream to the Waiwera stream, his run being No. 25. His 
homestead was built at the Kaihiku Bush, where in 1854 
Messrs. Ayson built a, large wool shed. It was built of 
rough timber and thatched with snow grass, the thatching 
being done by the Maoris. 

Mr. Kettle was a very popular employer, and always 
treated his men well. He was a great breeder of merino 
sheep, and in 1855 had 2,000. but they were badly infected 
with scab. In 1854-55. Messrs. John Dalziel. James Hep- 
burn, and Adam Sutherland were his shepherds on the 
Kaihiku side, while on the Molyneux side James Robertson 
was employed in 1857 at Totara Island. 

James Robertson was a passenger by the "Southern 
Cross" in 1856, and, along with his eldest sou, Alexander, 
a boy of fourteen years, was engaged by Mr. Kettle in 
Dunedin, Robertson's wages being 70 a year. The whole 
family came to Kaihiku. and after a three days' trip 
reached the Clutha River, where they were crossed by 
Robert McNeil in his father's boat. Mr. McNeil had just 
built a new house, and the Robertsons Avere the first 
strangers to have a meal in it. John McNeil then drove 
them in a bullock sledge to Corydon, Wharepa, Avhere 
they stayed a few weeks before shifting to Totara Island. 

Their house at the latter place was a two-roomed cue. 
built of slabs and clay. The nearest neighbours Avere Mr. 
Maitland on the opposite side of the Molyneux. the 
Archibalds at Clydevale. and then the few settlers at the 
Kaihiku Bush. Mr. Robertson kneAV nothing of the 
destructive effects of tutu, and on one occasion drove his 
sheep into a deep gully for shelter. The gully was full of 

170 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

tutu, and a great number of sheep were poisoned. How- 
ever, on the matter being reported to Mr. Kettle, he only 
said that he (Robertson) was not to be blamed, as he 
should have been warned, but it would teach him to be 
more careful in the future. 

On many occasions it was necessary to burn the 
tussocks, and one day. while Robertson was engaged 
lighting fires, a strong wind sprang up and drove the fire 
in the direction of the sheep. 'With very great difficulty 
Robertson managed to save them from being destroyed, 
just reaching in time the yards where the only piece of 
clear ground Avas. He got such a scare that every night 
afterwards he carefully scanned the horizon for any signs 
of fire. In those days, if a fire were lit at Popotunoa, no 
one knew where it would end, and stories are told of 
fires sweeping the whole distance from Popotunoa to the 
Molyneux River. 

When shearing time came, all the sheep had to be 
driven to Kaihiku. and on such occasions Mrs. Robertson 
was left alone with her young family. One dark night 
they heard a step outside the house, and all were so 
frightened that, for a time, no one would move to open 
the door. At last Mrs. Robertson summoned up courage 
to do so. when, to her great surprise, their uncle. James 
Ayson, who had come from Tokomairiro. walked in. On 
another occasion they saw some Maoris coming, and the 
children all ran to the hills to hide. While living at 
Totara Island, the Robertsons felt the first earthquake 
shock they had experienced in the country. Sandy 
Robertson was sitting against the wall when he felt it 
move. The others then felt it. and saw the bark on the 
roof shake in an unmistakable manner, while Miss Robert- 
son, who was washing the dishes, was so scared that she 
fainted. Robertson remained with Mr. Kettle until about 
1859, when he bought land at Puerua, near the Jew's 

John Dalziel arrived at Kaihiku on the 12th March. 
1855. his wages being 60 a year. He worked for Mr. 
Kettle exactly one year, and then took up a fifty-acre 
section at Kaihiku Bush. He paid 10s. an acre for the 
land, and with two cows commenced his farming life. 
Grass seed was a good price, and soon he was able to buy 
300 sheep, for which he paid 1 per head. 

The same year (1856) John Barr came to Kaihiku 
from Half-way Bush and brought a mob of cattle. He 

of Duncdiii and Sonlh Otago. 171 

had bought a farm adjoining Dalziel. but remained only 
a very short time, returning to Dmiediu. This same year 
Robert Campbell settled on the Wharepa side of the 
Kaihiku. at Glenfalloch. Campbell had first selected land 
in this quarter in 1854. but it was not till 1856 that he 
settled on it. The following account of Mr. Campbell's 
experiences is token from his reminiscences: "After four 
or live days' travelling, with numerous small adventures, 
1 reached my destination. When I arrived I took up my 
abode with a couple who were not long married, and slept 
in the loft of their hut. I began to build at once, and the 
dimensions of my house were: 12ft. x 12ft.. 6ft. high, 
windows 3ft. Sin. x 2ft. 6in., door 6ft. x 2ft. 9in., and a 
fireplace ift. high. 3ft. 6in. wide, and 2ft. deep. I cut my 
way into the bush to get suitable trees and built the frame 
according to dimensions. I cut the trees up into slabs 
for walls, bored holes for the wall plates, using pegs 
instead of nails. The roof was thatched, and I nailed 
small wattles over the walls inside to hold the clay. I 
duii a hole for the clay, and cut the tussocks rather long, 
so that they would be long enough to roll round the wattle. 
This made a good plaster. The chimney was made of the 
same ingredients, and I managed to get some sawn timber 
for the fioor; and when the door and window were fixed 
I set off to town for my wife. 

"The only way to get Mrs. Campbell out to the farm 
was by means of a horse, and, as our horse was broken 
in. we decided that she should ride. I got a side saddle 
from Patterson for 12. and in August, 1856. we got fairly 
started on our journey. We took many necessaries of life 
with us; also a cat and a bantam, each in a kit. We 
pushed on to Balclutha. where we stayed a night, and. by 
the end of the fourth day. we were at home at Kaihiku. 
We had sent our cooking utensils round by schooner, but 
they did not arrive for some days. Meanwhile we had to 
go a-borrowing. We got a small goblet from a neighbour. 
in which we had to cook various things first our butcher 
meat. then, after washing, boil the water for our tea. 
We had very little furniture, and no bedstead, so I set 
to work and made one. After all these improvements 
were made, our home was really comfortable and cosy. 

"I immediately fenced a paddock and began the 
cultivation of the land. I engaged a man to do some 
ploughing for me. and his charge was 20.s. per day. besides 
which we had to feed him and the bov who drove the 

172 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

bullocks. We also had to lend him a horse to go and get 
the animals, which took him tiJl after mid-day; so that, 
after having him five days or so. \ve had not three days' 
decent work. That work cost me 5 per acre. Before 
long Ave had a splendid garden, containing vegetables of 
all kinds. When the season came we sowed Avheat and 
oats, and turned our attention to fruit trees. It was a 
lucky investment. They throve wonderfully, and as time 
went on repaid any trouble Ave had had with them. 

"Our cattle throve well, and by and by we added 
sheep to our live stock. I purchased them from a man 
in Blueskin. went there for them, and drove' them to 
Kaihiku. The price AVHS 35s. per head. We added 
another room to our house and built a dairy. Everything 
throve and flourished, and as an example of our work 
in 1856 from January to November we churned 346Volbs. 
butter, and in 1857 Ave made 6591bs. Of course. Ave sold 
sheep and cattle besides. In 1S58 our butter amounted 
to 8121bs., and in 1859 Ave had 1.11 Tibs, for the season." 

Some years before this. Chalmers Bros, had bought 
part of Moa Hill, and later bought another part, but they 
did not settle, and the place passed through several hands. 
one of whom Avas a Mr. Healy. a Dunedin grocer. Avho. in 
1859. secured 250 acres, and for Avhom William Moffat. of 
North-East Valley, acted as manager. Dairying Avas the 
chief occupation when the Moffats Avere there, butter at 
first selling at Is. 6d. a pound, but soon rising to 2s. 6d. 
Good COAVS were Avorth anything from 12 to 20 a piece, 
and in 1861 rose to 27. 

The Moff'ats remained at Moa Hill for three years, 
when they shifted to Dalrymple's farm at the Bush. 
Dalrymple had leased Kettle's place, and had 500 head 
of cattle running on it, some of these being very wild, espe- 
cially those that had had tAvo or three calves and had never 
been handled. The method of breaking in a COAV Avas to 
rope her and then draw her up to the bail with a Avindlass. 
The Moft'ats then took up some land for themselves 1 , and 
afterwards, on Dalrymple selling out, they leased Kettle's 
farm from the Trustees for seven years, at the end of 
Avhich term they purchased it 

Everybody had cattle in those days, but Avhen sheep 
prices became high the settlers sold off their cattle and 
Avent in for sheep. Dalxiel Avas the first of these small 
settlers in Kaihiku to fence off land for sheep, as he found 
it more profitable to SOAV grass and eat it off w?"th sheep 

of Dnnedin and South Otago. 



1856, " Southern Cross." , 

AND MRS. ALEX. PETRIE 1858. "Jura." 

KS50, "Stratlniiore." 

174 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

than to follow the more common style in general farming. 
Grass seed was an expensive item, often casting as much 
as 10s. per bushel, and this deterred some from beginning 
the new venture. 

Other early settlers in Kaihiku were James Nicol, at 
Douglas Place, somewhere in the 'fifties; Mackie. J. Hay. 
John Watt. George Johnston, the first on the Kaihiku Fiat. 
James Main, Glover, and Thomson. Most of these arrived 
in 1861 and 1862, and a little later D. Dickie, M. Paterson, 
and "W. Chisholm took up selections near the railway line. 
Near Dalziel's place, in 1858, George McNeil took up a 
farm, bordering the Kaihiku stream. After his death. A. 
Youngson bought the farm, also acting as manager ror 
Bews and Oswiu at Wharepa. 

Barr Bros, took up the Albert Downs Estate, now in 
possession of J. F. Ayson. Robert Sutherland, for many 
years a shepherd on the estate, afterwards took up a farm 
on the flat. In 1865. John Johnston bought 600 acres from 
the Government. 300 at 10s. an acre and '300 at 1 an acre. 
When he arrived wages were -4s. a day, beef and mutton 
6d. a pound, and tiour 2 for a 2001b. bag. Another settler 
at the Kaihiku Bush was a Mr. Meeking. the first school- 
master in the district. lie called his farm "Holborn 
Hill." now owned by J. W. Roberts. 

Further up. towards the Waiwera, Alexander McNeil 
owned the Caldervan Estate. He was really the first 
settler in this particular locality, and went in strongly 
for dairying. He often made lOOlbs. of butter a week, 
selling it at 2s 6d. per Ib. Edmund Couston, now of Toiro. 
was his stockman, and says that the country was an ideal 
one for dairying, the cattle thriving extremely well on 
the succulent native grasses. McNeil had an immense 
piggery, often having as many as 200 pigs running about. 
The price of produce may be gauged when it is said that 
he once sent to the Waiwera Hotel a sledge load of bacon 
and butter, for which he received 100. As settlement 
increased. McNeil had to sell off a number of his cattle. 
At the sale (John McLean, auctioneer) many of the milch 
cows brought up to 29 each. John Watt being the pur- 
chaser to the amount of 400. 

For many years the settlers in the Waiwera District 
were few and far between. Among the earliest were T. 
Blacklock (now of Oamaru). A. Peat (the first blacksmith 
in the district, who sokl to John Edwards). R. Telfnrd. 
A. Rutherford, and Girard. who started the first hotel. 

of On tied in and South Otago. 175 

George Brown was a partner of Rutherford's, and ulti- 
mately started on his own account. John Allan owned 
land extending from Albert's Cap to the Waiwera stream. 
This was called the Wharepa Estate, and was held for 
some time by one Wilson. Between Waiwera and Clyde- 
vale. James Wilson settled in 1859 on the Lamboume 
property, which is now in the hands of J. R. Mitchell. 
Wilson afterwards purchased the Erlstoke property at 
Molyneux Bay. lying from Kororo Creek along the beach, 
a part of which had been owned by Thomas Russell. 

In 1862 the Andersons arrived from Tapanui. where 
Mr. Anderson had, in 1856, leased the Dalvey Station for 
a term from Thomas Martin. The trip to Tapanui is 
described by Joseph Anderson in the following words : 
''AVe were taken in bullock drays driven by my uncles, 
James and Joseph Allan, who had interests in the Glen- 
kenieh Run, afterwards owned by Captain McKenzie. We 
were eight days in reaching our destination. At Taieri 
Ferry we crossed the river in a punt, but at Clutha there 
wjis only a boat, and consequently the drays had to be 
unloaded and the bullocks swum across the river. As the 
weather was good, we did not mind the length of the 
journey, everything being new and very interesting to us. 

*'My brother John, who had gone out a few months 
earlier along with friends, driving cattle to stock the run. 
had a different experience. They had very wet weather 
and the streams were in high flood, so they had to swim 
both cattle and themselves over the Kaihiku. Waiwera, 
Wairuna. and Waipahi streams. At Waipahi they found 
a man sitting on the opposite bank, waiting patiently for 
the going down of the waters. This proved to be Alex. 
McXab. who was travelling on foot from his run on the 
Mataura to Dunedin. After getting across on one of the 
stock horses, they piloted him over, and he went on his 
way rejoicing. 

"Tapanui at this time consisted of large runs varying 
in size from 25.000 to 100.000 acres. Stock had plenty of 
scope and did well, hut the scourge of the country was the 
wild dogs, which caused a great deal of havoc among the 
sheep. Every run had its pack of dogs, bull-dogs, 
kangaroo dogs, or foxhounds, for hunting them. When I 
was a lad. two wild dogs came out of the bush close to 
where a young man and I were cutting rushes. The man 
left me to watch them and rushed off to give notice to the 
people at the shearing shed: but. when T was left alone, 
I also made off. thinking discretion was the better part 

176 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of valour. The others soon came with the pack ol! hounds. 
but the wild dogs had taken to the bush. The hounds 
followed, but soon returned, all but oue dog. 'Bounder' 
by name. He was considered the best wild-dog hunter 
in the pack, and a few days later my uncle heard the bark 
of a dog at a considerable distance away. On going to 
the place he found 'Bounder' had bailed up a wild dog 
in a tiax bush. so. while the other dogs kept the animal's 
attention, he seixed it by the tail and soon had his knife 
in it, the pack finishing it off. After five years of this 
life we came to Waiwera, settling along the front of the 
hills, where -\ve now reside." 

As previously stated, Popotunoa, as the present 
Clinton was called, was held in 1853 as a run by Edwin 
^Meredith, who in 1858 sold to Alfred D. Fuller, who again 
sold to Henry and Frederick Clapcott. Fuller's home- 
stead was at the foot of a detached wooded hill, and was 
occupied by the manager, George Steel, and his wife. 
Steel was one of the first men to work on the Wairuna 
Estate. He arrived in Otago in 1850. and worked about 
North-East Valley, until in 185-i Rich engaged him to go 
to Avhat was then the most distant run from Dunedin. 
It took the family two weeks to get there. They crossed 
Lake Waihola in boats, and did the rest of the journey 
in bullock drays. Steel, after working on the Wairuna 
Kim for two years, and on the Popotunoa Run for one 
year, started the Kuriwao Accommodation House, where 
Clinton now is. He was one of the first, if not the very 
first, to cross the Wairuna stream 

The Wairuna Station held by William Gordon Rich 
was some three miles from Popotunoa at Wairuna. Here 
William Dalgleish, afterwards a resident of Puerua, was 
employed shepherding for about five years. Dalgleish 
had to milk some twenty cows, the milk being made into 
cheese, which was sold at Is. per Ib. The cheese press was 
a simple and primitive affair a notch being cut in a tree, 
a large sapling was inserted in it. and heavily weighted on 
the outer end. This acted as a lever, and a fairly effective 
press was the result. Kakas were plentiful in the bash 
and acquired a liking for the cheese. They took every 
opportunity of satisfying their taste for the delicacy, much 
to the detriment of the cheese cloths. Avhich were not 
easily obtained. 

Other stations in the neighbourhood were the Kuriwao 
Run. west of Clinton, held by Mr. Spooner. and afterwards 

of I) it tie din and South Ota go. Ill 

by Fitzclareuee Roberts, who sold to Bathgate ; the Merrie 
Creek Run, between Popotunoa and Waimna, held in 1855 
or l56 by a Mr. AVhite, then by the Laud Company, a 
Mr. Campbell being the manager for the latter; the Ota- 
raia Run. taken up in 1856 by T. Trumble; the Waipahi 
Run, also taken up in 1856 by Charles de Vere Tesche- 
maker, who was succeeded by Harry Robison ; and the 
Cairn Station, by one Oliver. 

In 1857, Captain Francis William McKenzie took up 
the Conical Hills and Glenkenich Runs, while the Dalvey 
Run, which included the land on which the town of 
Tapanui was afterwards built, was leased to John Ander- 
son and his brother-in-law, John Allan, of the Taieri. 

Brooksdale was leased in 1857 by William Pirikerton, 
and Greenvale in the same year to C. Glendining, who 
was known as the British Lion. Adjoining Brooksdale 
were Ardmore and Spylaw, Ardmore being taken up by 
John S. di C. Baigrie and W. H. S. Roberts. Baigrie sold 
out to Roberts and left New Zealand. Roberts was suc- 
ceeded by a Mr. Holmes, George Gunn, and John Herbert. 
Spylaw was taken up by F. B. Clapcott and sold to Tesche- 
maker, who sub-leased it to W. H. S. Roberts, and then 
sold to Schlotel Bros. 

Captain McKenzie was born in Ross-shire, and entered 
the Indian Army. On leaving the army he emigrated to 
New r Zealand in 1856, and settled in 1858 on the Glen- 
kenich Run. In 1863, and again in 1867, he was elected 
a member of the Provincial Council for the Clutha. He 
died on December 5th, 1892, aged sixty-four years. 

Moa Flat was taken up by the Chalmers Bros., who 
had resided for a time in the South Molyneux District. 
After securing their run, they visited Victoria in search 
of capital and sheep. Clarke, the famous squatter and 
capitalist, supplied both. Two thousand young merinos 
were shipped on a German barque, and landed on the 
beach at Kororo Creek, near Port Molyneux. The sheep 
were boated ashore, and on one of the trips from ship 
to land the mate and boatswain, frightened by a roller 
half filling their boat in the surf, jumped overboard on 
the lee side, and the boat rolling sideways on them crushed 
both to death. The boat then righted herself and floated 
ashore. Not a sheep was lost, although two lives had been 
sacrificed through the men losing their judgment when in 
the surf. The unfortunate accident was witnessed by 
some settlers, who soon recovered the bodies, which were 

178 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

buried alongside the remains of a man named Cook on 
a spot now marked by a brier bush. 

The whole flock of sheep, minus a few that had died 
on the voyage was landed safely, and then a big mistake 
was made. Instead of moving them straight away to Moa 
Flat, they were kept on a small area of cleared laud in 
the vicinity. When a move was made, they were driven 
in one mob and became jammed in a narrow pass, hun- 
dreds being smothered. Tutu killed many more, and 
finally about 1.100 sheep debouched from the bush on to 
the clear country about Puerua, leaving about 900 carcases 
for the Maori dogs and hawks to devour. This was a 
calamitous start, as the young sheep had cost about 3 
a head when landed in New Zealand. It is not known how 
many reached Moa Flat, but no doubt tutu, wild dogs, 
and the swampy creeks accounted for a goodly number, 
especially as no practical drovers or shepherds accom- 
panied the flock en route. 

Clarke carried on the Chalmers for some years, but, 
finding they were doing no good, came to Otago in the 
'sixties and foreclosed on his stock mortgage. He sold 
the station to a dummy, and ultimately converted the 
75.000 acres into a freehold. 

One of the finest forests in Otago grew in the early 
days on the sides of the mountain adjoining Tapanui, but 
it has now disappeared, having been sawn up into timber 
or split up for fencing and firewood. John Patterson 
was the founder of the timber industry in Tapanui. lie 
came in 1860 with Joseph Sherlaw. and cut a good deal 
of timber by hand in the old-fashioned saw pits. He then 
put up a water wheel on the banks of the Flodden Creek 
between Pinkerton's Bush and the Main Bush. In 1865 
he removed his sawmill, improving and enlarging it con- 
siderably. The first two loads of timber were taken in 
bullock drays to Lawrence, the price being 20s. per 100ft. 
at the mill, cartage an extra. 

In 1866, Swan, Brand. Smart, and McClelland started 
a second mill, which they sold to Mr. McColl. who again 
disposed of it to William McFarlane. This mill was 
known as the Camperdown Sawmill. 

In 1864 the runholders clubbed together and arranged 
to give 25 each as a stipend to a minister of the Gospel, 
and the Kev. James Urie. of West Taieri. was asked to 
take charge of the district. He agreed to do so. and a 
comfortable manse was erected in the bush close to the 

of Dnncdin and South Otago. 179 

Flodden. He visited the home station of each contributor, 
somewhere every Sunday, until February, 1866, when, at 
the urgent request of the settlers, he agreed to hold 
service in the village of Tapanui. His first sermon there 
was preached in the carpenter's shop belonging to James 
Inglis. Mr. Trie continued his good work until April, 
1871, when he passed to his rest. 

In 1868 a school was established, and Mr. G. 8. Xeish 
was appointed teacher. He opened the school with only 
seven scholars, and from this small beginning has risen 
the present High School, the teacher of which is Mr. W. 
W. Mackie. 

This" briefly is a short skotch of the settlement 
extending from the Molyneux. including Inch-Clutha and 
the north side of the river, onward to Tapanui. Of course, 
changes in the ownership of the various runs and farms 
frequently took place, but it has been the effort of the 
writer to give as correctly as he possibly could the names 
of those who originally took up the land, and where that 
was not possible the names of those who first settled, and 
thanks are due to those who so kindly and courteously 
supplied information. 

Many of the early settlers in Clutha firmly believed 
that, with such a river as the Molyneux close to their 
hand, it would be only a matter of time when a magni- 
ficent fleet of trading craft would open up to them direct 
communication to the outer world. Unfortunately for 
their beliefs, the mouth of the river was blocked by a 
bar. which rendered the entrance extremely dangerous. 
However, their hopes seemed about to be realised when 
the schooner "Endeavour" first entered the river, a 
Maori named Potiki being in charge. Other vessels of 
moderate draught came in. and Andrew McNeil often 
towed a boat with bis bullocks as far as Finegand. Other 
boats came to where Griffiths' is now. and some went up 
the Puerua as far as Redpath's store. On one occasion 
the "Geelong" went up as far as Archibald Anderson's 
place at Balmoral, and took the whole family on board 
for a trip to Dunedin. 

On January 17th. 1857, the "Endeavour" was 
wrecked, and on January llth, 1861. the p.s. "Ada" was 
wrecked in attempting to cross the bar. Hopes fell to 
zero, and it was felt that the difficulties were almost 

180 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Shortly after the first settlement in the Molyneux, the 
settlers had petitioned the Government to improve the 
entrance to the river and remove the snags which were 
embedded in the sides and bottom of the stream. Captain 
Cargill. the Superintendent of the Province, anxious to 
promote settlement, acceded to the request of the peti- 
tioners, and, to carry out the project, advertised a date 
when the Superintendent and party would be at Port 
Molyneux, and invited all interested to meet there to give 
the necessary information. Accordingly, the s.s. "Gee- 
long," with Captain Cargill. J. T. Thomson. Chief Sur- 
veyor, and other gentlemen on board, duly arrived, got 
easily over the bar, and was moored at the landing-place 
near the township. The whistle was blown loud ami long, 
but no one came. The party then proceeded slowly up the 
Koau branch of the river to Shaw's landing, a distance 
of some nine miles. They then went down the Matau 
branch to a landing-place on the Kaitangata side of the 
Island. After waiting for some time and blowing the 
whistle, they observed a man running down the riverside 
and waving his hat. When he reached the landing-place 
he asked if they would take some bags of potatoes to 
Dunedin. Captain Cargill replied: "We have not come 
for cargo. Can you give us any information about the 
snags in the river, and where, in times of floods, it over- 
flows its banks?" He could not give any. so they 
departed, taking, however, his potatoes to market. 

Some time afterwards Captain Cargill met some of 
the Clutha settlers in Dunedin, and gave them a severe 
rebuke, saying: "You have behaved foolishly and lost a 
golden opportunity to get something done for your dis- 
trict. You are loud in your appeals for help, but you 
will not do anything to assist the Government or help 
yourselves. The Government will not be justified in 
attempting to do any more for the district until some 
enterprising and energetic settlers reside among you." 
It was therefore many years before any further attempts 
were made to deal with the obstruction in the river. 

After the advent of the gold diggings, however, it 
was considered that a lucrative trade might be established 
between the goldfields and Port Molyneux by having 
steam communication on the river. About 1863 Captain 
Murray agreed with the Provincial Council to put a 
steamer on for a subsidy of 1,400 a year. During that 
year he launched the stern wheeler "Tuapeka" at Port 

of Dnnedin <uid South Otago. 181 

Chalmers, and on August llth. 1863, she was placed on 
the river. 

On her arrival at Balclutha the residents entertained 
Captain Murray at a dinner, Avhich was held in Barr's 
bakehouse, which had been suitably fitted up by Alex. 
Bain and others. Robert Robsou was chairman, and 
called upon Mr. Telford to respond to the toast of "The 
Agricultural and Pastoral Interests." In responding. Mr. 
Telford said: "I am no speaker when the subject is such 
a wide one as the Agricultural and Pastoral Interests, but 
let me speak about sheep and I'll speak till morning." 

The s.s. "Tuapeka" was able to steam as far up the 
river as-Tuapeka Mouth, but the hopes of an inland trade 
were not realised, the distance between the goldfields and 
the river being too great. However, the boat was very 
useful to the settlers, so much so that, when in 1865 it was 
proposed to remove her, a general outcry took place. 
After being laid up for some little time, she was again 
commissioned in November, 1865, and for some years d ; d 
excellent work. In 3871 another boat, the "Clutha, " was 
launched at Pomahaka, but was not a success. A new 
boat, the "Balclutha," then took up the trade, the engines 
from the "Tuapeka" being shifted to the new boat at 
Port Molyneux. Other boats on the river were the 
"lona, " the first iron steamer, the "Matau, " and the 
"Clyde." The "Clyde" is at present in commission, and 
another boat has since been put on the river to overtake 
the increased traffic. 

The first mails from Dunedin to Glut ha were carried 
by an Australian aboriginal, "Black Andy." He could 
neither read nor write, and. when he canie to a settler's 
house, would say: "I have a letter for you, boy." The 
letters were then emptied and the people would take out 
theirs. Avhen the rest would be re-parcelled up and direc- 
tions given to Andy how to proceed to the next house. 

He did the trip to Clutha on foot till about 1856, when 
Jock Graham offered to carry the mails on horseback for 
150 per annum. For a long time the mails to the out- 
lying districts came very irregularly, and were carried 
to the various post offices, sometimes by some of the 
settlers, at other times by regularly appointed mail 
carriers. John Dalziel once took the mail out to the 
Popotunoa district, when, to his surprise, the shepherd 
showed signs of fight. He thought he was in for a bad 
time, until they saw the mail bap: when it turned out that 

182 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

they thought he was the dog tax collector, and they 
intended to resent his coming amongst them. Other mail 
carriers were R. Mills, A. Kelly, Joe Collins, TI. Lewis, 
W. Renton, D. Cunninghame, R. Barr, J. Morton, Joe 
Robertson. J Mercer, and James Johnston, who was the 
last to carry on the business. 

So far as can be ascertained, the first Postmaster 1'or 
Port Molyneux and neighbourhood was C. V. Brewer; at 
Puerua, Robert Christie ; at Wharepa. Peter Ayson : at 
Kaihiku, D. Dickie; at Waiwera, W. Chisholm; and at 
Waitepeka, Thomas Somerville. It was difficult to get 
anyone to keep the offices for any lengthy period. 
Wharepa may be taken as a sample of the continual 
changes, which were as follows: Corydon (Mr. Ayson), 
The Bush (W. Young), Hogg's Bridge (J. Hogg), Waite 
peka (T. Somerville), Wharepa School (Mr. Ings), 
Wharepa Store (J. Crawford). After the railway was 
opened another Post Office was opened near the Wharepa 
Station, and was put in charge of Robert Farquhar. 

The Volunteer movement early received euthvsiastic 
support in the Clutha, the first recorded meeting tv> form 
a corps being held in the Alexandra Hotel. Port Molyneux, 
in 1864, when about a hundred persons were present. 
It was agreed to form a corps, and more than eighty 
young fellows signed the memorial praying for enrolment. 
In the same year a meeting was held at Balclutha with 
the same object, and from these meetings arose the first 
Volunteer corps in the Clutha district. 

The early settlers, too. found time for various sports, 
and we find an account of a cricket match in 1864 at the 
residence of John Barr, Te Houka. between Balclutha and 
Kaitangata teams. The stern-wheel steamer "Tuapeka" 
was chartered for the occasion, and the players were 
accompanied by a number of friends. On their arrival 
the ladies and children were hospitably entertained by 
Mr. and Mrs. Barr, and after the game, which resulted in 
a win for the Clutha team on the first innings, the players 
and their friends were treated to a sumptuous repast of 
geese, diieks. turkeys, and rabbits, with other luxuries in 
abundance. After dinner the usual loyal toasts were 
honoured, and bumpers drunk to the health of Mr. and 
Mrs. Barr. 

During the game the superior play of Dr. Gibson 
Smith. Hawkins, Clapcott. Twiss. and Cobden was much 
admired. Messrs. Dunnett and Millar acted as umpires, 

of D lined in and South Otago. 183 

with Messrs. Barr and Bain as scorers. The following are 
the scores made : 

KAITANGATA. First Innings. 

Twiss, Ibw, b Jowett ... ... ... ... 1 

G. Maitland, b Clapcott ... ... ... 1 

J. P. Maitland, c George, b Jowett ... ... 

\V. Maitland, st Cobden, b Clapcott ... ... 4 

Hunter, b Jowett ... ... ... ... 12 

Dr. Smith, b Jowett ... ... ... ... 6 

Dalrymple, c Barr, b Clapcott ... ... ... 1 

Stewart, st Cobden, b Jowett ... ... ... 

Pillans, st Cobden, b Clapcott ... ... ... 

Latta, b Jowett ... ... ... ... 

D. Maitland, b George ... ... ... 5 

Leg byes ... 2 

Byes ... 3 

Total ... 35 

BALCLUTHA. First Innings. 

Clapcott ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Cobden ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Audry, b Twiss ... ... ... ... 

George, b G. Maitland ... ... ... 12 

McEwen, b Twiss ... ... ... ... 2 

Rattray, b G. Maitland ... ... ... 1 

Jowett, b Twiss ... ... ... ... 

Jeffers, Ibw, b D. Maitland ... ... ... 

Cormack, b Twiss ... ... ... ... 2 

Dowal, b Twiss ... ... ... ... 1 

Hawkins, b I). Maitland ... ... ... 

Byes and leg byes ... 4 

Wides ... ' ... 4 


The return match was played on the Clutha Ferry 
Reserve, and resulted in a win for Kaitangata by several 


First Innings. Second Innings. 

Cobden, b G. Maitland ... ... 37 b J. P. Maitland ... 

George, b J. P. Maitland ... ... 16 (Cobden, sub.) c G. 

Maitland ... 15 

R. Barr, c D. Maitland, b G. Maitland... not out ... ... 

Jowett, run out, b C,. Maitland ... 1 st Hunter, b D. Mait- 
land ... ... 1 

M cl-:\\ en, c Jowett, b D. Maitland ... b J. Maitland ... 

J. Barr, run out, b J. P. Maitland ... 5 c Jowett ... ... 5 

Cormack, Ibw, c Hunter ... ... st Hunter... ... 

Dunnett, b D. Maitland ... ... c J. Maitland ... 4 

Kattray, c Richardson, b J. Maitland ... 2 c J. Maitland ... 

Bain, not out ... ... ... c Jowett ... ... 1 

Latta, b D. Maitland... ... ... 3 c J. Maitland ... 1 

Byes, 2 ; wides, 2 ... 4 Byes, 2 ; wides, 6 8 

Total . 68 Total 35 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

First Innings. 


Second Innings. 

Hunter, c Cobden 

D. Maitland, b Cobden 

Richardson, bjowett... 

G. H. Maitland, c and b Cobden 

A. Jowett, b Cobden ... 

J. P. Maitland, b Jowett 

Robson, b Cobden 

W. Maitland, b Jowett 

J. G. Smith, b Jowett 

De Costa, b Cobden ... 

J. P. Maitland (sub for Jeffers) 

Wides, 2 ; byes, 1 


b Cobden 


b Jowett ... 


b Cobden 


b Cobden 

b Cobden 


b Jowett ... 


not out 




Wides, 1 




byes, 4 

Total for 6 wkts. 38 

The first recorded sports meeting at Port Molyneux 
was held in 1864. in front of the Alexandra Hotel, when 
30 was given in prizes. A large number of people were 
present and a most enjoyable day was spent, the sports 
ending up with a grand ball held in the hotel. As to the 
class of sport indulged in in those times the following 
list of events will show : 

Quoiting. James Mailer, 1. 

Tilting. -Alex. Begg, jun, 1. 

Foot Race. George Hay, jun., 1. 

Hop. Step, and Leap. Neil Colquhouu, 1. 

High Leap. W. Hay and Mooni, 1. 

Sack Race. W. Hay, 1. 

Blindfold Wheelbarrow Race. Andrew Chapman, 1. 

Long before these dates the people of Wharepa had 
instituted picnics at which sports were held. The 
Wharepa Bush, an ideal spot, was usually the rendezvous 
of the people. There was a natural circle in the dense 
bush, with a flooring of grass, and here all and sundry 
laid out their viands on snowy white cloths. Then the 
company sat down and was helped. Every one con- 
tributed to the general provision, and the biggest pots 
that could be requisitioned in the district were slung on 
poles to boil the water for the tea. 

At first the sports were started For the children and 
juniors, but soon events for adults were added. Messrs. 
Gordon. Dabinett. and Crawford were the leading spirits 
in directing the games, while in later years Wm. Christie 
and others took a leading part. The fiddles were kept 
going, and dancing was kept up steadily on the green turf. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 185 

Everyone knew everyone, and there was u homely, hearty 

When the picnics attracted strangers from all quar- 
ters, and it is said on several occasions several hundreds 
were present, they gradually developed into proper sports 
meetings. The first of these was held behind the church 
on a site belonging to Mrs. Christie, in the centre of the 
district, then in Doull's Mill Paddock at Kaihiku. As 
settlement increased, evening entertainments, which took 
the form of singing and dancing classes, lectures, and 
balls, came into vogue. The first dancing class in the 
district was held by Alfred B. Cook, early in the 'sixties, 
in J. Crawford's barn, the class winding up with a grand 
ball, tickets 10s. each. Sixpenny Readings were then 
starred, and took so well that they were instituted in most 
of the surrounding districts. Lectures, too, were highly 
esteemed much more so than in the present day. The 
earliest lecturers were the Revs. W. Bannerman and J. 
Waters. Robert Gillies, Major Richardson, J. W. Thomson, 
W. S. Mosley, and Robert Campbell. 

The first Benevolent Ball in the Clutha District was 
held in Wharepa in Campbell's woolshe-1. Glenfalloch, J. 
Crawford being the secretary. The evening was ex- 
tremely wintry, snow falling heavily, stil! a large number 
of people turned out, many being taken to the place of 
entertainment in tilted drays. . Samuel Young says that 
girls were scarce, but he did his share in providing them, 
as he took no less than five in his dray. The proceeds 
of the ball, amounting to 36. were sent to the institution 
in Dunedin. Mr. Crawford, the secretary, being elected 
a Life Governor of that body. These balls were kept up 
year in year out till the Government took over the institu- 
tion, the last being held in 1886. 

In the surrounding districts social evenings were 
common, and helped to while away the long dreary 
evenings. It AVHS long a boast that distance was no object 
to many enthusiasts whenever a ball was held anywhere 
between Popotunoa and Port Molyneux. 

The first singing class was held in 1859 in John 
Somerville's house at the Wharepa Bush, the conductor 
being Thomas Somerville. and among the pupils were 
Misses Ay son. Young, and Messrs. Ayson. S. Young, C. 
Dabinett. and J. Somerville. the last of whom was the 
second conductor. A Mr. Todd. of Balclutha. later on 
conducted a class at the school, but this class was not a 

186 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

very successful one. Other classes were conducted by 
John Reid, Robert Ayson, and David Thomas. At the 
first sacred concert given in the church several anthems 
were for the first time sung. Mr. Munro. a strong 
advocate of all the old Paraphrases and Psalms, expressed 
grave dissatisfaction at the change, saying that he could 
not compare the singing to anything but the yowling of 

When the Provincial Council was opened in 1853, 
Clutha was included in Country Districts, the whole of 
which boasted of only 275 electors. These returned six 
members, one of whom was Archibald Anderson, who 
polled 97 votes, and who Avas regarded as being the Clutha 
representative. In 1855 the districts wero slightly altered. 
Clutha being called the Southern District, which was 
entitled to two members. Mr. Anderson was again 
elected, and had for his colleague Mr. Shaw, of Pinegand. 
These gentlemen walked to and from Dunedin, staying 
usually three weeks for the session, and paying their own 
expenses a marked contrast to the present-day repre- 
sentatives, who have 300 a year, and are desirous of 

In 1859 the Council increased its numbers to 25. and 
at the election in January, 1860, Major Richardson and 
D. P. Steel were elected for Clutha, which, for the first 
time, was created a separate constituency. It is said that 
when the Major and Steel addressed a meeting of the 
electors at AVharepa School, only about six individuals 
were present. The Major was the better speaker, and, 
standing on an old barrel, he explained Steel's views for 
him. Before the speech was concluded the barrel caved 
in. which caused considerable merriment. In 1861 Major 
Richardson was elected Superintendent of the Province, 
and his place in the Council was taken by A. F. Oswin. 
of Wharepa. 

By 1863 Clutha became entitled to three members, 
and at the election on May 22nd. Messrs. Richardson, Steel, 
and McKenzie were elected; but in 1864 Steel resigned, 
and in October of that year J. AY. Thomson was elected 
in his place by a majority of five votes, polling 62 to 
his opponent's 57. Mr. Thomson was elected each succeed- 
ing election until 1873. when he was defeated by Messrs. 
Richardson and McNeil. The representatives of the Clutha 
;it the election of 1867 were Messrs. Thomson. Henderson. 

of I) lined in and Sout/i Otago. 187 

iiiul McKenzie. and in 1871 Messrs. Thomson and Hender- 
son: In this year Mr. Thomson was elected a member of 
the House of Representatives, and was continuously re- 
elected until 1885, when he was defeated by Mr. Mac- 
kenzie, now the Hon. T. Mackenzie. Minister of Agricul- 
ture in the Ward Government. When Mr. Mackenzie 
retired to take up a position in the Home Country, Mr. 
Thomson was again elected ; but when the elections came 
on in 1905, owing to failing health, he retired, and Mr. 
A. S. Malcolm, the present member, was elected. 

188 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 



HP HE first settlers in Clutha felt most keenly the want of 
1 the Gospel privileges they had enjoyed in the Home- 
land. Dr. Burns came on foot as far as Inch-Clutha 
to hold services, which were greatly appreciated, but his 
visits were few and far between. In 1854 the Rev. W. 
Bannerman was appointed to the char. ire of the Clntha 
District, his parish extending from Waihola to Riverton. 
For two years his home was on Inch-Clutha, but in 1856 
he removed to Wharepa. to a house kindly lent by Peter 
Ayson, of Corydon, until the manse at Pnerua should be 

The first service in South Clutha was held on March 
19th, 1854. in the house of Geo. Hay, Hilly Park, whose 
son and daughter were baptised on that day. There 
were but five families in South Clutha at that time- 
Messrs. Hay, Mercer, Willcher, Archibald brothers, and 
Brugh. These, along with the Aysons (father and son), 
from Wharepa. Robert Christie, David and Mrs. Dunn, 
some fifteen in all, constituted the congregation. 

Mr. F. S. Pillans piloted the Rev. Bannerman through 
Shaw's Swamp, which at that time was full of lagoons, 
and it was very necessary for strangers to have a pilot 
through it. When they came to the Puerua Stream, they 
had to cross at a special point, known as the Three 
Bushes. If people had not th pluck to cross there, they 
had to walk up the bank until they came to a ford. At 
that time there were no starched collars, etc.. and people 
were thankful even if their boots Avere tied with flax laces. 
One of the Archibalds came to the first service dressed in 
sailor's duck pants and coat, with a sheath knife at his 
belt and a nightcap on his head. 

of Diinedin and Soulk Otago. 189 

The services were afterwards held every three weeks 
at Port Molyneux, Tokomairiro, and Inch-elutha. When 
a sudden rise in the Puerua rendered crossing impossible, 
the minister repaired to Wharepa, and by-and-by this 
service became a stated one. The South Clutha services 
were removed to Awakiki Bush, and for a short time to 
Underwood before the church was built. In 1856 efforts 
were made to build a church. The Hon. W. H. Reynolds 
and Mr. Arthur Burns afterwards came to the district, 
and Mr. Burns presented about eleven acres, adjoining the 
present cemetery, as a site and glebe, while Mr. Reynolds 
gave money to scrim and paper the church. Messrs. Hay 
(father and son) sawed the timber, carrying it out of the 
bush to where Mr. Brugh could reach' it with his sledge, 
and that gentleman and D. Dunn sledged it to the site. 
Messrs. Begg and W. Hay cut the piles, and soon the 
framework of the first church was erected: that was in 
1858. Mr. Archibald split the shingles for the roof, and 
Messrs. Hay built the chimney. When the building was 
completed, Mr. and Mrs. W. Perkins presented the con- 
gregation with a handsome pulpit Bible. The building 
was an unpretentious one, but it was the free will offering 
of a generous people. 

Services were conducted regularly in this building 
until 18G6, when churches were erected at Puerua and 
Port Molyneux. At the latter place the first services 
were held in Thomson and Mailer's store. The site for 
the new church at Puerua was given by D. P. Steel at a 
peppercorn rental, and was afterwards gifted by T. Ord, 
who had purchased Steel's property when the latter left 
New Zealand, the only condition being that a whole seat 
should be reserved for all time for the family, whoever 
it might be, that should occupy Underwood Farm. The 
new building was opened by Dr. Burns, and at a social 
meeting held during the week, the Rev. Bannerman was 
presented with a handsome pulpit gOAvn. 

In 1898 the present church replaced the old one, 
which was showing signs of decay. It cost 463, and 
was opened practically free of debt. In 1857 the present 
manse was erected by Thomas Tolmie and William Young. 
Tt was a neat weather-board building, and Mr. Bannerman 
made it more comfortable by adding a clay lining. A 
handsome addition was made to it in 1867. 

The first office-bearers in the Clutha parish were 
Messrs. George Hay. James Johnson, and John Geggie. 

190 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

who in 1858 were eleeted deacons, and a little later Mr. 
Johnson was raised to the eldership. In 1875 the deacons 
of the new church were Ben. Johnston, Robert Christie, 
John Geggie, A. Ledingham, James Marshall, W. Morton, 
and John Porteous. At the same time James Johnston 
and John and Jas. Somerville constituted the first session. 
At the present date (1910) the office-bearers consist of: 
W. Paterson. Jas. Lamond, J. and A. Morton, J. Shields 
(elders), and J. A. Somerville, G. McKenzie, P. Renton, 
I. Dent, and R. J. Allison (managers). 

In 1863 Port Molyneux had advanced so much that 
steps were taken to build a church, and in 1864 Geo. Hay 
went round the district to see what support would be 
given towards erecting a building, which could be used as 
a school as well as a church. So successful was he that 
in 1865 a building on the site of the present church was 
opened free of debt. The first deacons in this church were 
Jas. Paterson and Geo. Hay, while J. W. Thomson was 
the first elder. In 1875 the present church was opened 
by the Rev. Dr. Stuart, of Dunedin, the old building being 
presented to the Alexandra Lodge of Oddfellows, who 
removed it to its present site. The present office-bearers 
in the church are Jas. Shiels, Adam Paterson. Wm. Peter- 
son. A. Kilgour (elders). AVm. Hay. M. Jackman. and 
S. J. Harrison (managers). 

Kaitangata and Inch-Clutha originally formed the 
ecclesiastical centre of the Rev. W. Bannerman, and ser- 
vices were first held in Redpath's house at the Head of 
the Island. There was an attendance of between 30 and 
40 persons, some of whom had walked over ten miles, 
threading their way through tall flax and tussocks. 

In 3863 these two places were erected into a parish, 
and in 1864 the Rev. Jas. Kirkland was inducted into the 
charge of the congregation. He laboured among -the 
people with much acceptance till 1872, Avhen he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. J. M. Allan. Two churches were 
erected during Mr. Allan's incumbency one at Kai- 
tangata and the other on the Island. The bell on the 
Island church was the gift of Archibald Anderson, of 
Balmoral, one of the early settlers in the district. In 1889 
Kaitangata was erected into a separate charge, the first 
minister being the Rev. Robert Fairmaid, who was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Scott Allan, who was again succeeded 
by the present incumbent, the Rev. T. W. Ourrie. In Inch- 
Clutha and Stirling Mr. Allan was succeeded by the Rev. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 191 

W. Ramsay, who was translated to Napier, being in turn 
succeeded by the Rev. W. AY. Brown. 

The office-bearers in the Rev. W. Bannerman's time 
at Inch-Clutha were: Messrs. Wm. Smith. John Darling, 
Alex. Grigor, Jas. Holland. John Shepherd (elders), John 
Shaw. Archd. Anderson. Adam Holland. Peter Smith, and 
D. McNeil (deacons). In Mr. Kirkland's time they were: 
Messrs. Wm. Smith, John Darling. ,Vlex. Grigor, James 
Holland. John Shepherd. Archibald Anderson (elders), 
John Shaw. Adam Holland. Peter Smith, D. McNeil, Jas. 
Rattray. Donald Mitchell. Jas. Wylie. John McNeil, 
Duncan Ferguson, and James P. Maitland (deacons) 
Those now in office are: Messrs. Edward Boyd, Senr., 
P. McSkimming. Senr.. Robert MacKinlay. -Thos. Parker, 
Jas. Lawson. Parker MacKinlay. Arthur Hislop, James 
Smaill, Wm. Sutherland (elders), P. McSkimming. Junr.. 
Jas. Esson, Geo. H. Gilroy. J. G. Henderson, Geo. Harvey, 
Geo. Anderson, Senr.. A. J. Bell, J. D. Willocks, Junr., and 
Alex. Renton (managers). 

When Inch-Clutha was declared a sanctioned charge, 
the settlers in and around Balclutha were in the habit of 
worshipping in the old church across the river at Bal- 
moral. In June, 3866. application was made to the 
Presbytery to have the district declared a preaching 
station. In 1867 it received full sanction, but for some 
time there was no ministerial settlement. 

As far back as 1864 efforts had been made to erect 
a place of worship, and at a meeting held in the Court- 
house 140 was subscribed. Further subscriptions came 
to hand, and enabled the Committee to proceed with the 
erection of a building, the contract for which was let to 
Winchester and Clayton, of Dunedin. for the sum of 

In 1870 the Rev. A. B. Arnott, M.A., was called and 
inducted to the charge, but after a pastorate of only two 
years he resigned. He was succeeded by the Rev. John 
McAra. during whose incumbency a new church was built, 
at a cost of some 3.000. Only a small part of this sum 
was immediately subscribed, and for many years the con- 
gregation staggered under a load of debt. In 1879 Mr. 
McAra was succeeded by the Rev. George Morice, who 
was drowned while bathing at Port Molyneux. During 
these terms services were conducted at Te Ilouka by the 
Balclutha ministers, previous services being held by Rev. 
J. Waters, who, in 1864, held the first service in the 

192 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

district in Mr. Dallas 's house. After the school was built 
(in 1869) services were held in it. Services were also held 
at Mt. Stuart and Lovell's Flat, the latter of which was 
soon placed under the care of a missionary, but is now a 
sanctioned charge, the Rev. P. B. Fraser. M.A. (recently 
resigned), being the first minister. Mount Stuart was 
added to the Waitahmia Parish, so the only remaining 
preaching station outside Balclutha is Te Houka. 

On April 1st. 1885, after a few months' vacancy, the 
Rev. S. W. Currie, M.A., was inducted into the pastoral 
charge of the district. The first meeting of session was 
held on November 26th. 1866. when there were present 
the Rev. Jas. Kirkland, of Inch-Clutha, Moderator pro 
tern., and Messrs. Duncan McNeil, Robert Renton, and 
David Todd (elders). The first Deacons' Court met on 
December 17th, 1866. the deacons being Messrs. D. Fer- 
guson. John McNeil, Robert ITouliston, and James 
Rattray. The present office-bearers are : Messrs. James 
Clark. Charles Dallas, Andrew Hutton. Thos. McKee, 
Donald Ryrie. John Sandilands. Dr. St en house (elders) ; 
Win. Boyd, R. Campbell. Win. Dallas, Junr.. D. T. Flem- 
ing. Adam Houliston, T. A. Johnston, George Moft'at, 
Wm. McElrea, and Wm. Stevenson (managers). 

At Wharepa the first services were held in Gordon 
and Ross's hut. in front of the Wharepa Bush, by the 
Rev. W. Bannerman, who, however, could preach only 
once a month. By-and-by a little church, which did good 
service both as church and school, was built on the top 
of the Cemetery Hill. The timber was sawn by Peter and 
James Ayson, while the work of erection was done by the 
Ay sons, father .and son. When the minister was absent, 
services were conducted by the Rev. McNicol, an old 
Highland minister. Messrs. C. H. Kettle. Wm. Young. 
John Somerville. II. McLeod. Jas. Ayson, Senr.. and T. B. 
Gillies. The singing was led in Gordon and Ross's hut 
by Jas. F. Ayson. who was thus the first precentor; others 
assisting at different periods there and in the first church 
were Messrs. Waite, Peter Ayson, and James Somerville. 

In 1865 Wharepa was erected into a separate charge, 
the Rev, John Waters being called arid inducted in 
October of that year. In December. 1865, a contract, was 
let to Bain and Sanderson to build a manse, the price 
being 540. and the new building was completed and 
ready for occupatioii on May 31st. 1866. It lasted for 
some forty years, when a new manse was erected on the 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 193 

same site, at a cost of about 600, K. Kerr being the suc- 
cessful tenderer. Towards the end of 1866 a new church 
in close proximity to the manse was built, the ground 
being donated by Geo. Munro. When this church was 
opened, a soiree was held, and is worthy of remembrance 
in that the refreshments were handed round in paper bags. 
Colin McKeuzie and Jas. Falconer were the contractors 
for the building, and the settlers one arid all gave their 
hearty assistance by carting the timber, helping to erect 
the frame, and in many other ways. It is said that when 
the new building was spoken of, Adam Borthwiek offered, 
if the building were built of stone, 100 and all the stone 
from his Carterhope quarry. His offer was not accepted, 
and so "a good donation was lost. The precentors in this 
church were Jas. Somerville, Jas. Wilson, Chas. Dallas, 
Geo. Munro for Gaelic services, T. H. Meeking, and Kobt. 
Ayson, the latter of whom conducted the singing for 
about thirty-live years, w r ith the exception of short inter- 
vals, when he was relieved by W. \V. Mackie and G. B. 
Somerville. When Jas. Somerville retired to attend the 
Puerua Church, the Wharepa people presented him witli 
a harmonium, as a token of the esteem in which they had 
held his services. 

On April 39th, 1866, a handsome gift of 33 5s. 6d. 
was presented to the Rev. John Waters by David Weir. 
Peter Ayson, and Donald Sutherland, on behalf of the 
subscribers, for the purpose of buying a horse, saddle, and 
bridle. After fourteen years' service Mr. Waters resigned, 
being presented with a purse of sovereigns by his friends 
as a token of esteem. He was succeeded by the Rev. G. B. 
Inglis, who. for other fourteen years, prosecuted his 
labours with diligence and success, when he was trans- 
lated to Ashburton. He was succeeded by the Rev. John 
Kilpatrick, now of Green Island, and he in turn was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Jas. F. G. Orr, M.A., B.D.. who, in 
1909, resigned to proceed to the Home Country. During 
1910 the parish was disjoined from Kaihiku. and, along 
with Puerua, erected into a new charge, called Clutha- 
Wharepa, which charge gave a hearty call to the Rev. A. 
Watson, of Alexandra South. The call was accepted, and 
the Rev. Watson duly inducted into the charge on October 
27th, 1910. 

The first Sunday School in the district was conducted 
in Wm. Young's old house by the first Mrs. Waters, 
who was exceedingly popular, and when she died very 

194 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

genuine grief was felt by the children and everyone in 
the place. She had been their guide, philosopher, and 
friend, and round her grave the children sang the hymns 
she loved so well. A tombstone, erected in the cemetery 
over her grave by the ladies of the district, has carved 
on it a line from her favourite hymn, "Rock of Ages": 
"Nothing in my hand I bring; simply to Thy Cross I 

The first office-bearers in the church were Wm. Young, 
H. McLeod, and Jas. Ayson (elders), and John Somer- 
ville, Jas. McNeil, and Jas. Hay (deacons). Those now in 
office are W. Marshall, J. Wilson, J. Sarginson, J. Gordon 
(elders), and J. E. Russell, T. Stewart. J. F. Ayson. R. 
Tweed, R. Somerville, and A. Marshall (managers) (1910). 

The following account of Mr. and Mrs. Waters may 
here fittingly find a place, Mr. Waters being, as stated, 
the first minister of the Wharepa charge. 

The pioneer ministers of the Presbyterian Church 
of New Zealand were resolute and hardy men, specially 
selected for the needs of a new Colony. The Rev. John 
Waters was an excellent specimen of the type. Strongly 
built and of iron constitution, he combined with the frame 
of the hardy North-bred Scotsman the enthusiasm of the 
scholar and the theologian. Born in the far Northern 
County of Caithness, the descendant of generations of 
tenant farmers, he had the fortune to be the one son 
selected for a University education, a much coveted dis- 
tinction in those days of plain living and high thinking. 
After passing through the Edinburgh University Arts and 
Divinity Classes with some distinction, and, as was usual 
in those times, employing his vacations in teaching, he 
was duly licensed by the Free Church of Scotland, and 
shortly after sailed for Dunedin. Landing in July. 1865, 
he was called in October following to the new charge of 
Wharepa and Kaihiku. where he remained for fourteen 

Mr. Waters threw himself with enthusiasm into the 
work of his parish and his Presbytery, and it is difficult 
in this generation of railways and motor-cars to realise 
what toilsome miles had then to be covered on horseback 
in order to attend even to the needs of a single district. 

"I had Presbytery business in Invercargill once," 
said Mr. Waters. "I was in Dunedin, and the matter 
was urgent. I rode to Wharepa that day, spelled my 
horse that night and next morning, rode to Clinton in 
the afternoon, and on to Tnvercargill next day." 

of D uned in and South Otago. 195 

"What sort of roads had you?" queried the writer. 

"Oh, just tracks," was the reply, as if "just tracks" 
v:as "a mere detail of no special significance. 

In addition to his ministerial duties, Mr. Waters took 
an active interest in educational matters, and did all he 
could to help young men who showed an inclination to 
prepare themselves for entering the newly-fledged Uni- 
versity of Otago. He also followed the politics of both 
New Zealand and the Homeland with great zest, and at 
the same time kept up his reading, theological and other- 
wise, with a student's enthusiasm. 

Leaving Wharepa in 1879. Mr. Waters settled in Dun- 
edin in order to secure educational advantages for his 
family, and for many years undertook pioneering work for 
the Presbyterian Church. The calls of duty took him 
far afield. From Stewart Island to North Canterbury he 
was well and widely known as a painstaking and earnest 
pastor, who was content to supply temporary vacancies 
or administer Church Extension charges; and, having 
planted and watered whatever corner of the Vineyard 
might fall to his lot. to silently depart, trusting that others 
would reap the harvest. A man and a minister of wide 
experience and liberal opinions, blessed with a genial 
and even temperament, a sympathetic listener as well as 
an interesting speaker, he engaged the liking and the 
respect of all classes. At the advanced age of 84 he 
passed away, full of years, and leaving behind him many 
gracious memories. Of his family three survived him 
Professor Waters, of the Otago School of Mines; Mr. 
John B. Waters, of Waters, Ritchie, and Co. ; and Miss 
Waters, recently principal of the Dunedin Free Kinder- 

No notice of the first minister of Wharepa and 
Kaihiku would be complete without some mention of 
the first lady of the manse. Mrs. Waters came of an 
ancient and honourable Edinburgh family, and accom- 
panied her husband to New Zealand in 1865. 

Scotch folk, especially those of the stern and serious 
'type who formed the majority of the early Clutha settlers. 
are not easily impressed, and, having been impressed, do 
not readily admit the soft impeachment. Nevertheless, it 
remains apparent even after this lapse of time that the 
Wharepa and Kaihiku people, both young and old, fell 
in love with Mrs. Waters. This is a serious statement to 
make about folk of the dour Covenanting and Free Kirk 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 


of Dunedin and South Otago. 197 

breed, but it is true, and, what is still more astonishing, 
those who remember the minister's lady glory in it yet. 
Her husband commanded respect, sympathy, co-operation, 
but his wife ruled in the inmost hearts of the people; 
and when she died, after guiding all things at the manse 
wisely and well for seven busy years, she left a blank 
which the years somehow never seemed to fill. 

Highly educated, widely travelled, with a charming 
personality. Mrs. Waters brought to these early colonial 
days a gracious and refined sympathy, which left an un- 
dying impression on all who met her. 

And so they pass, the minister and his wife, across 
this brief stage. "I am called away." said Sheridan on 
his deathbed; "I am called away to keep an imperative 
engagement, but I leave my influence with you." So 
may it be. 

For some years the settlers in Kaihiku attended the 
church services at Wharepa, but in 1861 regular services 
were conducted in a vacant house at Kaihiku Bush, 
formerly belonging to John Barr, of Craigielea, Otago 's 
first poet. As the Rev. W. Bannerman had by this time 
withdrawn to the Puerua. supply was given by various 
preachers. Kaihiku formed part of the Wharepa parish, 
and remained so until 1910, when it was disjoined and 
added to Waiwera. The first Sunday Schools in the dis- 
trict were held in Craigielea House, and at the house 
of M. Patersou, near the lower end of the district, the 
teachers at the former being Miss Dalrymple and Mr. 
T. H. Meeking: at the latter Mrs. Paterson. Miss Dal- 
rymple, whose people occupied a farm at Kaihiku, receives 
the honour of having been the means of establishing the 
Otago Girls' High School in Dunedin. 

The first office-bearers in this congregation were: 
A. 1). Mini John Johnston (elders), J. Hay. M. Paterson, 
nnd -1. Watt (deacons). Those at present in office are: 
T. Tait. W. B. Anderson, J. F. Ayso'n (elders), Geo. John- 
ston. W. Xicol. M. Tait, R. Sutherland. John and Thos. 
Fleming (deacons). 

Clinton originally formed part of the extensive parish 
of the Rev. Jas. Urie. of Tapanui, or Pomahaka. as it 
was. then called. Tn course of time (1868) it was con- 
stituted a new charge under the name of Popotunoa. and 
in May. 1869, the Rev. C. Connor became its first minister. 
His parish included Waiwera. the stations on the Poma- 
haka. and the lower Mataura District. A church was 

198 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

erected at Wairuna. and the services at Clinton were held 
in the schoolhouse until a church was built. 

Mr. Connor was succeeded by the Rev. D. Gordon, 
who was in turn succeeded by the Rev. J. U. Spence, now 
of Waihola, he being followed at Clinton by the Rev. R. H. 
Blair, the present incumbent. During Mr. Spence 's 
incumbency Waiwera was made a separate charge, the 
Rev. J. F. McAllister being its first minister; but he 
remained only a few years, when he was succeeded by 
the present minister, the Rev. W. W. Williams. The first 
services in Waiwera were held in a barn belonging to 
David Ballingall. Campbell Thomson, manager of Ashley 
Downs Estate, did much to advance the evangelistic work 
of the district, and later John Gibson for thirty-five years 
proved a keen worker in church and Sunday School. 

The first session of the Popotunoa parish consisted of 
Messrs. Peter Clark and Wm. Irvine, and was afterwards 
strengthened by the addition of John Gumming, J. AY. 
Thomson, and Jas. Taylor. The present session consists 
of Jas. Taylor, Jas. Roy. Jas. Cockburn. John Clark, John 
Campbell, Geo. B. Watt, the managers being Messrs. 
Gordon Sheed, John Davidson. Peter Clarke. Trwin Roy, 
Wm. Robb, Robert Luke, John Beattie. Peter McG. 
Murray, Alex. Orr, and Thos. Erskine. The elders in the 
Waiwera Parish, exclusive of the Kaihiku portion, are 
Jas. Fyfe, John Edwards, John Cawley. and Win. Mac- 
kenzie ; while the Management Committee consists of 
Messrs. Wm. Sutherland. Jas. Sutherland, John Wright. 
and Robert Tait. 

The want of educational facilities was greatly felt 
by the early settlers, and as settlement increased great 
was their anxiety about their children. In some places 
small private schools were set up. but were seldom a 
success. Meetings were held in the different districts, and 
strong representations made to the Education authorities 
of the day for the establishment of public schools. These 
representations were uniformly successful, and as years 
advanced facilities were so quickly supplied that all 
anxiety soon disappeared. 

The first school at South Clutha was near the 
cemetery at Puerua. the first teacher being a Mr. J. 
Brydone. but he remained for only three years, and then 
shifted to Wharepa. where he had. before starting teach- 
ing, a section in the bush. The Education Board then 
appointed Mr. D. McEwan. but he died, his brother James 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 199 

taking the vacant position. James McEwan taught for 
a number of years, ultimately retiring to go north. He 
was succeeded by Mr. James Rix. who in turn was suc- 
ceeded by the present teacher, Mr. S. J. Harrison. 

Port Molyueux did not possess a school till 1865, 
when a building Avas erected which served both as school 
and church. The first schoolmaster was Mr. John Steven, 
afterwards the Rev. John Steven, of Papakaio, who 
opened a school in a cottage belonging to a Mr. Binnie, in 
R. L. Begg's private township. When the new school 
was built, Mr. Steven was appointed teacher, but in 1866 
he left to go to Waihola. Mr. J. Forbes was the next 
teacher." but he remained for only a year, when he left 
for the Home Country. Other teachers in regular order 
were : Messrs. G. B. H. Hewitt. Geo. Wilson, T. D. Thom- 
son. VVm. Miller. Wm. Hay, A. Purves, W. Waddell, Jas. 
McNeur, Miss Greig, and Miss Grono. In 1874 a new 
school was erected, but owing to the decrease in children 
was closed for about three years, from 1901 to 1904, 
when it was reopened. Miss Grono being the teacher. 
Further along the beach was the Maori school, the first 
teacher of which was Miss Jones, afterwards Mrs. G. B. 
Inglis. Other teachers were Mrs. McGavin and Miss Van- 
derhoven, afterwards Mrs. Carrick. 

In 1858 the Provincial Government sent Home for 
some teachers, among whom was Alex. Grigor, who 
arrived in the "Three Bells" in 1858. Immediately on 
arrival Mr. Grigor was sent to Inch-Olutha. The first 
school was held in the little church at the head of the 
island, and was attended by from 10 to 15 children. In 
1859 a new school building, consisting of school and 
dwelling-house, was built by W. Willocks and A. Begg, 
and in 1875 a separate school was erected. Shortly after- 
wards this Mr. Grigor went to Balclutha. and Mr. Jas. 
McXeur took his place. The last school building was 
swept away in the 1878 flood, but the second one still 
remains, being leased to a Mr. Henderson. In 1903 another 
school was built at the foot of the island, and was taught 
by Mr. Grigor, who had been transferred from Balclutha. 

Wharepa was the first district in the Clutha to be 
blessed with the benefits of a school. At a very early date 
(1855) a Mr. Waite. who had a section at the west end 
of the Wharepa Bush, opened a private school. For some 
time he taught in his own house, and when the first 
public school was built, he was appointed the first teacher. 

200 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

The school was built in front of the bush, and did duty 
for several years, until the attendance increased so much 
that the school was held in the first church, the school 
building being then used as a dwelling. Before this 
change came. Mr. Waite resigned, and Mr. H. McLeod 
was appointed teacher. He held office till April 5th, 1866. 
when he was succeeded by Mr. Ings, of Arrowtown. who 
was still in office when the school was shifted to the 
present site, the new building being erected by one Mc- 
Kinlay, a carpenter from Stirling. In 1866 Mr. Ings 
resigned to go to the West Coast, and Mr. T. H. Meeking, 
the teacher at Kaihiku, succeeded to the position. He 
retired in 1877, and was succeeded by Mr. W. Waddell. 
In 1881 Mr. Waddell resigned, and Mr. Huie was 
appointed. He resigned in 1885, when Mr. Wilson received 
the position, which he held until June, 1911, when he was 
transferred to Awamoko. North Otago, being succeeded 
by Mr. McLay, the present teacher. 

Of the early Wharepa scholars, some have made their 
mark in the professional world, one especially being 
worthy of mention viz., Dr. W. L. Christie, who was the 
first New Zealander to gain the M.B. degree. Dr. 
Christie was almost a native of Wharepa, and is now prac- 
tising as a physician in Bristol, England. 

The first school in Waitepeka was opened on the 24th 
February, 1868. The building was built of wattle and 
dab. and cost 30. W. Harrhy did the woodwork, and 
Jas. Marshall the clay work. It was built near the Main 
road, leading to Port Molyneux. By 1870 the school had 
become too small, so the Education Board had a new one 
erected on the present site, at a cost of 175, and shortly 
afterwards an addition was made to it. In 1871 a dwell- 
ing-house was erected, at a cost of 250. The first teacher 
was Mr. John Porteous, who held office for nearly twenty- 
seven years, resigning in 1894. when he was succeeded by 
Mr. L. Pope. Mr. Pope remained a very short time, being 
succeeded by Mr. J. Davidson, on whose death Mr. 
Bringans received appointment, and after a few years was 
succeeded by Miss McCallum. who resigned to take up 
a position in the North-East Valley School. Miss Reid 
was the next teacher, and was succeeded by Miss Long, 
from Matakanui. who in turn was followed by a Miss 

On June 15th, 1865. a public meeting was held in 
Balclutha to arrange for the selection of a separate school 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 201 

district, the children up to that time having attended the 
Inch-Clutha School. Mr. Hislop was present, and it was 
arranged that a side school should be established, the 
Education Board offering a salary of 50 and 15 in aid 
of the rent of a building. Later on steps were taken to 
raise the status of the school, and the forerunner of the 
present building was erected. A Mr. Hall was appointed 
the first teacher, but his services were lost to the district, 
and Mr. Todd was appointed. Some years later Mr. A. 
Grigor, of the Inch-Clutha School, was transferred to Bal- 
clutha, and occupied the position for many years, when, 
owing to failing health, he was transferred to the Matau 
School. He was succeeded by Mr. Pope, who was in turn 
succeeded by the present teacher. Mr. W McElrea. B.E. 
At Te Hooka a school was opened in 1869. Mr. James 
McNeur being the first teacher. 

The first school in Kaihiku was a private one kept 
by Mr. T. H. Meekiug. In 1864 the Education Board was 
approached, and granted a salary of 75 a year, which 
was supplemented by the school fees. A small sum was 
also given as the rent for a building. Mr. Meeking then 
built a small addition to his house, about 16 ft. square, as 
a schoolroom. This room had the ground for a floor, 
covered with rough slabs, while round logs were used as 
seats. In 1866 Mr. Meeking was appointed to Wharepa. 
and in 1868 a more central school building was erected, 
Mr. T. Paterson being placed in charge. One of the 
Kaihiku scholars. Peter S. Hay, went to the University, 
and was the first student in Xew Zealand on whom the 
degree of M.A. was conferred. Mr. Hay became Engineer- 
in-chief to the Colony, and very general regret was ex- 
pressed at his early death. 

Ill-health compelled Mr. Paterson to resign his office, 
and in 1875 he was succeeded by Mr. W. J. Moore. Other 
teachers in Kaihiku Avere Messrs. Auger. Clark. Mitchell. 
Methven. Menzies. and Misses Grigor. Anderson, and Ham- 
mond, the last of whom now occupies the position. 

In Waiwera District no steps to build a school were 
taken until 1868 or 1869, the pupils attending the Wharepa 
and Kaihiku Schools. In those early days distance and 
want of roads formed no such bugbears to the people 
as they are in these advanced times. The first school 
was on the Main South road, and was ?t first in charge 
of a Mr. W. Hay. who was succeeded by a Mr. W. 
Chisholm. Mr. Chisholm was followed by Mr. Wright. 

202 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

now the Rev. W. Wright, of Oamaru. Some years ago 
this school was closed, a more commodious one having 
been erected at the Waiwera township. This school is at 
present under the charge of Mr. "W. Appleby. 

Clinton was still later than Waiwera in having a 
school, as it was not till 1874 that one was established. 
The first teacher was a Mr. Anderson, who was succeeded 
by Mr. McVie, who, after a very short term of service, 
died. Other teachers were : Messrs. J. N. Stewart, W. W. 
Mackie. and J. Beattie, the last of whom now occupies 
the position. 

The Wairuna School was first opened about 1869, 
when Mr. James Roy was appointed teacher. Other 
schools in the neighbourhood are Tauraata. Clyde vale, 
Pomahaka Downs, and Popotunoa Gorge, but all these are 
of a much later date. 

of Diinedin and South Otago. 203 



IT had been frequently stated that Otago etmld never be 
an agricultural country, at least for many years, one 
man, well up in the Government service, going so far 
as to state that it would be like the small German States, 
living and trading simply by barter. How these dismal 
prognostications have been fulfilled the present position of 
Otago in the agricultural world amply shows ! 

For many years the advance in agriculture was very 
slow, the labour entailed by the primitive implements 
requiring a great deal of patience and weary work. At 
first the grub hoe and spade were the only implements 
used to break up the land. Some of the Clutha settlers 
adopted the plan taken by the settlers around Dunedin of 
chipping the ground and sowing the grain, but often more 
fern than wheat or oats came up, and the crops were lost. 
Others, again, sowed their grain so thickly that the 
resulting crop was a dismal failure. Mr. :Job Dabinett, an 
early settler in "Wharepa. was so disgusted at the weari- 
some work that he set his brains to work and. being an 
ingenious individual, constructed a wooden plough and a 
set of harrows, and. with the aid of four bullocks, broke 
up a good part of his land. Bullock traction was slow 
and expensive, but, as horses were only conspicuous by 
their absence, was the only means available. 

John McNeil was the first to plough land in Wharepa. 
his charge being 1 a day. driver supplied. 

It was no uncommon sight to see a girl leading the 
near side leading bullock, which had a screw ring in its 
nose, and another girl whipping the team up on the off 
side. A very small area could be ploughed in a day. and 
the cost often ran up to 2 an acre, one instance being 
given of three acres having cost 12. but Ibis is admitted 
to have been an exceptional case. 

204 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

When the crops were ripe they were cut with sickles, 
threshed with the flail, or in the very early times with a 
stick over a barrel, and winnowed with the wind. It is 
said that one settler, whose crop of wheat was ripe, did 
not knoAv how to reap it. It was suggested that his girls 
should clip the heads oft' with their scissors, and that was 
accordingly done. Many instances could be given where 
the grain was cut. threshed, winnowed, and ground, and 
the flour baked in a camp oven or on a girdle, all in one 

The steel mill was in universal use for grinding pur- 
poses. It was driven by hand, and very often after a 
hard day's work the members of a family had to turn to 
and grind enough flour for the next day. Mr. Peter 
Ayson. of Corydon. Wharepa. made a water-wheel, by 
means of which he worked his mill, the. first so worked 
in the district. When he grew his first crop of wheat and 
it was reaped, he had no means of making it into flour. 
Hearing that a settler named Andrew Mercer, in South 
Clutha, had a steel mill, William and James Ayson set off 
to see if they could borrow it. Mr. Mercer kindly lent it 
to them, and then came the job of carrying it to Wharepa. 
One carried the fly wheel, the other the mill, but the job 
was no easy one, so, when they came to a hill, William 
used to roll the wheel to the bottom. At last they reached 
their destination, tired out and with sore backs. William 
Ayson declares that carrying the wheel gave him a lump 
on his back which he still retains no doubt as a memento 
of the occasion. * Some sacks of flour were ground, after 
which Peter and James Ayson returned the mill, carrying 
it in a similar fashion. Some time after this Ayson pro- 
cured a stone mill, the stones being contained in a box of 
three divisions, but, as related in a former chapter, the 
Somervilles already had a stone mill, which they had 
brought from Anderson 's Bay. 

At first the mill was driven by bullocks, but John 
Somerville erected a water-wheel to drive it. He dammed 
a small creek, and when the dam was full there was 
enough water to drive the mill for an hour or two. When 
there was a good run of water in the creek, they were able 
to grind for seven or eight hours. Once so much water 
came down that the mill-wheel was upset, and had to be 
tied up with ropes. Some years later the Somervilles 
erected a flour mill at Waitepeka, the stones being two 
feet six inches in diameter. 

of 1) n ncd in and Sont/i Otago. 205 

The price of wheat varied considerably, and ran from 
8s.. to 12s. per bushel; oats were 2s. to i()s. per bushel; 
while potatoes were anywhere up to 20 a ton. Mr. 
Mosley, on Ineh-Clutha. grew skinless barley, which, after 
being ground, was used for making porridge. 

After the sickle came the scythe, a big improvement, 
and the scythemen were paid 5/- a day and found. The 
men bound the sheaves, while the youthful members of 
the family made the bands. Threshing with the flail cost 
I/- a bushel. By and by reaping machines were intro- 
duced. They were followed by seven or eight men. It 
is generally understood that Mr. Peter Ayson introduced 
the first reaping machine, a one-horse Nicholson reaper, 
which was brought out from Home by Douglas Watson 
for him. Others were introduced by the Somervilles and 
Wm. Christie, of Keithmore, but it is stated that one was 
working on Inch-Clutha before these latter arrived. Mr. 
Ayson had also the honour of importing to the district the 
first two ploughs, one of which he sold to Sandy Gordon, 
keeping the other himself. 

The women were not idle in those days of toil and 
hardship, and perhaps more honour is due to them than 
to the stronger sex. for it was on them that the privations 
told most severely. And keen privations they were : want 
of bread and little flour to make it with ; want of clothes 
and no cloth to repair them with ; going a whole winter 
without stockings; hard toiling work in the bush; then 
the long hard struggles when the men were away on 
expeditions or gold-digging. Add to these the difficulties 
of communication which the men had to overcome, while 
the women stayed at home ; the want of neighbours : must 
not these have fallen with the greatest severity on the 
women ? And though the women who have come through 
it all are the ones to say least about it. yet they deserve 
the higher honour and appreciation at the hands of the 
present generation. Incidents could be multiplied indefi- 
nitely of the hard labour of these self-denying women 
to show that they did their fair share in assisting to 
carve out homes in the wilderness, and in advancing 
agricultural interests in their midst. Mrs. Ayson on 
several occasions had to cut some wheat, thresh it with a 
stick, winnow the grain, and grind it into flour before 
she could get bread for her family's tea.. A Mrs. Hislop, 
with the help of her children, cut her field of wheat with 
the hook, bound the sheaves, stocked, and afterwards 

206 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

stacked them, the resulting grain being in splendid order 
and condition. On other occasions, in various parts of 
the district, the women showed the metal they were made 
of by doing similar work. The children, too, had a part 
in the business, having, as fences were unknown, to act 
as watchers and scarecrows over the growing crops. 

As things began to get into something like ship- 
shape order, post-and-rail fences were set up in the 
proximity of the bush, the rails being lashed with vines; 
then holes were bored in the posts, and the old fastenings 
thrown aside. Such fences cost about 1 a chain. Out 
from the bush sod fences, costing from 12/- to 16/- a chain, 
were erected. In some parts live fences came into being, 
Messrs. Ayson and Kettle being about the first to sow 
gorse and broom seed. Felling the bush cost from 30/- 
to 2 per acre, and logging and burning about the same. 

About 1866 the flail was superseded by a portable 
threshing mill, or "hurdy gurdy," as it was popularly 
called. The Somervilles were the first to procure one of 
these. It had a peg drum, and threshed the grain very 
cleanly. It took four horses to work it, and attached to it 
was a shaker to shake off the bulk of the straw. A large 
sheet was placed below the shaker to catch the grain, 
which was shaken through holes in it. When a large heap 
of grain collected, it was bagged and stowed away to be 
winnowed after threshing was finished. This mill travelled 
a good bit about the district, going to AYaiwera and all 
around Puerua. The farmers usually supplied horses and 
all the hands but two a driver and a feeder. One 
hundred bushels of grain were reckoned a good day's 

James Rattray and John Crawford erected a peg 
drum mill in a barn belonging to the latter, and Rattray 
built a windmill to provide power to drive it. Unfortu- 
nately, the venture was a failure. The power secured 
would drive the empty mill quite well, but when a sheaf 
was put in it was quite insufficient to set the machinery 
going. Rattray thought he could get the windmill to drive 
a chaffcutter, but this, too, was a failure for the same 

By and by steam threshing did away with the horse- 
power mills. The first steam threshing plant in Inch- 
Clutha was Wm. Grant's mill, while in the outlying dis- 
tricts one Kirk from the Taieri was the first. He was 
succeeded by Jas. Milne, who was again succeeded by 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 207 

Cousins and Tosh. A little later the Somervilles brought 
one of Clayton's mills to Wharepa, and Hay, of Kaihiku, 
got one about the same time. A. Rutherford was the first 
to own a threshing plant in the Waiwera District. 

The increase of settlement, the importation of the 
most improved implements and of horses, but, above all, 
the gold discoveries, led to an immense improvement in 
the methods of agriculture. Old things gradually passed 
away, and all things became new, and although the older 
pioneers regretted many of the changes, their regrets 
were unavailing, and were no doubt relieved by the reflec- 
tion that substantial advantage would be reaped from 
the intruders. 

Agricultural Societies were formed in various parts 
of the district, and ploughing matches instituted, both 
of which did much to improve matters. Ploughing bees 
were a feature of the districts, and seemed to be the 
natural accompaniment on the arrival of a new settler. 
The remembrance of the days when these first took place 
is now lost in the dim past, but early settlers state that 
one of the very first took place in Inch-Clutha. some- 
where near the head of the island ; another was held on 
Porteous and MacCaig's farm at Wharepa, when fourteen 
teams turned up and ploughed twelve acres of land. Still 
another was held at a later date in Waitepeka. when the 
only double furrow in the district was used. Xo doubt 
many others were held, but sufficient has been said to 
show the hearty goodwill of the old settlers to the new 

With regard to ploughing matches, it is to be re- 
gretted that information about the formation and carry- 
ing out of many different fixtures cannot now be 
obtained, but the accompanying accounts of the first 
matches held in Waiwera, Port Molyneux, and Wharepa 
may be of interest, the accounts being extracts from the 
''Bruce Herald". 

"A ploughing match between Mr. Matthew Curry 
and Mr. David Hudson for 20 aside came off on Saturday, 
14th October, 1865. on the grounds belonging to Messrs. 
Douglas, Alderson and Co., at Pomahaka. The conditions 
were that each man should plough half an acre within six 
hours, the furrows to be S 1 /? inches wide and 4 1 /" inches 
deep. Mr. James McNeil, senr., of Clutha Ferry, and Mr. 
A. Calder, of Pomahaka. were selected as judges, and in 
the event of not agreeing were to choose an umpire. The 

208 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

competitors commenced at 10 o'clock a.m. precisely. 
Hudson made a splendid start, and the first six bouts 
were done in a masterly style. He then altered the 
coulter of his plough (with the intention of making the 
plough work easier), after which he gradually showed 
worse work, and, although he tried all in his power, made 
a bad finish. Curry, on the other hand, did not make 
a good start, but improved as he proceeded, until the 
last three or four rounds, when he made a very indifferent 
finish. The judges could not agree, and ultimately chose 
as umpire Mr. Telford's ploughman, who decided in 
favour of Curry. The work was completed in twenty 
minutes under the specified time. A large number of 
spectators w T as on the ground, and each man having his 
backers, a good sum of money changed hands." 

September. 1866. "Amongst other cheering indica- 
tions of progress and improvement, abundantly apparent 
to the observant traveller on the Main South road, in the 
district of Waiwera and Kaihiku, was the successful carry- 
ing out of the first ploughing match in this district, which 
was held on a paddock belonging to Mr. Robert Telford. 
to whose energy and enterprise the furnishing of such an 
opportunity for ploughmen in the neighbourhood to test 
their skill and workmanship was mainly due. The valley 
through which the Waiwera runs, signifying in the Maori 
language 'red water,' is formed of rich alluvial deposits, 
and is fitted to produce very fine crops of all kinds, and 
although usually at present there are awanting indica- 
tions of a numerous population being resident in the 
neighbourhood, the lands being only recently purchased, 
yet at no distant date, we are safe in assuming, from its 
natural capabilities, that as the result of industry and 
capital it will become a 'strath' of great richness, sup- 
porting both a thriving and numerous population. Early 
on the morning of the match considerable numbers of the 
neighbours and competitors began to arrive, who seemed 
to enter into the prospect of a day's amusement 'Con 
amore, ' and from the abilities of the different ploughmen 
being well known, a fertile field for speculation was fur- 
nished and taken advantage of in guessing who was to be 
the champion of the day. 

"After the ground had been marked off. the entries 
were made as follows : 

of Dunedin and SoutJi Otago. 209 

Ploughmen. Owners. 

1. -Hugh McFee .Mr. R. Telford 

2. Charles Ritchie Mr. John Anderson 

3. Joseph Allanby Mr. Wm. Telford. Clifton 


4. James Sinclair 

5. Andrew Rutherford 

6. David Ballingall 

7. James Borthwick Mr. Wm. Telford. Clifton 


8. David Peat 

9. George Brown 
10. William Pagan 

The rules read and lots drawn, the signal for starting 
(the report of a gun) was given, and ten teams entered 
upon the contest with spirit and a determination on the 
part of each ploughman to do his best to win. 

"The land was rather too dry. the soil top rich, and 
the want of a sword of grass made it difficult to show neat 
work: the furrow slices broke a good deal, but. notwith- 
standing these drawbacks, some good specimens of work 
were produced, quite equalling anything we have seen 
done where a much larger gathering of ploughmen was 

"When the time for luncheon was signalled, no delay 
occurred in doing justice to the store of good things 
provided and prepared, which were dispensed and dis- 
cussed with great celerity and 'gusto.' then work was 
resumed with renewed vigour and care. 

"The allotted quantity of ground, half an acre, was 
completed about 3.30 p.m., when the judges (Messrs. Roy. 
Moffat. and Glendiuning. of Kaihiku) declared their de- 
cision as to prizes, which were awarded as follows: 
First prize (5), James Allanby. ploughman, Waiwera.. 
Clifton Station (bullock team) ; second prize (4), James 
Borthwick. ploughman. Clifton Station (horses); third 
prize (3), A. Rutherford, ploughman and owner. Popo- 
tunoa; fourth prize (2), James Sinclair, ploughman and 
owner. Wharepa : fifth prize (1), George Brown, plough- 
man and owner. Popotunoa. From the nature of arrange- 
ments made in ploughing. shoAving two feerings and one 
finish, an excellent opportunity was given to display to 
advantage these two essential features of good ploughing. 

"A large number of those present adjourned to the 
Waiwera Hotel, where a sumptuous dinner was prepared, 

210 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

and every preparation made for spending a pleasant even- 
ing, which was certainly done, as it was only at a late 
hour those present could be prevailed on to separate. 
After tendering a hearty vote of thanks to R. Telford, 
Esq., for his liberality as host and energy as secretary, the 
company dispersed, all highly gratified with the success 
of this first match." 

October, 1867. "On Monday, the 19th ult., a meeting 
was held in the Commercial Hotel, Port Molyneux. on the 
subject of having a ploughing match in the district. The 
night was very stormy, but still the meeting was well 
attended. All agreed as to the desirability of the match, 
but there was considerable difference oi opinion as to 
the rules to be observed. This was only what was to be 
expected, considering that the settlers were drawn from 
all parts of the Old Country. It was ultimately decided 
that the furrow should not be less than five inches deep, 
that horse teams should be allowed at the rate of 14 hours 
to the acre, and bullock teams three hours longer, and 
that each man should make one feering and one finish. 
The match was fixed to take place on Tuesday, the 27th. 
This early date was agreed to, as the spring season was 
wearing on, and it was thought that if the match were 
delayed longer farmers would be unwilling to send their 
teams. As so short notice was given, only eleven ploughs 
turned out, four being bullock teams. In new districts 
there is always an undesirable proportion of these teams, 
but, as agriculture advances, these give way to horse 
teams, as in the Taieri and Tokomairiro. Had the matter 
been taken up earlier, advertised in the papers, and better 
circulated in the district, there can be no doubt that the 
turnout would have been much larger. However, it was 
a beginning. It will help to stimulate the young men to 
do their best, and it will direct the attention of the local 
blacksmiths to the form and setting that is best adapted 
to the district. We have heard it said that at Home 
ploughing matches stimulate the smiths quite as much as 
the ploughmen ; and we do not see why they should not 
have the same beneficial effect here. The match took 
place on the farm of Mr. Brugh, Cloan. He had a piece 
of old lea, very suitable for the purpose, which he kindly 
placed at the disposal of the committee. 

''There was a large concourse of spectators. It was 
admitted on all hands that the work was exceedingly well 
executed, the deficiencies being more attributed to the 

of Dunedm and South Otago. 211 

ploughs than to the men. This is not wonderful, con- 
sidering that in this young district the ploughmen have 
been almost entirely accustomed to breaking up or cross- 
ploughing rough land, when it is almost impossible to tell 
whether your plough is working right or not. The judges 
were Mr. Downie, Mr. Dunlop, and Mr. Thomson, Cloan. 
They appeared to have considerable difficulty in arriving 
at a decision. But ultimately the prize list stood as 
follows : 

1st prize. 4. A. Haddo (horses) ; owner, W. Dalgleish. 

2nd prize. 3 5s.. E. Sinclair (horses) ; owner, A. S. 

3rd prize. 2 5s, J. McLay (bullocks) ; owner, W. 

4th prize. 1 15s.,. W. Davidson (bullocks): owner, 

5th prize, 1 5s., A. Watt (horses) ; owner, II. Living- 

6th prize, 1. A. Anderson, jun. (bullocks) ; owner, 
A. Anderson, sen. 

Youngest ploughman. A. Anderson, jun., 1 

Best feering. James McLay, 12s. 6d. 

Best finish, W. Davidson. 12s 6d. 

"A whip, presented by the saddler at Clutha Ferry, 
for best kept harness, was awarded to Alexander Leding- 
ham. We had almost omitted to mention, and we should 
have very much regretted the omission, that both plough- 
men and visitors were amply provided with refreshments 
by Mr. Brugh. the owner of the land. ' ' 

October, 1867. If any one event more than another 
may be said to depend upon fine weather for success, it 
is a ploughing match. The determination of the Clutha 
settlers to carry out their arrangements for the match in 
spite of the threatening clouds and a bleak sou-wester 
proved the ripeness of the district for such an association 
as the event was intended to inaugurate. "At the time 
of my arrival on the ground (Mr. Christie's farm, 
Wharepa)." says the narrator, "about half the work had 
been got through. Xo judge myself of such matters. 1 
endeavoured to find someone competent to initiate me in 
the mysteries of furrows, feerings, and riggs. In answer 
to all my applications for information I was told to. look 
at the work in any part of the field. 'You can't go wrong 
to look for good work.' said one of the best judges I knew, 
'in all my experience I never saw such a general average 

212 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of first-class ploughing.' Considering that there were 
twenty-six ploughmen competing, and, as AVRS frequently 
remarked, 'not a duffer in the lot.' speaks sufficiently of 
itself for the agricultural skill in the district, and must 
have made the office of judge as unenviable as honour- 
able. ' ' Considerably before ' ' gunfire ' ' all the competitors 
had finished the work assigned to them, and shortly after- 
wards Mr. Somerville announced the judges' (Messrs. 
Kemp, Thomson, and McFarlane) decision as folloAvs : 
1st prize, 6, J. Taylor; owner, John McNeil; maker, 


2nd prize, 4 10s., A. Rutherford ; maker. BarroAvman. 
3rd prize, 3 10s., J. Cousins; owner. J. Rattray; 

maker, Rattray. 
4th prize. 2 10s., A. Peat; owner, I). Peat; maker, 

5th prize. 1 10s., H. Hogg ; owner. IT. Hogg ; maker, 

Sten house. 

6th prize, 1 Is., J. CraAA^ford; OAvner, J. CraAvford; 
maker, Grey. 

Junior Class. 
1st prize, 1. J. Sheddan ; owner, J. Sheddan ; maker, 

John H alley. 
2nd prize, set sw r ing trees, G. Poison, jun : OAvner, G. 

Poison, jun; maker, Leller. 
Best feering. Henry Hogg. 
Best finish, J. Stewart. 

A ploughing match Avithout a dinner Avould be like an 
egg without salt. The promoters of the Clutha Agricul- 
tural Association determined not to have their introduc- 
tion into the world of societies spoiled by a niggardly bill 
of fare, notwithstanding that the unusual difficulty of 
there being no hotel Avithin six miles of the field presented 
itself to the committee. Mr. Crawford's barn as a dining 
hall, and Mr. CraAvford as host, were pressed into service. 
A more fortunate selection of man and barn could, not 
have been made. About sixty gentlemen sat doAvn to 
dispose of the good things provided for them. It is only 
superfluous to talk about doing justice to eatables after 
a ploughing match. Dinner over, the chairman, James 
Thomson. Esq.. M.P.C.. in proposing the first toast. "The 
Queen and Royal Family." said, in calling upon the com-- 
pany to drink the health of the first lady of the realm, 
he knew Avell hoAv heartily it would be responded to. In 
some matters 'even in matters pertaining to our OAVH 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 



214 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

interest we sometimes fell away, but never in loyalty and 
strong feelings towards monarchical institutions. The 
Queen had ever exercised a beneficial influence on society, 
and, as a mother, had brought up her family in a manner 
befitting them for the high sphere of their destiny. He 
was glad to notice how creditably the Prince of ^Yales was 
taking an active part in public ceremonies at Home, 
supplying, in a great measure, the loss the country had 
experienced by the death of his lamented father. The 
Duke of Edinburgh, he might remind them, was now on 
his way to Dunedin. It would be a pity if he should visit 
the metropolis without visiting the Molyneux. He would 
see here, and be able to take Home with him. a testimony 
to the efforts that had been made to reclaim the wilder- 
ness. (Loud applause.) The toast was drunk with great 

The Chairman next proposed "The Army, Navy, and 
Volunteers." He need hardly, he said, remind them of 
the giant dimensions the Volunteer movement had 
attained. He had every confidence that, in the event of 
war and the regular army being called out. the Volunteers 
w r ould prove their value as an auxiliary force. (Cheers.) 

Mr. Ralston briefly responded. 

The Vice-Chairman (Mr. J. H. Jenkinson) had no 
doubt that the toast he was about to propose would meet 
with a cordial reception. It was "The Superintendent 
and Provincial Council, coupled with the name of our 
worthy Chairman." It was always desirable on such 
occasions to eschew political considerations, but in 
drinking the health of the Superintendent the late pro- 
ceedings in the House of Representatives had invested 
the toast with a special claim upon their sympathies. 
(Hear, hear.) In coupling Mr. Thomson's name with the 
toast, it was only due to him as the representative of the 
district in the Provincial Council, in the performance of 
which duties everyone would give him credit for his 
honesty of purpose. As he was present, he would not 
flatter him too much; but would call upon them to drink 
the toast he had the honour to propose. (Long-continued 

In replying to the toast. Mr. Thomson said he could 
assure them he Avas much pleased at the manner in which 
it had been received. There was an old saying. "We are 
all John Thomson's bairns." Since he had represented 
the district he had endeavoured to deserve the confidence 

of Dnnedin and South Otago. 215 

of the Clutha. He would 'observe just now. because the 
tim-e was very fitting, that the opinion of the Dunedin 
Chamber of Commerce had very considerable weight with 
Otago members at Wellington. With a similar association 
here, composed of a few intelligent men with whom he 
and other district members could communicate, much of 
what was overlooked would be attended to. He would 
instance, as a proof of such a necessity, a case in point. 
The Government had only lately been selling at 10s. an 
acre land that ought not to have been sold. He was not 
clearly posted up in the matter before the sale, but now 
he had no hesitation in saying it was a gross blunder. If 
such an -association had existed here, he would have been 
advised of the evil, and possibly might have prevented its 

Mr. Christie proposed "The Agricultural. Pastoral, 
and Commercial Interests," coupled with the names of 
Messrs. Brugh. Curtis, and Barr. The three interests were 
so closely associated, and so dependent on each other, that 
a person having a stake in one might be said to have an 
interest in all. No doubt the agricultural interest was 
not in a flourishing condition just now, but there was as 
little doubt the balance of trade would in due time restore 
the market to a healthier tone. (Hear, hear.) 

Mr. Curtis rose with pleasure to respond to the toast 
on behalf of the agricultural interest. He hoped shortly 
to see the time when agriculturists would be more flourish- 
ing. He hoped, too, that the society they had that day 
met to inaugurate would be the means of improving the 
condition of the agricultural interest generally. 

Mr. Brugh hoped they would excuse him making a 
speech ; he was no hand at it. He would call upon Mr. 
Barr instead for a song. (Laughter.) 

Mr. Barr was much pleased to think he had deserved 
at their hands the honour of having his name coupled with 
the toast just drunk. Latterly his attention had been 
directed from agriculture. He was therefore equally 
surprised and pleased at the unqualified success that had 
characterised that day's proceedings. He believed every 
day would help to confirm the opinion he had always enter- 
tained, and that twelve months hence it would be found 
that there was no healthier district than the Clutha in 
the Province of Otago. (Great cheering.) 

The Chairman next proposed "The Clutha Agricul- 
tural and Pastorril Society." lie would just rorr.ark that. 

216 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

their meeting that night was intended to be a conversa- 
tional one. As the night was fast wearing away it would 
perhaps be belter to leave future matters in the hands of 
the committee. Tie believed a world of goo<! would result 
from the society he had the honour to toast. Farmers 
wanted to meet each other, to be brought together occa- 
sionally, to see each other's cattle, and so on. It had been 
said the proposition to have an Agricultural Show at the 
Clutha was premature. He did not believe it. and had 
every reason to believe the second would be better than 
the first. A show was one of the best things that could 
be suggested for improving the breed of stock in the 
district. Most of the settlers about here were owners of 
only 50, 100, or at most 200 acres, the better reason why 
they should have good stock instead of scrubbers. There 
were other matters pertaining to such societies of great 
benefit to producers. A market once or twice a year was 
one. Any of them having now a beast to sell took it to 
the Ferry, and to get rid of it it was saddled with a heavy 
commission that would be a profit to a man. By having 
periodical markets, buyers and sellers Avould be brought 
face to face. The speaker concluded an eloquent speech 
by calling upon the meeting to drink the toast, coupled 
with the name of Mr. Crawford. 

Mr. Crawford said he was very sorry he could not 
make a suitable reply. He could only assure them that 
to hear his health drunk by such a meeting was very 
pleasing to him. He had done no more for the society 
than he considered his duty as a member. 

Mr. D. P. Steel next proposed "The Successful Com- 
petitors," coupled with the name of Mr. John McNeil. 
From the marked success that had characterised the day's 
proceedings, he felt they had every reason to be proud 
of the skill possessed in the district. He believed it was 
almost an unprecedented fact that from such a large 
number of ploughs such a .general average of good work 
should have been turned over. He was in favour of fol- 
lowing the Chairman's suggestion to leave future matters 
in the hands of the committee. As to low prices at present 
ruling for agricultural produce, he thought there was not 
too much reason to complain; it was the first check the 
interest had received. He preferred looking forward to 
better times, and such associations as these were preventa- 
tives to such checks. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 217 



MANY of the experiences of the pioneer settlers were 
of a highly interesting nature, and are well worthy 
of being put on record. The following account is 
given by Mr. Matthew Marshall, a passenger by the 
"Philip Laing" in 1848, and relates to the time 0852) 
when he was shepherding for Edwin Meredith on the 
Popotunoa Run. 

Besides Mr. Hobbs, Meredith had brought with him 
from Tasmania, as shepherd, a man named Dent. but. in 
1852. he found it necessary to engage the services of 
Matthew Marshall, who was stationed at the Popotunoa 
end of the run, his hut being built on the Kuriwao side 
of the Waiwera stream, near what is called Marshall's 
Creek, where the present Fish Ponds are situated. His 
companions were full of the stories of early days in Tas- 
mania, and he asked about the convicts. Unfortunately, 
Marshall did not know that Dent had been a convict, and 
his questions remained unanswered. On one occasion he 
was more pertinacious in his inquiries, when he caught 
sight of the boss (Hobbs) scowling at him. He did not 
know what was up and kept on asking, when Hobbs 
suddenly went outside, ordering him to follow. A .Vhen at 
a suitable distance from the hut, he explained that Dent 
was a convict, and much disliked hearing the word "con- 
vict." and he cautioned Marshall never to use that word, 
but to speak about the "prisoners." Ever afterwards 
Marshall took great care to ask about the prisoners, and 
Dent would talk till further orders, relating some thrilling 

In those early days there were, in the Popotunoa 
Bush, a few wild dogs, which were a source of never- 
ending trouble to the shepherds., who had to gather the 
sheep together every night, and tie their dogs at suitable 
places round them, not only to keep them together, but 
to give the alarm when the wild dogs attacked. One 

218 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

night the wild dogs got in before being seen. and. while 
some attacked the sheep dogs, others went after the sheep. 
Hearing the noise, the shepherds rushed out, but had great 
difficulty in driving off the wild dogs. Meanwhile the 
sheep had scattered in all directions. For many hours the 
work of collecting them proceeded, and. although ulti- 
mately successful, it was found that many had been killed, 
while others were so badly maimed that they soon died. 

It was a strange thing that, if a sheep were bitten by 
a wild dog, it never recovered. No matter how small the 
mark made by the teeth, blood poisoning set in. and the 
animal was sure to die. It was also a strange thing that 
the dogs would never make a meal of a sheep, and the 
shepherds never saw the remains of one that had been 
eaten. They seemed to be content with worrying the poor 
brutes to death. 

In the following year the sheep were taken to Fuller's 
place at Hilly Park for the shearing, the whole flock being 
shorn in the stockyard, and the wool taken to Port Moly- 
neux, where it was shipped to Dunediu. After shearing, 
the sheep, which were divided into two flocks, were 
camped in two separate places, one being in the valley 
between the Awakiki Bush and the hill, the other on the 
Clinton side of the bush. 

Dent's time being now up, and he refusing to re- 
engage, Hobbs went to Dunedin for another man. while 
Marshall was left in charge of the sheep. In about a 
week Hobbs returned, bringing a tall, strapping man. in 
the prime of life, named Sandy Gordon. 

The sheep were then taken to Popotunoa. Some time 
afterwards Meredith arrived from Tasmania, but was 
greatly disgusted with the small returns. He ordered the 
mob to be divided into two flocks again, and Marshall 
was sent with the ew r es and lambs to Moa Hill, Kaihiku, 
while Gordon remained at Bedding Hill with the wethers 
and dry sheep. Sandy Gordon was a very conscientious 
man and exceedingly careful with the sheep, but was 
terribly harassed by the wild dogs, often having hardly 
a night's rest for weeks at a time. One day Hobbs. on his. 
return to Moa Hill, after a visit to him, told Marshall that 
Gordon was in a terrible rage, and that his ultimatum 
was: "Just you look here. now. Mr. Hobbs. if you will 
not send me up another man, I shall just leave the sheep, 
and vou can do whatever vou like with them." 

of Dnncdin and Soutli Otago. 219 

It was then decided to shift the sheep to Wharepa 
to try to get rid of the dogs, so they were all mustered, and 
the trip started. However, the dogs seemed to think 
something was up. and actually followed them for some 
distance. The first night they reached Albert's Cap, 
where they camped on the banks of the Piawhata Creek. 
Hobbs and Gordon then came on to Marshall's hut at Moa 
Hill, where they stayed the night. On their return next 
morning what was their disgust and rage to find that the 
wild dogs had been among the sheep, which were scattered 
in all directions, some fifty being either dead or badly 

The remainder were collected and arrived safely at 
the Wharepa Bush, where Gordon built the first white 
man's hut in the district. It was built on the site of the 
present house, in front of which is still to be seen the 
stump of the first tree cut in the bush by a White man. 
It may here be said that Gordon afterwards purchased 
the section, and lived for many years in the original hut. 

For some time both flocks of sheep were not troubled 
by the dogs, and the shepherds thought they had now got 
rid of them. However, one clear frosty night in the 
winter time, when Hobbs and Marshall were in bed at 
Moa Hill, they heard the sheep running about. There 
was no barking of dogs or any other noise, so they did 
not suspect wild dogs. Getting up. they had a look 
round, when, to their amazement, they saw some dogs 
rounding up the sheep. The leader of the mob was a 
white bitch -a perfect devil and there were three other 
dogs, a black one and two reddish-coloured ones. This 
mob had originally consisted of seven dogs, but three had 
been killed at Bedding Hill. 

Hobbs had a grand collie bitch which had already 
accounted for two of the mob, and this night she led the 
chase. She managed to bail them up on the banks of the 
Kaihiku. and when the men reached her the white bitch 
was sitting on the ground, fighting viciously. On seeing 
them she dashed into the water, but the men were deter- 
mined she should not escape. Whenever she came out of 
the water their dogs tackled her and drove her in again. 
Hobbs' dog followed her, while Hobbs himself took one 
side of the stream and Marshall the other. Up and down 
the bank she dashed, but every time she was checkmated 
in her attempts to escape. At last she was played out 
and caught in the water. Marshall had a pocket knife 

220 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

with which Ifobbs stabbed her to the heart, both men with 
grim satisfaction then watching her bleed to death. 
Owing to the excitement of the chase they had not felt 
the intense cold, but on returning to the hut. when they 
took off their trousers they found them so frozen that they 
stood up by themselves in the middle of the floor. 

Next morning being Sunday. Marshall went to pay 
Gordon a visit. When he told him the story, Sandy replied : 
"I'll not believe a word till I see her," so both set off 
for the Kaihiku. On reaching the spot where the body 
lay. Sandy stood looking at it for a few minutes with a 
grim look on his weather-beaten countenance. Then he 
jumped on the body, dancing about till there was not 
a whole bone left in it. He then skinned it and 
took the skin to his hut. where he cured it, keeping 
it for several years as a relic of the early days of shep- 
herding in the Clutha. 

Meredith having now secured another man. Marshall 
left in the spring of 1854. and went to Dunedin, where he 
did some pit sawing at Halfway Bush in company with 
Joseph Bower, now residing in Balclutha. 

After an interval of four or five months, Marshall 
again came back to the Clutha to shepherd for a man 
named Wight, who was the first to take up from the 
Crown what is called the Greenfield Estate. His first job 
for Wight was to go to A\ 7 aikouaiti and pick out 300 ewes 
which Wight had bought from Johnny Jones. This was 
in the year 1854. He brought the sheep down, and they 
throve splendidly. To this day Matthew's boast is that 
he weaned 145 per cent, of lambs. Wight Avas a bit of a 
character, and Marshall well remembers the time he 
christened the big rock by the roadside near Carruthers' 
place. The two met there, and Wight had a bottle of rum 
in his pocket. "Here, have a swig," said he to Marshall. 
"Very well, but after you," said the latter. "Be it so." 
said Wight, "and then we'll christen this rock." After 
Marshall had his drink he handed .the bottle back to 
Wight, who smashed it on the rock, christening it "Dum- 
barton Rock." This was in 1855. After being with 
Wight a year, Marshall went shepherding for Archibald 
Anderson, whose place was called "Aberturf. " the home- 
stead of the station being at the small bush above Barnego 
Flat, then known as the "Wee Bush." In 1857 he 
went to Dunedin. where he was married. Returning to 
Clutha. he shepherded for Pillaus for two years, then took 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 221 

up a ten-acre section at Aberturf. and afterwards bought 
a fa'rm at Hilleud. where he resided for forty years before 
coming to reside in Balclutha. 

Mrs. Marshall, nee Julia Bower, arrived in Otago by 
the "Larkins" on September llth. 1849. The marriage 
took place on a Friday, and on the following Wednesday 
the couple set out for their home in the Clutha. Mrs. 
Marshall rode an old horse, called "Sebastopol. " belong- 
ing to Mr. Pillans, and after a three days' trip they 
reached their destination. 

Notes 011 a Trip Overland from Nelson to Southland in 
May and June, 1856, by W; H. S. Roberts, riding 
through the Clutha District on 12th and 13th of June. 

"12th. We left Grey's at 9 a.m. About half a mile 
on we passed MeMaster's farm on our left hand at the 
foot of Mount Owiti. We then crossed some low downs 
which were known as the Waihola Gorge, with a limestone 
hill on our right, and the Seaward Range some seven 
miles through on our left, and entered the Tokomairiro 
Plain, which contained about 14,000 acres of rich alluvial 
land, rather swampy in places, so we had to travel along 
the foot of the Eastern range. The blacksmith had 
pricked my mare. 'Lassie.' in shoeing, so 1 had to remove 
the shoe, and as she was very lame I rode 'Nina' and made 
'Lassie' carry my swag. About half-way down the plain, 
ten miles from Grey's, we came to a store, belonging to 
Mr. Toms, where Trmnble was waiting for us. We put 
his swag on our other pack-horse. 'Ginger,' as he was 
going south also, and being a good walker could without 
a swag travel as fast on foot as we could on horseback 
over the rough country. A few miles from Toms' the 
road passed through a paddock, and then crossed the 
north branch of the Tokomairiro River, a small stream 
with high tiax-covered banks. Three miles further on we 
passed Mr. John Cargill's farm, where we crossed the 
south branch of the Tokomairiro River, a narrow stream, 
knee deep. We outspanned for lunch at the south end of 
the plain, at the foot of a low spur. 

"There was a good-sized bush on the hill side on the 
north of the Tokomairiro River, and we were told there 
was a much larger one at Akatore. 011 the seaward side 
of the range. There were several settlers on the plain, 
principally along the foot of the eastern range. On the 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

south side of the river Mr. William Poppelwell had a 
sheep run, which was called Mount Misery. Where we 
crossed the river was about twenty miles from the sea. 
all good pasture land. Between us and Mount Misery 
intervened a large swamp, in which grew long grass, flax, 
and toi. In front of us were fine grassy ridges, spreading 
away to the west as far as Mount Stuart. 1,418 feet high. 
We went up the spur to the top of the ridge, then down 
another to LovelFs Flat, so called from the person Avho 
held the run then. Up another spur and down to Stoney 
Creek, again up a spur to what was called Hill End. and 
then down to the Molyneux or Clutha River. Twenty- 
seven miles to-day, in all fifty-six from Dunedin. We left 
our horses on the eastern bank, and were ourselves ferried 
over by Mr. McNeil in a dinghy, and stayed the night at 
his accommodation house in the bush on the flat. Before 
Mrs. McNeil would give us supper, we had to grind a 
bushel of wheat in a large coffee mill. This flour was 
made into scones whole meal, bran and all, as it was 
ground. Mr. Trurnble, three sailors, and a black man 
came across soon after us. Two lakes were visible from 
the road 1 travelled to-day. Kaitangata (the place where 
the men were eaten), with an area of 370 acres, and Tua- 
kitoto, 2,094 acres, but they were shallow and so low that 
spring tides entered the former lake. The plain of the 
Clutha, including the Island and South Molyneux, was 
about 30,000 acres. A number of people had settled in 
this district, which was considered the best for farming 
in Otago. I shall mention a few. Perhaps the most 
important was Mr. Joseph Maitland, with his wife, four 
sons and two daughters, who resided at the 'Crescent,' 
and farmed a considerable area, and also had a sheep run 
at Hillend; near him were Smith Brothers, three sturdy 
Aberdonians. On the Island were William Ferguson, 
Francis Scott Pillans, Archibald Anderson, and Willocks. 
On South Molyneux, David Pike Steel, John Shaw. Hay. 
and others. The place where Mr. McNeil resided was 
called by the Maoris Iwi-Katea (a bone cleaned from the 
flesh), but the Scotch settlers named it Balclutha. The 
Island, now called Inch Clutha. formerly belonged to a 
celebrated Maori chief, Tuhawaiki. but known as Bloody 
Jack among the old whalers. 

"Friday, 13th. Up' at daylight, and toAved our five 
horses, one at a time, across the river behind the dinghy, 
one man holding the horse's tow rope, the other rowing 

of Dnnedni and South Otago. 223 

the boat. After breakfast we saddled and packed our 
steeds, and started by ten o'clock. We followed up the 
river bank along the flat to the foot of the ridges. The 
flat was a peninsula with the river on three sides like a 
balloon, and McNeil had fenced it across in two places, 
thus making two good grazing paddocks with very little 
fencing. The banks of the river were rich, sandy loam, 
held together by a strong growth of native flax, which, 
as settlement advanced, was destroyed, and allowed the 
river to encroach, so that a great deal of that flat has 
since been washed away. For eleven miles we pursued 
our way along a tortuous low ridge of broAvn tussock 
grass, when we arrived at a small stream called the Kai- 
hiku. which we crossed just below its junction with the 
Paiwhata. On our left a range of hills extended from the 
Nuggets (Tokata Point j to the Mataura, at altitudes 
ranging from 1,300 to 2.000 feet. At one place, called 
Wharepa. appeared a bush covering the side of the hill, 
at the foot of which were some settlers, among whom was 
Mr. Charles Kettle, who surveyed the site of Dunedin, 
and at the Puerua. a few miles further east, were Major 
Richardson, the Rev. William Bannerman. and a few other 
residents. A mound, called Moa Hill, was very con- 
spicuous on the west of the river. My poor lame horse 
quite knocked up at the Kaihiku. so I had to leave her. 
After some trouble we managed to saddle the filly and 
strap the pack on her, and then proceeded up another 
ridge, which in about five miles brought us to an isolated, 
tent-shaped hill, which was called 'Prince Albert's Cap.' 
The herbage was mostly strong snow-grass tussock, or 
Hamity grass, as it was sometimes called. Two miles 
along a gentle decline and the track crossed the Waiwhera 
(red water, from its colour), afterwards erroneously spent 
Waiwera (hot water) Creek, into a fenced paddock 
belonging to Mr. Fuller, who then had the Popotunoa (sit 
round food served in common) Run. Five miles of rough 
spurs and gullies took us to the Home Station at the foot 
of a detached wooded hill. The house was small, and 
occupied by the manager. Mr. George Steel, and his wife, 
who kindly "ranted me permission to remain all night. Mr. 
Davidson, with three horses, went on three miles further 
to Mr. William Gordon Rich's station at Wairuna. Mr. 
Trumble. two sailors, and a half-caste Maori came up 
shortly after me and remained. We jointly ground the 
usual hopper of wheat in the large steel coffee mill. About 

224 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

thirteen miles north of Popotunoa, near the Pomahaka 
River, there was a hole of burning lignite, which had been 
on lire, smouldering slowly, for many years. The natives 
called the place Tapu-Whenua (sacred ground). It smelt 
strongly of sulphur, but there was no evidence to show 
that it was the entrance to Tartarus. It was on Mr. 
Fuller's run. The country was fine rolling downs or low 
ridges, clothed with a luxuriant growth of snow-grass, 
and well watered." 

The following description of a journey in 1859 to 
Tuapeka, &c., is given by Robert Grigor: 

"The first place in 1858 where I worked on Inch 
Clutha was at Mr. Anderson 's. and afterwards for Messrs. 
Davey and Bowler. w r ho had taken up a run that year 
near what is now called Evan's Flat. Tuapeka. At Mr. 
Bowler's request I accompanied him to Tuapeka in the 
end of .1858, after which I made a good many trips from 
Inch Clutha to Tuapeka and the Beaumont --a journey 
which was considered at that time rather an arduous 

"In 1858 the country was practically unstccked and 
the natural grasses of the whole country were unused. 

"In starting from Inch Clutha I generally loaded up 
the sledge the night before and got the four bullocks 
handy for the morning. Crossing the Island very early 
in the morning, I unyoked the bullocks, and. with the 
assistance of Mr. Willocks and family, swam them over at 
the stern of the boat, and at a little yard on the other 
side yoked up again and proceeded along the bank of 
the river to near where the railway bridge is now, where I 
took to the ridges, and so had leading country to the Wai- 
tahuna. There were no tracks, all the traffic had made 
no impression on the grass, and there was not a house 
or a hut all up by Hillend and across Mount Stuart. 

"The first landmark was a long manuka pole showing 
the way down to Pillans' station on the river, and another 
pole showing the way down to Maitland's, now Begg's. 
Coming from a large city (Edinburgh). I felt the utter 
want of any person to speak to on that lonely journey. 
Towards evening I got up to Mount Stuart, but. having 
only a sledge, I could not unyoke the bullocks, so tying 
myself on to the sledge I spent the night as best I could 
in snatches of sleep, while the bullocks fed or \&y down 
in their yokes all night. Along the route were scattered 
pretty plentifully charred totara logs, and at long inter- 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 225 

vals a moa borie lay ready for anyone to pick up. Where 
the -ground was ferny, pigs could be seen now and again, 
but no sheep or cattle , the few that were on the runs being 
herded close to the stations. In the morning a thick mist 
lay all around, and I had to wait a good while for it to 
clear before I could get my bearings for a fresh start. 
Going down Mount Stuart towards the Waitahuna were 
the first known marks, as, the soil being washed away, 
the bare reefs appeared, and I knew I was on the proper 
route. When near the Waitahuna I was startled by 
hearing a whistle, and by and by through the burnt scrub 
appeared a big boy all tattered and torn. He told me he 
had been sent up by Mr. Cargill of Dunedin to herd 300 
sheep. I asked him where his hut was, and he said he 
had only a tent which was about a mile away. His name 
was Teddy Goodall. and he said his father lived at 

"The next time I met 'Teddy' was at Gabriel's Gully 
in 1361. about a month after the rush, and he was 'doing 
it brown' in a billiard-room tent. He had three large 
rings on his fingers, and a tall felt hat. and he informed 
me that he was beyond the reach of woe and intended to 
have a good time. I heard afterwards that that time 
was short and sweet, like 'a donkey's gallop.' I got 
across the Waitahuna all right, and in a mile or two I 
passed Peter Robertson's hut to the right. Peter was 
shepherd to Mr. Cargill then, and afterwards settled in 
Lawrence, where he became a prominent citi/en. Shortly 
after this the darkness came on. and I had to depend on 
the bullocks taking me to the station. I crossed the 
Tuapeka (below what afterwards became the richest 
diggings in New Zealand) and went up a branch of the 
Tuapeka to what Mr. Bowler had called Bellamy Station. 
There was some talk of gold even then (1859). for a native 
of India, called 'Black Peter,' who helped to thatch the 
hut, had found specks of gold at the back, and it was 
from information supplied by him that Gabriel Read ulti- 
mately, by following up the creek, discovered Gabriel's 
Gully. It took two long days to come from Inch Clutha 
to Tuapeka, and on arrival at the station, after turning 
out the bullocks. I was glad to lie down and rest. That 
same year I made a journey with bullocks to the Beau- 
mont Station, then owned by Anderson and Fraser, for 
whom Mr. Alec Armstrong of Hillend was shepherd. But 
this is another story. This as it happened was my last 

226 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

trip with bullocks, as I went on the survey afterwards 
with Mr. Robert Gillies, and was appointed Surveyor in 
January of 1861. I was sent to Oamaru, where I surveyed 
several blocks near the present town before the rush to 
Gabriel's (June, 1861). My men all deserted me then, and 
terminated my work in that district for some time." 

The Maoris would often question the settlers about 
things. One called Joshua, or Orahua, questioned Robert 
Christie about a tunnel, asking whether white men could 
make a road through a hill. ''Could we drive through 
bullocks and sledge?" "Yes." "Could drive big 
team all same Jim Smith, Toko ? " " Yes, ' ' said he. ' ' You 
liar, Bob!" retorted Joshua. Some years afterwards 
Joshua inspected the Port Chalmers line, saw, and said 
to some other Maoris: "Bob not such big liar after all; 
he very small one." 

Once when at Puerua Robert Christie went to a store 
and hotel, and while there a woman came in looking for 
her husband, and asked if he were there. The landlord 
replied, "I'm sure you are tired, rnadam; come and have 
a glass of wine." He passed the whisky, saying her hus- 
band was all right, but he would not let him go home 
the previous night, as it was too wet. The result was that 
husband and wife went home arm in arm, singing "We 
won't go home till morning." On another occasion two 
brothers, Bob and John, were broke and dead thirsty. Bob 
pretended to take a fit in front of the store, and the land- 
lord revived him with a glass of brandy. Bob got outside of 
it in one gulp, and then John taxed him with being mean, 
but Bob said, "D you; go and take a fit yourself!" 

Being engaged to go to Clydevale, Alexander Petrie 
walked from the Taieri. and was to have been met at the 
top of Lovell's Flat at 12 o'clock on a certain day by a 
man named Shand, who was at Invercargill. On arriving 
at the place no one was there, but Petrie waited about till 
3 o'clock. He then tossed a coin to see Avhat he would 
do, go back or ahead. It turned "Go ahead," and ahead 
he went for a while. The track was good until he came 
to a pole, with a piece of tin on top, which directed to 
two tracks one left, the other right. He knew the right 
was his track, but it was not well defined, but he went 
on until he came to the Waitahuna River. Here there 
was no track at all, and he knew he had lost his way. 
Backwards and forwards, up and down he went until it 
got dark, when he sat down, tired out and very hungry. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 227 

It was wet. and he was soaked to the skin. Iii the morning 
he sa~w the Clutha River, and knew that there was a ferry 
near. He saw a big rock, which he mistook for a house, 
and was sadly disappointed. A little further on he saw 
what he took to be another rock, but it turned 
out to be Maitland's house. Maitland was milking 
cows, and he took Petrie in and gave him breakfast. He 
then sent his shepherd to show the way. Petrie 's feet 
were terribly blistered, and he was about done up. Shand 
did not turn up for three days. 

Three men. Petrie. Bagrie, and W. Ford, saw two 
men drowned while crossing the Molyneux at Clutha 
Ferry. These men were, in company with James Mac- 
Do well, crossing a horse, which they had got over, but 
which, instead of going up the bank, turned back into 
the river, and they started after it. Petrie 's party coo-eed 
to them not to go to the punt rope, but they took no notice 
and kept on. The boat struck the rope, and was lifted 
straight on end. The men caught the rope, but one held 
on no time. The others tried to cross holding the rope, 
but one soon became exhausted and sank. The other. 
MacDowe]l, managed to get off his trousers, and then 
swam ashore. He had at first tried to get his leg over 
the rope, but had failed. 

A settler named Wilson was great on improvements. 
He was quite amused at seeing eight or ten bullocks in 
a waggon, and said he could make three do as much with 
a dray. He bought six from Smith, of Greenfield, and 
took them to Dunedin, where he engaged three men to 
teach them to lead; but it was a great job, and they 
frightened the Dunedin people nearly out of their wits. 
He had two drays built with springs and broad tyres. 
His three men were Fowler. Butler, and West. One trip 
the drays capsized several times, but they managed to 
get to Maitland's. Butler was a somnambulist, and one 
night after they were all in bed he got up and seized West 
by the head, crying "Whoa ! Whoa!" West yelled, "Let 
I go! Let I go! I am not a bullock!" On one of the 
others getting a light. Butler said, "Now, perhaps you'll 
help me up with this bullock." He thought the dray had 
capsized, and so was attempting to get the bullocks up. 

The men were once camped on an island opposite 
Clydevale cutting posts. They had no cooking utensils 
or meat, only tea and sugar, and had to cross to the 
station to cook their food. One night their boat sank. 

228 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

and they were stranded for a week. They knew where 
the Maoris had set their eel-pots, and, finding one baited 
with pieces of a woodhen. they caught as many eels as 
they could carry, and lived for three days on them; the 
other three days they had nothing. On the first day Petrie 
broke his axe-handle, and made one from a black pine 
sapling. Being green, it bent in all directions, but ulti- 
mately he got into the way of using it. and with it he 
cut 1,000 posts. When the job was finished he gave it to 

The Nicols, father and son. took a contract to build 
a bridge and an accommodation house at the Mataura 
River. Not having seen the place, they had to trust to 
the particulars given by the Government Department, 
and their estimates were made up from the information 
supplied, a good deal of which was misleading. Mr. 
Nicol, senr.. engaged men and a bullock driver, and. 
having secured a pair of first-class bullocks and sledge, set 
out from Dunedin for Mataura. Walter Nicol had now 
his first experience as a bullock-puncher, as the others of 
the party left him in charge. The road was only a track 
in many places, and in others there was hardly anything 
to guide the plucky new-chum driver. Nothing daunted, 
he set off, and after five days reached Caldervale, Kaihiku. 
then occupied by Alex. McNeil, where the others joined 
him, and the bullocks were handed over to their proper 
driver. The first day's trip had been as far as Saddle 
Hill; the next to Taieri Ferry; the third to Mathieson's. 
at Toko ; the fourth to Balclutha. and the fifth to Kaihiku. 
After leaving this place they managed, by taking a long 
day, to reach Trumble's place at Otaraia, but received 
a very surly welcome, neither food nor lodging being at 
first forthcoming. Ultimately they persuaded Trumble 
to give them food, and they lodged in the stockyard 
among the calf-pens. The seventh night found them at 
their destination the Bush about two miles below the 
present Mataura township, where there was a Maori settle- 
ment. Work then began. All the timber had to be cut in 
the bush and taken to the bridge site, a distance of about 
two miles. Soon a difficulty presented itself. The bridge 
had one span of fifty-two feet, and they could find only 
one tree in the bush which would square the size required. 
They had to go to Steel's bush. Edendale. for the other, 
and this entailed a great deal of extra labour. The bridge 
was a foot and horse bridge, six feet wide, and the spans 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 229 

were to rest 011 two Mat rocks, almost in mid-stream. It was 
found that the plans were here far astray, the proposed 
bridge being found to be twenty feet short, and some time 
was wasted in getting authority from Dunedin for the in- 
creased length. Provisions ran short, and the bullock 
team was sent to Invercargill for flour. It was away a 
fortnight, and then brought only one bag. The men were 
in a sad plight. Rich, a station-owner near, was away 
from home, and his foreman refused to sell them any 
meat, and if it had not been for the Maoris they would 
have starved. These Maoris gave them a few potatoes, 
and they managed to get some wild pigs. On Rich's 
return he soon had a bullock killed, and they were in 
clover. They then shifted camp to the bridge site, and 
were ready to start, when a flood came, and showed 
them that something would have to be done to prevent the 
bridge when built from being swept away, as the water 
rose right over the rocks where it was supposed to rest. 
The authorities were communicated with, and instructions 
sent to drill holes in the rocks and put in bolts, which 
were fixed by having melted lead poured in. After the 
work was completed, the river rose again, and the water 
flowed over the bottom of the bridge. Some time after- 
wards the bridge was swept away just when Southland 
separated from Otago and this accident made the sepa- 
ration complete. The accommodation-house was soon com- 
pleted, and the party returned to Dunedin. 

Mr. George Begg thus describes a trip he and his 
brother made to the diggings from East Clutha: 

''My brother Alick and I (whose ages then were 17 
and 15 years) were sent up to Gabriel's Gully with timber 
for sluice-boxes sent on spec. In all we had 500 feet. 
Alick had four bullocks and I two harness bullocks in 
drays. As it was mid-winter, the roads were in a fearful 
state. We left home, and went by way of East Clutha 
School. We had to put on the bridge before we got to 
the School, from which we went behind Mercer's (Frank 
Ledinghain's place), then down one of Simpson's ridges to 
the Water Hole. We got stuck there ; had to unload, get 
out, and re-load. Next we got to a gully on the east side 
of Simpson's gate, where we again got stuck; unloaded, 
got out, re-loaded, and reached the gully on the west side 
of the gate, where we had the same performance to go 
through. We went up past where P. Grant now lives, 
and forded the Puerua. The cutting was very narrow, 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

MR. AND MRS. AI.F.X. GRIGOR (1858 "Three Bell*"). 
MR. AND MRS. JAMES PATEKSON (1858 "'Jura"). 

1858 "Three Bells" 1863 "Star of Tasmania." 

of Dunedin and Sout/i Otago. 231 

so we kept on the Hat opposite where "W. Murdoch now 
lives. We foHowed the ridges up as far as Sheddan's, 
crossing the Waitepeka about Lawson's, on the bridge. 
From Sheddan's we went down what is now Shaw's track, 
down a ridge, crossed a creek where Kakapuaka Railway 
Station now is. up the spur by Te Houka, and thence to 
Balclutha, where we had a terrible job to get the bullocks 
on to the punt. We had them on and off ever so many 
times before we got across. We then went up by way 
of Willoeks's. and got as far as Mount Stnart. where we 
camped. The ground was covered with snow. We had 
no tents, no cover, so we slung our hammocks under 
the axle of one of the drays, but it was a cold show. I 
think we walked about all night to try to keep ourselves 
warm. As we were pitching the camp a man named 
Robinson, with a dray and three horses, came up. He was 
a fellow-passenger of ours from Home, and had come from 
Invercargill to Gabriel's, but was returning to Balclutha. 
He asked if he could camp with us. Alick gave him half 
a pannikin of whisky, and said yes. We had tea. and 
he had some more whisky, then he just tipped up his 
dray and slept on the ground, as he had sold his tent in 
the morning. He was half covered with snow, but he 
seemed to sleep fine. 

"In the morning, as it was snowing heavily, and 
Robinson had left on his road to Clutha, Alick 
said he thought I had better try to overtake him 
and go home, and he would look after things. I set 
off after Robinson, and \vas just about up to him, 
when Alick overtook me, and said it looked as if it was 
going to take up. and I had better go back. We had a 
horse with us on our trip, so we rode and tied back to 
camp. We got on fairly well until we reached Waitahuna 
River, which w r as partly in flood. Alick went first, and 
had got about halfway across w r hen his team stopped, and 
he had to get into the river and work the bullocks through. 
The water was up past his waist. That night Ave took off 
some of the boards, laid some on the ground, and built 
some up alongside the wheel. It was a bit more com- 
fortable, but there was not enough room below the axle 
to swing our hammocks. In due course we arrived at the 
end of our journey, but we found we had struck a bad 
market. A. J. Burns had, from his mill at Mosgiel. sent 
out two loads of timber, and had flooded the market. 
Some of our crowd wanted to sell the timber bv the board. 

232 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

but W. Crouthers would not hear of it. Crouthers was 
a terrible man to growl, and nobody could do anything 
to please him. While digging at Gabriel's Gully, In- and 
Sutherland shifted the pegs every chance they could get, 
until the crowd came and stopped them. He was an 
old Australian digger, who drank all he made. He often 
said to father he was going to save his money, and go 
home to the Channel Islands. When he left, father gave 
him 20 to buy a 5ft. saw. The saw cost 16, and with 
the balance he bought Yankee axes and sent them out. 
That was the last we heard of him. Crouthers would not 
hear of the crowd selling the timber by the board, so 
we sold it to John Barr's man (Jack) for 30. He sold 
it shortly after for 90, so he had all the profit and we 
had all the work. 

"On our way back we camped at Waitahuna. 
and Alick said, 'You unyoke, and I shall go over to 
these other lots and see if I can get the billy boiled.' 
Coming back, he said it was McKay, of Waihola, and we 
were to go and stay with him. We had a hut and plenty 
of straw, and I can tell you we slept sound. It was the 
only night we were warm. We then came down to Mr. W. 
Smith's, at Stirling. It was father's intention to send up 
timber by the steamer for us, and we were to return 
to Gabriel's; but when we got to Stirling there was no 
timber for us, so Alick rode home and sent me back 
word to come home with the teams, the reason being that 
there was no timber. All the settlers had sent down wheat 
to be ground, so our teams were required to cart the flour 
etc., from the mill to the steamer, but that work did not 
take long. On my way back from Gabriel's Gully I re- 
turned by way of Lawson's Bridge, and going down 
the hill from Woodburn by way of Veitch's, as it was 
dark. I capsized the dray in the gully; so I nnyoked and 
made for C. and J. Perkins, with whom I stayed all night. 
I think it took us fully two weeks to make the trip." 

Up to this date (1862) the greatest sensation of the 
time, outside of the discovery of gold, was the Molyneux 
murder, which took place about the middle of 1862. Thos. 
Blatch was police constable at Clutha Ferry at the time, 
and from him the following particulars are gleaned. 

A man named Fratson lived near the Clutha Ferry, 
in a hut close to the bush, between Avhere the two bridges 
now are. but rather nearer the railway bridge, lie was 
reckoned to be a Yorkshire man. and had come from 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 233 

Adelaide. He was very much disliked, and so was desirous 
of getting back to Adelaide. One day the constable (T. 
Blatch) had occasion to go to Kaitangata. and after 
crossing the river met a man named Leary coming to- 
wards Clutha. Nothing: was said by Leary at the time, 
but on Blatch coming home he found a note had been 
left for him by Leary. who explained that a man named 
Andrew Wilson, who had been working for him in a livery 
stable in Dunedin. and who had come to Clutha to look at 
the land two or three weeks before, was missing. He had 
been in Wharepa, and had stayed a night at different 
settlers' houses one at Mr. John Hogg's house at Hop 
Field Farm, and some at other places. The note also 
stated that he (Wilson) nad been seen in company with a 
mail Fratson, formerly mentioned. Leary stated he would 
inform the police in Dunedin, and asked Blatch to make 
inquiries. From inquiries made, it was ascertained that 
Wilson, in company with Fratson. had been seen going 
towards the latter 's hut by Mr. and Mrs. Hope and Mrs. 
Blatch. Mrs. Hope stated that she had met Mrs. Fratson 
in the evening, and she said she was going to the store 
for some things, as they had a visitor. Shortly after this 
(some days) Fratson stated his intention of going away. 
'out Woods, who kept the hotel in Balclutha. offered him 
work if he would stop, Woods wanting the services of 
Mrs. Fratson, who was much liked by everybody in the 
place. Fratson stayed a week or so, but ultimately left 
for Dunedin, from which a vessel was to sail for Adelaide. 
Blatch reported to the police in Dunedin that the last 
heard or seen of Wilson was in Fratson 's company, and 
that the latter had left for Dunedin with the intention 
of sailing for Adelaide. On receipt of this report. Detective 
Tuckwell was sent to the vessel to see if Fratson was on 
board, and finding him there he arrested him. On being 
brought before the Court, Fratson was remanded for three 
weeks. Leary offered a reward of 20 for information 
about Wilson, and the search was eagerly prosecuted. 
Blatch searched everywhere, but no trace was found. 
Detective Tuckwell came out to Clutha on the Saturday, 
and in company with Blatch searched the whole place, but 
again the search Avas a failure. Blatch said he was sure 
Wilson had been murdered and the body put in the river, 
but Tuckwell laughed at the idea. After seeing all the 
places, he came to the same opinion, saying, "I believe 
with vou the man is in the river: I wonder if we could 

234 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

get a drag and boat." "Yes," was the reply, and they 
got grappling irons and a boat from Woods, and dragged 
the river on Sunday afternoon, but with no result. 

Tuckwell stayed till Monday or Tuesday, and then 
returned to Dunedin. After he had left someone found 
a new felt hat with a cut in the back of it. and gave it 
to a swagger who was passing and had no hat. B latch 
sent a messenger after Tnekwell to tell him about it. and 
Tuckwell got the hat from the man at Toko. When Tuck- 
well was leaving he said: "I have never been beaten 
before, but this time I am fairly beaten." Said Blatch : 
"111 find him yet." "You may." was the reply, "but 
there is little chance." Blatch searched and made in- 
quiries for about a week, during which time the river 
was getting lower and clearer than it had ever been 
before. This was about the time of the Dunstan rush, and 
the weather was very frosty, so frosty that even the water 
taken into the houses at night Avas frozen solid in the 
morning. One day after dinner Blatch was looking up 
the river, and he could see the bottom quite distinctly, 
the pebbles on the bottom standing out promi- 
nently. Speaking to a man named John Finn, he sug- 
gested that they should go and look for the body, as there 
was a good chance to mid it and so secure the reward. 
Getting a boat, they dropped down with the current, 
watching up the river very carefully. Suddenly Finn said : 
"What's that lying there? It looks like a blue shirt." 
"Where?" said Blatch. Finn pointed our the place, and 
they pulled over. In a minute Blatch saw it was a body 
and told Finn, but he said "Xo. " "Full nearer." said 
Blatch. and Finn cried out: "Yes, by Heavens, it's a dead 
man." The body was lying under a log which was lying 
at an angle with the bank. The water being quite still, 
there was a deep hole at the place, and a slight stream 
flowing over the log had kept the body from rising. Tln-y 
then pulled ashore and left the boat, but Finn began to 
run up the road. Blatch called him back, and told him 
to make no fuss. They then told Woods, from whom they 
got a sheet, ropes, and other articles, and lifted the body 
into the boat which they pulled to the jetty. As the news 
had quickly spread, there was a crowd awaiting them. 
Blatch wrote a report, and, getting a horse from Woods, 
he sent Finn to Toko, whence a constable was sent to 
Dunedin. where he arrived at three in the morning. He 
was just in time, as next day. if 110 further evidence was 
got. Fratson was to have been released. 

of Dunedin and Soitt/i Otago. 235 

.Next day, along with David Thomas, son of Woods' 
partner, Blatch set out about the same time of day as 
before to search the bed of the river. They took with 
them a garden rake, with which Blatch picked up off the 
bottom three razors, near the middle of the river nearly 
opposite the spot where the body was found, only a little 
lower down. The third day they picked up an axe. When 
they returned there was a croAvd at the jetty, arid some- 
one called out: "Got anything?" "Yes." was the reply. 
"we got an axe." Fratson had borrowed an axe from one 
of Woods' men, and when going away he said he had 
returned, it. leaving it on the woodheap. The man had 
never found it, and, as he had a mark on it, he could swear 
that the axe found was the one Fratson had borrowed. 
The axe and razors had blood marks on them, and had 
human hair attached to them. A curious thing about the 
river was that during these three days it remained clear 
and low. but next day it was much discoloured and had 
risen. Making further search, Blatch saysi "I found a 
rope which had been taken from the punt. It was tied 
in two loops and had blood marks on it. Beside it was a 
manuka pole about ten feet long, and it. too. had blood 
marks. It seemed as if the rope had been used to put 
round the body and the stick put through the loops so 
that two people could carry it. Another long stick found 
had apparently been used to push the body out into the 
stream, as opposite Fratson 's hut the river bank was steep 
but clear of bush. A little further up there were some 
trees, through which there was a track, and on this track 
I found a bunch of human hair. I then carefully searched 
the hut, and noticed that the fireplace was heaped up with 
sand, as if there had been a big fire and sand had been put 
on top of it. In front of the hearth I noticed the ground 
was soft, and I removed the soft stuff, leaves and twigs 
of trees. This left a hole from two feet six inches to 
three feet in diameter, and aboirt eighteen inches deep. 
The ground round was solid, and the bottom and sides of 
the hole were stained a dark brown colour. The bed was 
opposite the fireplace, and I found the walls blood- 
splashed. I here note a curious thing. One day before 
the news of the disappearance of Wilson spread. I had 
occasion to go along the road near Fratson 's hut for my 
horse, and almost in front of the hut I noticed a pool of 
blood and thought some animal had been gored. After 
getting the horse I saw Mrs. Fratson looking about the 

236 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

place where I afterwards found the hair. Some days 
after my discoveries, Mr. St. John Branigan, Detective 
Tuck well, with Fratson in charge, and a doctor arrived 
to hold an inquest. Rich, son-in-law of Major tfiehard- 
son, was coroner, and some of the witnesses were the man 
who owned the axe, Hope and his wife, a man who worked 
for John Barr at Te Houka, and the wife of a settler at 
the Four Mile Creek. Several times while giving his 
evidence the doctor broke off to say that he had never 
seen a body so terribly mutilated. There were three large 
cuts at the back of the neck, a cut over the right eye, 
another down the centre of the face, cutting forehead, nose 
and chin in half, and the face had been battered in with 
the back of the axe. The verdict was wilful murder 
against Fratson, who was committed for trial. At tne 
trial Fratson was condemned to be hung, but, partly. owin 
to the nature of TuckAv ell's evidence, and partly to a 
petition which was got up stating that Fratson was the 
first to be condemned in Otago, the sentence was com- 
muted to penal servitude. Fratson was a most dangerous 
prisoner, and the warders stated that when he was work- 
ing above anyone in the cuttings he would drop a pick 
or other article on the men below as quick as lightning, 
so he had to be kept inside for fear he would kill the 
warders or other prisoners. 

"When the verdict at the trial was given Fratson 
roared like a bull: 'That damn Tuckwell has sworn my 
life away. ' His wife was not arrested, but I was sent by 
Branigan to see her to the place she stopped at in Port 
Chalmers. I may here say that Fratson was a giant in 
strength -a strong, burly Yorkshireman but a fearful 
coward. Once Woods sent him to try to get a drink at 
Barr's store, where they sold grog at 6d. a glass, whereas 
in the hotel it was Is., but he was so detested that they 
would not give it to him. The other men hated him like 
poison, and I have seen one give him a slap in the face, 
but Fratson took no notice of it. Every new Governor 
that came to New Zealand was petitioned by Fratson for 
release, and at last he gained his point. He came out to 
Hillend, but Hope was so scared that he wrote to the police 
who took Fratson to Dunedin and shipped him to South 

A number of people had been drowned in the Clutha 
and some of the bodies were never found. A man named 
Costello had been drowned before Blatch came to the 

of D lined in and South Otago. 237 

Clutha, but after his arrival, along with Andrew MacNeil 
and two others, he took the body out of the river after it 
had been in for eight weeks. Another man had been 
drowned at the same time, but his body was never got. 
Blatch says: "I was told that these two had tried to 
cross the river above the punt in a boat when it was in 
riood. but were swept down, and the boat was upset by 
the punt rope and the men drowned. Two men foun.l the 
body hanging in the branches of a tree opposite MacNeil's 
house, and we had to take it out by firelight. We had to 
saw the branches off and get a sheet under the body, which 
fell to pieces when touched. It took us to nearly daylight 
to finish. There was an inquest, and the funeral took 
place on the reserve the same day." 

A report of a double murder at Switzers reached 
Blatch at Clutha. Two brothers, named Tibbetts. had a 
station at Switzers. which they sold to a man named 
Switzer, who was a bootmaker in Dunedin. and from 
whom the place gets its name. Tibbetts Bros, haa another 
run near the former, and their horses always went back to 
the old run. The shepherds hunted them home with dogs, 
and one morning one of the Tibbetts found his favourite 
mare with her leg. broken. He said the shepherds had 
done it. and he would shoot the lot. Taking a double- 
barrelled gun. he walked to Switzers. where he arrived 
in the evening. He went to the hut, but the men had 
heard that he was coming, and they all cleared out. A 
woman with a child walked several miles to another 
station. The men hid in the scrub, from which they watched 
Tibbetts go into the hut, where he lit a fire and had his tea. 
About dark he went outside and called. "Aren't you coming 
in? You'll have to come some time." He stayed all night, 
and had his breakfast in the morning. It was a frosty night, 
and the hidden men had nothing on but shirt and 
trousers. After breakfast he went away up a gully, and 
one man. a German, who was cook, saw him going, but. 
being shortsighted, could not see him far. He thought 
he had gone, and started for the hut. Tibbetts turned 
and saw him. When he got near the poor fellow saw 
him and ran for the scrub, but Tibbetts shot him dead. 
He then turned away, and had some more breakfast with 
some men who were making a road near. One asked. 
"Been shooting?" "Oh. not much," said he: "only 
shot an old German affair." Some settlers then sent a 
mounted messenger to Blatch. but he had not gone far 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

when another messenger overtook him and told him that 
Tibbetts the murderer had been shot by his brother. On- 
Blatch's arrival, he found that Sergeant Morton, who was 
on his way from the Lakes, had heard of the murder, and 
had gone to Tibbetts' house. He found the brother there, 
and they went to Switzers to look for the murderer, but 
did not succeed in finding him. They returned home, and 
in a little while saw him coming across the river. They 
saw him looking at the horses' tracks, and carefully scan- 
ning the place. There was a calico door to the hut. so 
they put the table against it, and cut loopholes to peer 
through. When he came near, the brother told him to lay 
down his arms and come into the hut. "Who is with 
you?" was the reply. "Oh. nobody that will hurt you. 
Lay down your gun." ''What for?" "Because you 
have shot one man, and I don't want you to have any 
more shooting." "Yes, you - . and I'll shoot you. 
too," was the reply. He fired at the door, but, finding 
from the sound that there Avas something solid against 
it, he aimed his gun again. The sergeant said, "Xow's 
our time; fire, or he'll shoot us." The brother fired, and 
shot him dead. He then tried to shoot himself, but Mor- 
ton, after a sharp struggle, managed to get his revolver, 
which went off in the tussle, and he was wounded in the 
hand. Blatch went for Rich, and an inquest was held, 
when in the one case a verdict of murder w T as brought in 
against the dead Tibbetts, and in the other one of justi- 
fiable homicide. 

One, Davie Miller, seeing James Shiels' application 
for land at South Molyneux, came to him and said. "1 
see, James, you are applying for land in South Moly- 
neux; never buy land there, as I saw a man planting 
potatoes there, and the place was so hilly that he had to 
tie a flax rope round his waist and the other end round 
a tree to keep him from rolling to the bottom. He had 
to peg the potatoes into the ground to keep them from 
rolling away until he could cover them with soil." 

It was in the old Provincial days, and in Johnnie 
McNeil's time. Some men were engaged repairing the 
Port road from the ferry to Port Molyneux. It had been 
formed previous to this, but there was a number of bad 
places, such as culverts and swampy pieces of ground that 
required attending to. and they were sent out to do the 
work. They pitched their tents amongst the flax-bushes, 
near the turn of the road where Hogg's bridge now stands, 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 239 

arid not far from the bit of rising ground where George 
Earp" afterwards built his hut, and made his home and 

One day, while working on a part of the road near 
the Waitepeka Creek, not far from the spot where the 
Somervilles erected a flourmill and store, and not long 
after David Whytock had built the hotel at Puerua, who 
should come riding along the road but Mr. Watson, the 
manager of the adjoining Waitepeka Station "Clever 
Watson," as he was pleased to style himself. "Good 
day. men," says he, quite pleasantly. "Good day, Mr. 
Watson," they answered. 

"That's a fine straw stack you have over there, Mr. 
Watson." the road boss remarked, pointing to a straw 
stack in the adjoining paddock. 

"Yes," says Watson, "it is." 

"I wish we had it here." says the boss. 

"Why, what for'?" asked Watson. 

"We'd bundle it up and place it on this bad piece 
of road," explained the boss: "it would help it a lot." 

"Have as much as you wish." said Watson, as he rode 
awav; "I don't mind if it makes the road passable and 
fit for traffic." 

They soon had that stack bundled up. carried over, 
and placed in position on the road, and a very good part 
of the road it afterwards proved to be. 

Next morning Watson happened along. "Hullo!" 
he said, " where 's my straw stack?" 

"Didn't you .tell us yesterday we could have it for 
the road?" says the boss with a cheerful grin. 

"Yes." says Watson, "but I didn't mean you to take 
the lot. Ah, well, never mind," he said with a smile, 
"perhaps it will be more useful on the road than where 
it was, and you've made a good job of that too," and 
away he rode and left them to their work. 

"Clever Watson" was a very good sort of a chap, 
but he happened to fall out with a neighbour named 
Donald Sutherland. "Big Donal'," as he was usually 

It appears that the boundary fence between them, 
like many another boundary fence before and since, Avas 
in bad order, and stock were trespassing. At any rate, 
"Clever Watson" went the length of summoning "Big 

-^40 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

The case came off in the Ferry, and ''Big Donal' 
won. Donald was in the men's tent that evening, giving 
them the details of the case, when they heard hoof-beats 
coming down the road, and the voice of someone speaking 
as they thought to a friend. Out they went to see who 
was coming, and who was it but "Clever Watson" com- 
ing riding home from the Ferry, and talking to himself 
about the case he had lost that day. He looked up. and 
saw "Big Donal' ' and the rest at the tents, and came 
riding over. 

"Ah! 'Big Donal',' " he said, as he rode up; "you've 
beat 'Clever Watson' to-day. Never mind." he said, as he 
offered his hand to Donal'. "shake hands; I bear no 
grudge about it." 

Big Duffy, a man who had travelled and seen a good 
deal of the world, said afterwards to one of his mates : 
"Well. mate. I reckon I've seen something wonderful 
to-day. To see two men who had a bitter lawsuit in 
the morning meet again at night, shake hands and become 
friends is something wonderful to me." 

The following incident in connection with Mr. G. 
Poison, of Wharepa. after whom Poison's Bridge is named, 
occurred many years ago. It happened on the Main South 
Road, long before the construction of the Southern Trunk 
railway line : 

"Those were great days; those were the days when 
'Caulker' and 'Te Kook' flourished. These are simply 
nick-names, but they will serve their turn. They were 
carpenters, and had pitched their camp on the tussocky 
slopes at the foot of Popotunoa's bush-clad hill. Plenty 
of work was offering then, and they spent their days 
earning good money, and many of their nights in high 
jinks and rollicking sprees, drinking enough whisky and 
beer on such festive occasions, quite sufficient to 'stagger 
humanity.' ' 

But that is not the yarn. 

Mr. Poison, it seems, was driving his team of horses 
with a dray-load of provisions along the road, making 
for a station somewhere down south. He had passed 
through what is now called Clinton, and was driving 
along the badly constructed road, keeping a watchful eye 
on his team and dray. Carefully straddling high ruts 
here and there, crossing gently over soft and swampy 
places, he would dodge all the "crab holes and glue- 
pots" with a dexterity born of long experience. 

of Dunedin and South Of ago. 241 

Everything was going well with him. and he was 
almost within sight of the famed Wairuna Bush. This 
bush, pretty though it undoubtedly is at the present day. 
retains but a shadow of its former glory and beauty. 
The lordly pines, the giant totaras, the graceful kowhais. 
and the picturesque broadleaf have long since fallen a 
prey to axe and saw to satisfy the material needs of 
the men of the early days. In passing, it may be stated 
that some of the first houses built in the Wairuna Dis- 
trict were constructed with timber carted from Port 

Timber could have been obtained at Tapanui. but the 
road from Port Molyneux was the best for carting on 
at that time. But to return to Poison and his team. 
They had climbed a long hill, and were making for 
Scobie's Hotel and store, which at that time stood close 
beside the Main Road. This hotel and store have long 
since disappeared. Scobie afterwards built the first store 
in Clinton, and conducted a flourishing business there, 
until financial difficulties overtook him. Poison had 
passed safely over a bad portion of road, and was taking 
things easy, when suddenly the team swerved to one side. 
and ere Poison could bring them back to their bearings, 
the off wheel passed over a steep bank, and in a second 
horses, dray, and provisions were at the bottom of a small 
gully. As it happened, one of a gang of men repairing 
the road noticed the mishap, and gave the alarm to his 
mates. A gang of willing workers were soon on the 
spot, the horses were quickly unyoked, the dray and 
provisions carried almost bodily on to the road, and 
everything put to rights, and almost before Poison had 
realised that he had tipped over an embankment, he was 
once more wending his way along the road to his destina- 
tion, which he reached safely without further mishap." 

Wild dogs and wild pigs were a source of continual 
annoyance to the settlers, and constant war was waged 
against them. The sheep often had to be watched night 
and day, but in spite of all precautions many were killed 
and heavy losses sustained by the settlers. The authori- 
ties, as well as the settlers, were eager for the extermi- 
nation of the wild dog, and 5 were at one time given 
as the price of a wild dog's tail. As for the pigs, although 
they did considerable damage too. yet the settlers were 
often dependent on them for the only fresh meat they 
could get. Hunting parties were often organised, and 

Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

the sport proved both enjoyable and exciting, as the fol- 
lowing descriptions will show. 

Out from the Taieri pigs were very plentiful, and parties 
of two and three used to go out hunting. One party had 
several good dogs, which they kept tied, and one good 
hunting clog to find out the pigs. They often stayed out 
all night, as they had to keep clear of sheep. When the 
hunting dog barked, they let loose the other dogs, and 
had a good set-to with the pigs. Sometimes they killed 
half-a-dozen boars before they got. a good pig. On one 
occasion the weather became very bad, and the party 
had to leave everything and get home as best they could. 
If they had had no blankets they would never have got 

On another occasion a young pig followed the party 
home from Whare Bush. Bob Mahone had caught a 
sucker, which he took with him to the camp. He held its 
nose over the smoke of the fire until it was stupefied, and 
then laid it beside him in the bed all night. Next day it 
followed the men, and when they came to a bad place 
in the track it would squeal until one of them carried 
it over. It went with them to Halfway Bush, but turned 
out a terror. It would come into the house and scare 
the women out of their wits. One evening Blatch and 
others went to visit Mahone. and on knocking were 
answered by the woman, who said she could not open 
the door as she was in bed, and the pig Avas insicle. At 
last by means of a chair or two she managed to reach 
the door and get it open, when the pig cleared out. 

Allan Boyd was once out on his run when a hoar 
met him, and Boyd got such a fright that instead of using 
his gun he climbed a cabbage tree near, leaving his gun 
leaning against the trunk. After settling himself, he tried 
to draw his gun up, but it went off and shot him. John 
MacCrae found him and carried him home, when John 
Boyd ran to Dunedin for a doctor 

Two men, Mahone and Blatch, were engaged by a 
man named MacDonald to go out to get some pigs for 
him. They went over the hills to the back of the Silver 
Peak, and in several days had secured a large number of 
pigs, which were sent to Hreadalbane, North Taieri. They 
had given up hunting, and had the dogs tied up, pre- 
paratory to packing up for departure, w'.icn they saw 
three men Macgregor, Gibson, and a lad coming to- 
wards them. Blatch was standing near the tent where 

of 1) u ncd in and South Otago. 243 

one of the dogs was tied. Mahone said, "Good-day, men. 
have you been hunting wild pigs?" "Yes," was rhe 
reply, "and tame ones, too." With that Macgregor fired 
at the dog in the tent and shot him. Mahone picked up 
in his arms another dog, which had been lent to them, 
and saying. "You won't shoot my dog," ran off up a 
ridge. Maegregor followed, and shot the dog in his arms. 
On going to Dunedin, the men went to Magistrate Strode, 
but he would do nothing for them, as he said he must 
protect the runholders. The place where the foregoing 
incident took place is called Powder Hill to this day. 

Wild, pigs were plentiful on Greenfield Station, and 
were hunted without mercy. On one occasion the sight 
or a pig chasing a man was experienced. Mr. Alex. Petrie, 
who was employed on the station, was accustomed to 
put in pegs to mark places where he thought he could 
make short cuts, but sometimes found himeslf in such 
difhVult places that he often thought he would have been 
better to have kept to the ridges, as in his efforts to find 
short cuts he got into deep gullies, with steep, ferny 
sides. One day, when following a track, he saw a huge 
boar, with immensely long ears, coming slowly along the 
track, and he thought he would give it a fright. Waiting 
until the animal got within a short distance of him, he 
shouted loudly and jumped towards it. To his astonish- 
ment and no little dismay, the animal took no notice, 
further than to advance towards him at a slightly faster 
spivd. As he had no weapon, Petrie thought it was time 
to go, so off he set running as fast as he could. On reach- 
ing some distance ahead, he looked back, and saw Mr. Boar 
cantering he had been walking before smartly after 
him. He again set off, and, on looking back a second 
time, saw the boar rooting amongst the fern, he having 
lost sight of his quarry. Petrie had often hunted pigs, 
but this Avas the first time he had experienced the pleasure 
of being hunted by a pig. On reaching Tokomairiro, 
however, and relating the story, he found that the boar 
<vas well known, as he had stuck up several, among whom 
was a man named Berney. 

On the Kakanui Ranges were cartloads of moa bones, 
and Petrie thought he might find a live moa. so was con- 
tinually on the search. One day, when out searching, 
accompanied by his dogs, he saw on the hillside what he 
took to be a big grey-coloured rock. The dogs had started 
some pigs, and had caught one. On looking around, 

244 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Sandy saw the supposed rock seemingly moving, and 
was greatly surprised. Considerably startled at such a 
sight, he remained gazing until it came toward him, when 
he saw it was a huge pig. an enormous brute, the largest 
he had ever seen. To his excited imagination it appeared 
like a big sow with a litter of young ones. 

When with Murison, pig hunts were systematically 
carried out. Good dogs were got i.e., dogs with short 
stout legs, probably with some of the bulldog breed about 
them. Murison and others often wondered how Petrie 
always got such nice fat pigs, while they could get only 
a tough old boar or sow. Petrie 's method was a most 
common-sense one, and so simple that it is strange that 
the same idea did not occur to the others. In some parts 
of the district were stretches of beds of old lagoons, long 
dried up and covered with long grass. These places were 
the favourite haunts of the pigs, and when a mob of them 
was located, Petrie galloped ahead of his dogs, and after 
selecting what he considered was a good animal, cut it 
out of the others with his whip. When the dogs came 
up and saw the animal he was attacking, they at once 
tackled it too. and so he always got a good pig. If left 
to themselves, the dogs usually tackled a big boar, which 
would stick them up, the others escaping. 

A Mr. Geggie was a good pig-hunter, and being slim 
and wiry, could make his way through the fern. Pigs 
were plentiful about Puerua Bush, and the settlers fed 
their dogs on the boiled skins. One day. when chopping 
wood, Geggie and Petrie heard their dogs barking loudly, 
and as they wanted pork, although it was nearly evening, 
they set off. After travelling some distance they listened, 
but heard no sound. They then climbed a steep face, 
covered with high fern, and again heard the dogs, al- 
though the sound seemed as far off as ever. Petrie now 
washed to return, but Geggie said "No, the dogs are quite 
close." They went on. but finding nothing Petrie lay 
down and went to sleep. He faintly heard Geggie 
calling, "Hold him! Hold him!'' but took no notice. After 
a bit he w r oke up, coo-ocd, but got no reply. Thinking 
that Geggie had gone home, IIP then wenr off. On arriv- 
ing at the house, he found that Geggie had not returned, 
and Mrs. Geggie wished him to go out after him. To- 
wards morning he did so., tak'ng with him something to 
eat. On reaching the place where he had lain down to 
sleep, he saw Geggie coming towards him with a load 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

of pork. Geggie was a bit surprised when Petrie handed 
him the bread, and asked where he got it. "Oh," said 
Petrie, "I always carry some with me." Geggie then 
stated that he had spent an awful night, and brok-i his 
spear. He had slept among the fern in a pig's bed, which 
he had found empty, but got a great surprise when a 
big boar made his appearance. He struck at it with his 
spear, but unfortunately broke it, or rather the boar broke 
it and disappeared. Petrie 's concluding remark was : "By 
Jove, before I go after pigs again. I'll want to see them 

A party, consisting of Dalgleish. Berney, Sandy 
Strachan; and Tom Chalmers, were often out rabbiting, 
but, one day being too wet, they went pig hunting in the 
bush. A pig bailed them up, and each rushed for a tree. 
Strachan managed to get up a fuchsia. Tom Chalmers 
got up another. Berney tried to scramble up into 
Strachan 's tree, but was greeted with a kick and told, 
' ' Be d ! go and get a tree for yourself. ' ' 

One day Petrie was riding across the Upper Taieri 
Plain, hands in pockets, for it was a frosty morning, when 
he heard a yelp, yelp. At first he thought it was the 
saddle squeaking, but, on hearing it repeated, he made his 
way to the edge of a terrace, and there he saw about a 
dozen wild dogs taking the young pigs from a sow. When 
the sow, which defended her young bravely, would rush 
at one dog, another would spring in and carry off a young 
pig. Petrie then shouted, and all the dogs but one cleared 
off. This one faced him, and he rode at it, flogging it 
with his whip. He rode over it again and again, and 
followed until the dog lay down blown. Taking up his 
stirrup, he struck at the dog, but the iron rebounded and 
cut him across the hand. He then dismounted and circled 
at a safe distance round the dog, gradually reducing the 
distance until he thought he was near enough, when he 
sprang and seized its tail. He tried to throw the dog 
some distance, but the brute was too heavy. At last he 
put his foot on its neck and thus killed it. To show his 
mates what he had done single-handed, he cut off the tail 
as a trophy. In the meantime his horse had got away, 
and he had to walk to camp. 

At night the dogs used to sit in circles and howl for 
a couple of hours. They would then stop, and when day- 
break came they parted, going in packs. It was very 
difficult to poison these dogs, as they were very suspicious 


Reminiscences of the Earl\ Settlement 


1858 "Robert Henderson" AND "Pcilinvra. 

of D lined in and South Otago. 247 

animals, refusing 1 to touch anything which had any smell 
of the touch of man about it. The usual plan was to take 
the entrails of a beast or large pieces of fried liver, tie 
them to horses' tails, and drag them over the ground, 
striking off pieces here and there and scattering them 
\vith H fork, taking special care not to touch any piece 
with the hand. The pieces then looked as if they had 
dropped off themselves, and the dogs ate without scruple. 
In this way parts were cleared of these brutes, and soon 
the wild dog became extinct. 

Many and varied experiences were met with at Green- 
field. Wild dogs were very troublesome, but were ulti- 
mately hunted down and thoroughly exterminated. Pigs, 
too, were plentiful ; in fact, the upper part of the station 
was so infested that on an afternoon the shepherds with 
dogs. guns, and spears often killed thirty or forty of 
them, leaving the carcass-es to rot. Dogs had been 
specially brought for running the pigs down, and did the 
work well. Occasionally some of them were badly ripped 
up by the boars, but these were the only accidents that 
occurred. These pigs did more damage to the sheep than 
did wild dogs, especially in lambing time, as they would 
follow the ewes till the lambs were dropped, when they 
would instantly devour them. 

On the upper part of the station was a large mob of 
wild cattle, and Smith determined to secure them. For 
this purpose new yards with an immensely long lead had 
to be built at the riverbank. The timber was cut on an 
island near Clydevale. and had to be boated across the 
river. This part of the work was very exciting, as the 
boat was usually loaded almost to the water's edge, and 
the slightest blunder would have caused an accident. 
Smith, however, was a splendid boatman, and the work 
went on safety. He never entered a boat with his boots 
laced a piece of advice worth taking nowadays. After 
the yards were built, all hands turned out and succeeded 
in yarding a large number of the cattle, and then for 
several days all was bustle and scurry, branding and doing 
other work. The calves were taken from the cows, which 
were milked for a few mornings and then turned out with 
sticks about their necks. It was thought that they would 
stop about for the sake of their calves, but many cleared 
off. Of the escaped i-aitle some swam the river and got 
into the Blue Mountains, where their descendants still 
exist. Their numbers are now small in comparison. 

248 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

although it took years of hard work to reduce them. 
Among the stockmen employed on Greenfield were Alex. 
MacPherson, Davie Peters, Bob Sutherland, and Hugh 
MacKechnie, but of these MacKechnie is the only one now 
alive (April, 1909). 

Fred Jackman was a keen hunter, and did not mind 
a bit if he only happened to be in at the death. Once 
Fred and a few friends were out. He had a bull-dog 
called "Caesar," a splendid dog, and also a collie. It 
was a warm day, and the dogs had bailed up and held 
two pigs, but were getting a bit tired. Fred saw a boar, 
and without the help of the dogs rushed in and struck at 
it with his sheath-knife. The boar turned on him, knocked 
him down, a-nd tore open his knee. He managed to get 
home somehow, but, although it was only a small wound, 
he was laid up for a long time. 

Sometimes there was keen competition in pig-hunting. 
The party on one occasion divided. Jack Perry and Alick 
Begg went one day to get at a pig. George Begg was 
leading "Caesar," and Fred Jackman w T as with him. 
Fred said: "Give me the dog and you go this way, and 
when I think you are near the pig I will let 'Caesar' go." 
Begg had just sighted the pig when "Caesar" rushed 
past, and he had blood running when Alick and Perry 
arrived. They could not understand how George got 
there first, but he could beat them all as long as it was 
an uphill go, but when it was downhill he was lost. On 
another occasion they went out, Perry and Marcus Begg 
chasing a pig. Fred held "Caesar" till Begg got away. 
He got to the pig first, and after sticking him was sitting 
stride-legs over the body, when Perry came up and ran 
his spear into it. Begg did not think he saw him at all, 
as he had to move his leg or Perry would have run the 
spear clean through it. Sometimes the party took the 
four bullocks in a sledge and a tent and went back to the 
Wisp Hill, where they camped for a day or two, when 
they always had good sport. George Begg remembers 
coming home one night just about dark ; the collie started 
a pig, which ran down a small gully with long fern, where 
the pig-dog got a hold of it. George could not see them, 
but had a fair idea when they were near, so he crawled 
in on hands and knees, got on the pig's back, and 
despatched him. A similar incident happened on two 
other occasions. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 249 

One day George Slawson and John Crawford went 
shooting pigeons. Thinking it was a wild one, they shot 
a tame pig belonging to one Hall, who used to pit-saw 
in the bush. When they found their mistake they covered 
the body carefully over with branches and ran for their 
lives. Hall hunted high and low for that pig, but never 
found it, and the hunters never said a word about their 

Near Port Molyneux there was a pig called Taipo. 
which in English means ''Devil," and which used to make 
nightly excursions to the Maoris' clearings and rob them 
of everything it could eat. At last it found Hay's place 
out, and "was there for several nights. One morning 
another boy and W. Hay, taking a dog which Hay's father 
had got in Southland, went to their potato patch, and 
there sure enough was the pig. On seeing them it jumped 
over the log fence and made into the bush, but the dog 
got hold of it and held on till Hay arrived, when he hit 
it across the back with his tomahawk, killing it at one 

Robert Carrick, Alexander Archibald, Andrew Doig, 
George and William Hay once went out pig-hunting, and 
had been out all day without having killed a pig. As they 
were returning home feeling pretty dejected they sat 
down at the edge of the bush for a smoko. As they were 
thus sitting, William Hay noticed some pigs which had 
come out of the bush on the opposite side of the flat. 
The men followed and managed to kill a sow, but by this 
time darkness had come on, so they decided to camp in 
the bush for the night. During the night a south-east 
mist with rain came on, and, all being new-chums, after 
spending a miserable night, they went further into the 
bush instead of coming out. They wandered about all 
day, and had to again camp in the bush. They were 
sopping wet and could not light a fire as they had no dry 
material. The only means of lighting a fire was by flint 
and steel, with either tinder or match paper, and that 
being wet, they were forced to go without a fire. They 
repeated this wandering-about performance for two days, 
being wet through all the time. As William was a boy 
and a fairly good climber, he was sent up trees to see if 
there M r as any open country about. He climbed trees till 
the skin was all off his knees, and then Andrew Doig had 
to take a turn on the lookout. The weather took up on 
the third day, when Doi^ discovered 'open country, now 

250 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

known as the Ahuriri Flat. The pig had been divided 
among the four men to carry, but. having no fire, they 
could not cook any of it, and were all that time without 
anything to eat. On the third day Mr. Hay, sen., took 
a piece of cotton and pinned it on Doig's shoulder to dry 
in the sun, while they were travelling through the Ahuriri. 
Some of the men got ravenous, and managed to eat a 
little of the raw pig. The Hays had a try, but could only 
chew it. and could not force themselves to swallow it. 
At last, with the piece of cotton that he had pinned on 
Doig's shoulder and a knife, Mr. Hay managed to light a 
fire. The first thing to be cooked was the liver, but the 
smell of it roasting was too much for them, and they took 
it off the fire and ate it with all the blood in. William 
says he could not eat liver for a long time after. That 
day they reached Fuller's place, now Hilly Park, and after 
staying there all night proceeded to their home on the 

One day a man named John MacMillan was out on 
his round amongst the sheep when he came across a little 
mob of pigs about a score with a great big boar 
amongst them. He picked the boar out as his prey and 
set the dogs on him, and after tying his horse on the top 
of a ridge, he also made after him. When the pig sighted 
MacMillan he gave np snapping at the dogs and made 
for him. Mac made for a swamp near at hand, but the 
pig was too quick and made a snap at his legs, taking the 
leg clean off his He then made into the bush, 
leaving Mac minus one trouser leg. 

When at Clydevale, MacMillan was returning home 
one evening when a bull-dog which he had with him 
caught a big pig. Mac thought he had killed the pig, 
when all of a sudden it rose and struck the dog under the 
jaw. killing it instantly. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 251 



IT is difficult to say when and by whom gold was first 
discovered in Otago. The Maoris were aware of its 
existence before the colonists arrived, as Mr. Palmer 
of Moeraki has stated that he had been assured by the 
Native chief, Tu-hawaiki, that plenty whiro or yellow 
stone could be obtained in the interior of the Island. 
Other natives -confirmed this, and at least one party of 
settlers attempted to discover El Dorado. In 1851. while 
James Crane was at Henley, some natives came there 
from the Molyneux. All the talk at that time was about 
the finding of gold in Australia. As the talking pro- 
gressed, a native named Raid Raki told those present that 
while towing his canoe up the Matau, near Te Houka 
beach, he picked up a stone the colour of a pakeha 
sovereign. He carried it in his hand for a while, and 
then threw it into the canoe to the children. The story 
roused some of the listeners, who made up a party con- 
sisting of William Palmer. James Wybrow, John Bennett. 
two natives, Teraki and Tuera, and James Crane, to go 
prospecting. On reaching the Molyneux. the party got 
Mr. Redpath's boat and went as far as the Pomahaka 
Falls, where the natives were eeling, but had to return 
without finding any gold. In March. 1852. a party of five 
started up the Clutha River in a whaleboat brought by 
Mr. Thomas B. Archibald from Dunedin. and prospected 
the bars and banks of the river as far as the Creek now 
called Beaumont; but, as none of the party knew anything 
about gold-mining, they returned after a three weeks' 
cruise, having got nothing but the colour. In 1853. a 
small quantity of fine scaly gold was got at the Fortifica- 
tions in West Taieri Goldfield. 

In 1856. Mr. C. W. Ligar reported to Captain Cargill 
that he had found gold distributed in the gravel and 
sand at Tuturau. but no effort was made to test the value 
of this discovery. The Superintendent observed that in 
no circumstances would it be advisable to allow searchers 

252 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

to go upon a run without leave of the lessee, or upon 
native lands without leave of the natives. In 1857-58, 
Mr. Alex. Garvie reported traces of gold to be found in 
Clutha. Manuherikia, Tuapeka, Pomahaka, and Waita- 
huna Rivers. The best sample brought to Dunedin had 
been procured in 1859 by Edward Peters, a native of 
Bombay, at what became known as the Woolshed 
Diggings. Peters also obtained gold on Messrs. Davy 
and Bowler's run, near the Tuapeka River, and not far 
from Gabriel's Gully. On behalf of Peters, Mr. A. McNeil 
put in a claim for the reward (500) offered by the Pro- 
vincial Government, but it was not granted. In 1858 the 
Chief Surveyor found gold in the Liudis River, and in 
March, 1861, some men forming a road in the Dunstan 
Mountains struck a deposit of the precious metal. A 
small rush set in, but the yield was not encouraging. 
Scarcely had the brief excitement subsided when Mr. 
Gabriel Read reported on 4th June, 1861, to Major 
Richardson. Superintendent of Otago. that he had made 
an extensive trip of about thirty-five miles and had found 
gold which would pay for proper working. With a pan 
and butcher's knife he had got seven ounces for ten hours' 
work. Read's statements found their way to the Press, 
and a rush set in to the gully called in his honour Gabriel's 

In August, 1861, the first escort brought 5,056 ounces 
of gold to Dunedin, and at once excitement rose to fever 
heat. The rush to Otago soon assumed enormous propor- 
tions, and in December, 1861, the population had increased 
from 12,691 in December, 1860, to 30.269. 

Weatherstone's and Munroe's Gullies were shortly 
afterwards opened up, and in July, 1861, Gabriel Read 
and Captain Baldwin discovered a rich field in Waitahuna 
River, where the first two dishfuls of gravel yielded three- 
quarters of an ounce of gold. In November. 1861, the 
aggregate amount of gold brought in by the escorts 
totalled 73.904 ounces. Early in 1862 further discoveries 
were made on the Waipori River, and at the Woolshed, 

During the Avinter months of 1862 some discoveries 
of lesser extent were made, and in August, 1862. Hartley 
and Riley lodged at the Chief Gold Receiver's office in 
Dunedin 1,047 ounces of gold. They refused to divulge 
the name of the locality until the Government had guaran- 
teed them a reward of 2.000, conditionally on 16.000 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 253 

ounces being brought down by the escort in three mouths. 
They then stated that the place was on the Clutha River, 
between the junction of the Manuherikia and the 
Kawarau Rivers. A rush of unprecedented magnitude 
then set in with the inevitable result ; a reaction followed, 
hastened by the scarcity of provisions. Half a crown was 
readily paid for a pound of Hour, wood for making cradles 
sold at fabulous prices, as much as 3 being paid for an 
old gin case. Many left the field in disgust with greater 
haste than they had gone to it. but those who remained 
were amply rewarded. 

The banks of the river on either side became occupied 
by a numerous population, which gradually extended for 
a distance of seventy miles. 

In September. 1862, another discovery was made at 
Nokomai River, and before the close of 1862, 70,000 ounces 
of gold had been sent to Dunedin. The Clutha River was 
badly flooded in September. 1862, and this flood drove 
the miners from their claims. They explored the neigh- 
bouring gullies, and gold was discovered in many places. 
The most important was named Conroy's Gully. Three 
miners crossed the Carrick Range, and in one day took 
two ounces of gold with a tin dish and a shovel out of a 
place afterwards called Potter's Gully. 

Discoveries of greater importance were soon made, 
and in October, 1862, a miner named Fox stated he had 
made a very rich find. Numbers went in search of the 
new field, but for a time were unsuccessful, and began to 
look upon the report as a fraud. One party, however, 
struck gold at Cardrona Creek, and in one afternoon they 
got 9oz. 6dwt. 12 grains. Following up the Cardrona Creek, 
a party of miners came upon Fox's party working in a 
gorge in the Arrow River, and an extensive rush again 
took place to this spot. The miners then turned to the 
Shotover, where Mr. Thomas Arthur, with three mates, 
obtained 200 ounces of gold in eight days by washing the 
sands of the river beach. 

Higher up the Shotover numerous rich gullies were 
discovered, and the beaches of the river itself were suc- 
cessfully prospected. One of these beaches was named 
Maori Point, owing to its discovery by two natives of the 
North Island. Dan Ellison and Zachariah Haeroa. As 
these men were travelling along the eastern bank of the 
river they found some Europeans working in a secluded 
gorge. On the opposite shore was a beach occupying a 

254 Reminiscences of t/te Early Settlement 

bend of the stream, over which the cliffs rose perpen- 
dicularly more than 500 feet high. The Maoris plunged 
into the river and managed to reach the shore, but their 
dog was carried away by the current, and drifted to a 
rocky point, where it remained. Ellison went to its 
assistance, and, observing some particles of gold in the 
crevices, he commenced to search, and with the assistance 
of Ilaeroa secured 300 ounces of gold before nightfall. 

Other gullies and beaches were opened up, the chief 
being Skipper's Gully. In 3863 gold was discovered at 
the Tallaburn. at Manuherikia Valley, at Campbell's 
Creek, and at Mount Ida, and the first escort brought 
4,320 ounces from the last field. For the first three years 
and nine months after Gabriel Read's discovery 1,699.667 
ounces of gold had passed through Dunedin Custom 
House, and 63,970 ounces through other ports. 

The news of the gold discoveries spread like wildfire, 
and diggers began to pour in from all parts of NVw 
Zealand and from the neighbouring colonies. All Dunedin 
was in a whirl of excitement, and merchants wondered 
if they could put their stores on wheels and transport 
them bodily to Tuapeka. The road, which ran by way 
of Waihola and Tokomairiro, soon got into a terrible state, 
and it was no uncommon sight to see a team of bullocks 
stuck fast in a deep hole, where the drivers had to wait 
till the next team came along, when the combined teams 
pulled one waggon at a time out of the obstruction. 
Laughable scenes were often witnessed, and on one 
occasion a party of sailors was seen en route for the 
diggings with a hand-cart, with a man in the shafts acting 
as steersman and a sail up to catch the wind. The steers- 
man had to run like the wind, and the various antics In- 
cut evoked roars of laughter from onlookers. 

The following incidents in connection with the 
diggings in various parts of Otago may be taken as 
samples of what occurred during this wild and unsettled 
time. Mr. T. Blatch was a member of the police force, 
and had good opportunities of observing the events which 
came under his notice, while the other accounts are from 
those who personally took part in the wild rush to the 

When the Gabriel's Gully rush broke out, Mr. Hay. 
Mr. John Sharp, A. Bdl. Henry Begg, and William Hay 
started with a team of bullocks, and after great difficulty 
got as far as Balchitha. They were in Balclutha two 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

solid days before they could get the bullocks across the 
river. When they reached the diggings they camped it) 
the first place at the top of the Blue Spur, among the 
manuka bush. Bell and William Hay went across to 
Weatherst one's prospecting, and got very good colour, 
while Mr. Hay and Sharp sank a hole in Gabriel's Gully 
right under the Blue Spur. At night they compared 
prospects, and as these were better at Gabriel's they 
decided to stay there, and immediately pegged off their 
claim. Xext day they put a little bit of a dam across 
Gabriel's Creek to bring the water in to the claim, put 
down their sluice-box, which they had brought with them, 
and the Avash that was taken out the day before was run 
through the box. The gold for the first day's wash was 
eight ounces. The claim was so rich that they cleared 500 
each. Their party was the first to put a hole at the foot 
of the Blue Spur. * With his 500 William Hay bought 300 
ewes from Mr. Clapcott, paying him 30s. each for them. 
The only discount he got for paying cash was a merino 
ram. which afterwards got smothered in the snow. 

AYhen the Gabriel's Gully diggings broke out Walter 
Xicol formed a party to go there. They bought a pair 
of horses, and, loading up with swags, tools, and some 
timber, set off. Arriving at Waihola, they had to take 
the horses out of the dray and pull the load themselves 
along the beach till they reached ground where the horses 
could get good footing. On reaching Mount Stuart this 
performance had to be repeated, but at last they reached 
Gabriel's. Xicol's mate, an old digger, went to the head 
of the gully, but after sinking several holes and getting no 
gold they had to return below the Blue Spur. Noticing 
a party working in the bend they waited until the hole 
was bottomed, when there was the gold thick on the 
bottom. Fired by the sight, they sank a hole behind, but 
water came in and they could not bottom. They then 
sank another hole on the other side, and got seven ounces 
of gold out of it. The first hole was then abandoned to 
another party who had a pump. This party managed to 
bottom the hole, and got two pounds weight of gold for 
their labour. 

Xicol and his party then bought a claim from another 
party, and out of two paddocks took over 200 worth of 
gold. Provisions were exceedingly dear on the field, flour 
being sold at 14 a bag and sheep at 2 each. They then 
went prospecting in Munroe's Gully, but did little good. 

256 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

They sank four holes in a small piece of ground at the 
junction of Munroe's Gully and a gully called Holy Joe's, 
but got only about 1 a day. This was not considered 
good enough, so the.) left. On their return to Duuedin, 
Nicol heard that another party had taken up this same, 
piece of ground, and had made 600 a man out of the 
unworked part. 

Petrie 's party consisted of six, made up of Tolmie 
Brothers, Robertson and son, George Cooper, and Petrie 
himself. Tolmie Brothers had made a dray with wooden 
wheels and wooden axlos, and it had eight bullocks in it. 
On reaching Gabriel's they took up a claim and were very 
successful, and Petrie was the first to sink a hole in Blue 
Spur itself. After a time the party broke up, and John 
Tolmie, Petrie, George Cooper, and two men named 
McKenzie and Noble, made up a fresh party. They dug 
a bit here and there, and were fairly successful. Petrie 
was there about twelve months. As he was the only one 
who had a horse and revolver, he was appointed to take 
the gold, which was valued at about 500, to Dunedin. 
When he got into the bank and wanted sovereigns for it. 
a man took a big scoop and shovelled the sovereigns into 
the scales, and then put them into a bag which he handed 
to him. Petrie thought they had rather a loose way of 
doing business, but did not know what to do as he could 
not stay and count it there. However, it turned out all 
right. As there were tales of sticking up, he was glad to 
get back again. His next experience was driving to the 
diggings from Kaitangata. He had a team of eight 
bullocks carting provisions for Webster and Alexander. 

Dunstan broke out shortly afterwards, and he started 
carting there. He went with a load from Tuapeka 
through Waipori to Dunstan; the carriage rates at that 
time were 120 a ton, and he had 30 cwt. in one load. He 
was five days crossing the Rock and Pillar, as it was all 
bogs and snow was falling all the time, and he had to 
sleep all night under the dray on the snow. At night the 
bullocks were so hungry that they went into the swamp, 
and were continually getting bogged. Altogether it took 
him about a month to do the trip. He then followed his 
occupation as driver for several years between Dunedin. 
Kingston, and Invercargill. On one occasion he took a con- 
tract to deliver a store about 30ft. by 20ft. from Weather- 
stone to Queenstown. It was built of iron and American 
timber, and he had a great job for fear of his bulky load 

of Dunedin and South Of ago. 257 

being capsized, especially crossing rivers where the banks 
were very steep. He delivered it on the steamer at 
Kingston, and was glad when the journey was over. As 
there were several teams carting, he had to go to Queens- 
town to lift the money for the lot. and left his horse 
hobbled by the lake at Kingston, while the others took 
his team out. On this occasion he had a notable ride. 
The teams were going to Invercargill, and he wanted to 
come down to Waitepeka first and then catch the teams 
at Invercargill. He mounted his horse in the evening and 
rode twelve miles to Trotter's Station, leaving there next 
morning about three o'clock, and rode right through 
to Waiwera, a distance of something over 100 miles. He 
stayed at home a day or two and went back leading a 
horse. He got to Mataura and it was dark. He had 
never been over that ford before and did not like the look 
of it. as he saw the river was high. However, it was a 
cold night, so he drove the horse he was leading in first 
to see how it would get on. It managed to get over all 
right, so he followed. Next morning he handed the ferry- 
man 1, to which he stuck. Petrie asked him what that 
was for, and he said 10s. for crossing the river and the 
other 10s. for his night's lodging. Petrie said: "Ten 
shillings for nearly drowning myself!" but he only said: 
"You should have called for me to come and assist." 
Petrie did not get his money back, but, as he was passing 
pretty often, he managed to torment the old man a good 
deal and in that way got his money's worth. 

While at Gabriel's Gully diggings, D. Hudson and 
party, being new-chums at the game, did not take enough 
care in measuring their ground, so that they often lost 
the best part of it when more experienced men came to 
the field. A party of Victorians dropped on their ground, 
and, finding that they had too much, quietly pegged off 
a piece from w r hich they took 500 worth of gold. Some- 
what disgusted with this the party went to Weatherstone's, 
where gold had been found, but they quarrelled, and, 
being rather foolish, gave up their ground after sinking 
some four feet. Weatherstone, from whom the place took 
its name, then took up the place and made a pile out of 
it -such was the fortune that dogged their steps. When 
the Nokomai broke out a party consisting of Gilbert 
Stewart, James Stewart, and David Hudson went to it, 
but did little good. At Dome Creek they set to work 
getting water to their claim, and had just worked one and 

258 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

a half hours when a flood came and smothered everything. 
They got seven and a half ounces of gold for their labour, 
but saw the gold lying thick on the bottom, when they 
were compelled to rush away to save their lives. 

When at Switzers diggings with a Hobart Town 
native, Hudson took a walk one Sunday afternoon down 
the creek, and while sitting on a rock commenced poking 
with his knife among the crevices. To his surprise he 
found one crevice full of gold, and took out ]o dwt. in 
the first dishful and 14 dwt. in the second. They tried to 
keep the find secret, but failed, and in a very short time 
the place was literally thronged with men. They 
remained in that quarter six months, averaging 10 a week. 
It cost 2 a week for board, and they paid Is. a Ib. for 
beef. Hudson then became dissatisfied and left. His 
mate refused to leave, and he and another afterwards 
took out 300 each from the same holes Hudson had been 
working in. He had been working on a false bottom, and 
the real bottom was found full of gold only a few feet 
deeper down. At Gabriel's, provisions were very dear, 
especially flour, for which one storekeeper charged 10 
a bag. On his return trip over Maungatua. Hudson slept 
in a straw stack, and on waking in the morning found 
he had camped in the midst of 300 Victorians on their 
way to the diggings. As he had several pounds of gold 
in a belt round his waist he was glad to get away from 

W. Griffiths landed in Port Chalmers in 1861, and 
came from there on New Year's Day, 1862. He and his 
partner, W. Major, went out to the suburbs and put up 
a tent. Every second man they met was as drunk as a 
lord, and each had a bottle of whisky and all invited 
them to have a nip. They engaged a waggon in Dunedin 
to take them to Lawrence. By this time their party con- 
sisted of six. Griffiths' impression of the country was not 
very favourable, as it took them three days to get to 
Lawrence. They pitched their tent on the side of a hill. 
As it was raining the river rose rapidly and swept a lot 
of tents away. One of their men in attempting to go to 
the Blue Spur was drowned. Next day Griffiths met a 
baker who had come from Victoria, and he directed them 
to a claim which had been abandoned a week. They took 
the claim, but after they had been in it a week the three 
men who had previously held it tried to jump it again. 
One of these men. by name William Curran. said he would 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 259 

soon show the new-chums something, and jumped into 
the hole, which was about three feet deep. He had 
hardly got on his feet when Griffiths knocked him down. 
His mates said they would split his skull with a long- 
handled shovel. W. Major, when he saw one of the men 
raise the shovel, put him on his back in an instant. At last 
the two men ran away and left Curran, who said they 
would be mates no longer with him. He then asked if the 
new-chums would take him as a mate, which they did. 
They made about 4 a week each out of this claim. After 
being a short time on the claim they heard of a rush at 
Waipori, and Griffiths said he would go and see if it was 
any good." He started at night and reached his destination 
early next morning. He saw some smoke rising, and on 
making his way to it found that the place belonged to 
two brothers, Gascoigne, who told him the rush was no 
good. However, he started sluicing at Waipori, and 
sent orders to a carter to take the sluice to Waipori 
from Lawrence, and he had seven miles to take it to 
the sluicing claim after that. The whole party went 
for the sluice box, but it had not come. It was 
night when they returned, so they walked abreast, follow- 
ing the ridge near the river. Griffiths was next to the 
river, when all of a sudden he felt his feet going; he 
jumped, and went up to his neck in a moss bed, a fall 
of about fifty feet. Next day his mates went for the sluice 
box, and on taking a look at the spot where he had jumped, 
they found that he had landed on the other side of a great 
boulder. They stopped a month at Waipori. their claim 
being on the Burnt Ridge. They then returned to Law- 
rence and went down the Tuapeka River, staying there 
till the Dunstan rush broke out. They engaged a waggon 
to take provisions and tools, got as far as Waipori the 
first day, and cast lots for two to go on. Cornish Jack 
and Griffiths went on ahead. They went across the 
ranges in the direction of Campbell Thompson's, but when 
they were about half-way Griffiths' mate jibbed and would 
go no further, as he said they would be lost. He tried to 
make Griffiths return, but he took two dogs with him and 
Avent on. About two miles from Thompson's he came to 
a shepherd's hut. He knocked at the door, but getting 
no answer raised the latch and went in. He found some 
food and had a good meal. Leaving 2s. 6d. on the table 
he went on to Thompson's station. On the top of the 
ridge he met one of the Thompsons, who was looking for 

260 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

bullocks, and who told him that there were 250 diggers 
at the station and they had frightened all the cattle away 
but one big bullock which was in the stock yard, but 
no one would go near it for fear of his breaking 
through. Griffiths said he would shoot the bullock, and 
went into the yard. It came tearing up to the fence at 
him, but he dodged round to the gallows, and had no 
sooner got there when it charged him, but struck its head 
against the post and fell stunned. That was Griffiths' 
chance and he shot it. After getting some food he went 
on, and got as far as Boggy Creek, when it commenced 
to snow and rain. He had to camp all night under the 
ledge of a rock. Next morning he went down to the 
crossing place, got a pannikin of coffee from a man who 
had a horse, and wanted him to put him across the creek, 
but he refused. It was a blind creek Which was 
between them and the ford, and by following it up von 
would come in at the top and go down to the proper ford 
where it was a gravel bottom. Griffiths turned to go back 
to Thompson's, but on reaching the top of the hill 
he met three men with two bullocks in a dray. He told 
them the way to cross the creek, and they persuaded 
him go back with them. They gave him some whisky, 
and said they would give him a dry suit if he took them 
across the creek. He took them to the proper ford, and 
gave them the bullocks to drive while he hung on behind. 
After getting across he had another whisky and changed 
clothes. They were now desirous of having a drink of 
coffee, and as Griffiths was the only one who knew a 
suitable spot for boiling the billy, he was told off to attend 
to the business. When he had completed his job, the others 
were so long in turning up that he went back to look for 
them, when he found that they had got off the road and 
were bogged, and they all had a great job getting on terra 
firma again. Started again for the Upper Taieri, but when 
they reached it the river was in flood, and they would not 
cross. Griffiths then left them and went on. When he got 
to the river there were about 150 men just getting across 
hand in hand. He started to cross, but when half-way over 
the bottom began to go from under his feet. He had his 
clothes tied to his gun slung across his shoulder, but they 
were carried away. He was about an hour struggling 
in the water before he got to the other bank. His 
two dogs were drowned here. When he got to 
the bank he was so weak he could not stand. He 
found a pair of drawers on the bank and put them on. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 


1860 "Gala." 

262 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

and had to go seventeen miles in this pair of drawers, a 
singlet, and a shirt, before he got to camp. He knew a 
good many of the men at the camp, and they soon 
attended to him. After the Dunstan rush he got snowed 
in, so he returned and met his mates with the waggon, 
which they had capsized in the Taieri and had lost all 
the provisions. He got some money from them, and at last 
reached Lawrence, having 2s. 6d. left in his pocket out of 

When the Nokomai diggings broke out hundreds of 
men passed through Clutha. and there were some great 
thieves among them. Dinner was 2s. 6d., and numbers did 
not pay. They had dinner and then sneaked off without 
paying. Woods tried to make them pay beforehand, but did 
not manage it. He seldom got half paid. On one occasion 
Mrs. Woods wanted to boil some meat outside, and gave 
a lad who was with the would-be diggers 2s. 6d. to watch 
the boiler. When she went to see if the beef was boiled 
both beef and lad were missing. On another occasion the 
men went to the store for some goods, and while Campbell, 
the storeman, was serving some, the others handed out 
stuff to their mates at the door. By this means they stole 
a whole case of long-handled shovels without Campbell's 
knowledge, and Avhen he went in the morning to get a 
shovel for a man, they were all gone. At this time meals 
were 2s. 6d., beds 2s. 6d., drinks Is., and 2s. 6d. a Ib. was 
paid for candles. 

Blatch was on escort duty from Queenstown. When 
on one trip he had to go with gold buyers to Arrowtown, 
and after buying as much gold as possible the buyers 
returned to Queenstown. Sergeant Morton and he had 
two horses, and they agreed to pack all the gold on one, 
and as Blatch was the lighter man he had to ride this 
horse. They started for Queenstown, and after crossing 
the Shotover. as they were going along a narrow beach 
between the water and scrub Sergeant Morton dropped 
behind and Blatch went round a point to where there 
was a little bay. Looking round he saw a man covering 
him with a double-barrelled gun. He had so much gold 
on the horse that he could not go beyond a walk, and 
could not get off its back. He tried to get at his revolver, 
but says he never had so much difficulty in his life in 
getting at it. He expected a shot every minute, and only 
hoped the Sergeant would gallop up and make the man 
miss him. At last he ert the revolver and covered the 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 263 

man, who dropped his gun and ran for the scrub. The 
Sergeant galloped up crying: "Don't fire." He rode up 
to the man and asked what he meant. The poor fellow 
was terribly frightened, his face being as white as clay, 
and he said it was only a lark. He and his mates had 
worked out a claim on the Arrow and were camped on the 
next bend. Sure enough the men were there, and seeing 
their mate in charge they wanted to know what was up. 
They then abused him for being such a fool, and gave 
Morton and Blatch a drink. This incident arose out of 
some diggers boasting that they could stick up the 
escort any time. The man thought that, being hampered 
with the gold. Blatch would give up. and he would be able 
to brag about what he had done. The police then went 
on to Queenstown and camped, but set up no guard. 
They put the gold under the head of their field bed. 
Blatch was last to get into bed, next to Sergeant Morton. 
He said in joke : " I shall lay my revolver handy, and pity 
the man that comes to the tent to-night."' "Oh, don't be 
in a hurry to shoot. It might be someone wanting some- 
thing," said Morton. Blatch laughed, and they had just 
got to sleep when some fellow came stumbling against 
the tent. Starting up, Blatch grabbed his revolver, and 
the next thing he knew was the Sergeant catching him 
round the body and saying: "You Otago men are regular 
devils." After this, Blatch was called one of the Otago 

A man named Acton had a store at Switzers. One 
night some men came to the store and asked permission 
to make a shakedown. He gave them supper, leave to 
stop, and their breakfast in the morning, when they left. 
During the evening they learnt that he intended to make 
a trip to Invercargill next day. In those times when a 
storekeeper made such trips it was well known he always 
had gold and money with him. Some hours after Acton 
had left home he saw a tent in the scrub, and suddenly 
several men jumped out and caught his horse. One of 
them put his revolver in his face and without speaking 
fired. The bullet struck him over the eye on the 
temple and ploughed its way along the side, leaving a 
track that you could lay your finger in. The men were 
masked, but Acton thought he recognised them. They then 
tied him up and put him in the tent. They took the gold 
and money, and told him if he uttered a word they would 
shoot him. Thinking he was thoroughly frightened, they 

264 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

removed the masks, and by looking through a hole in the 
tent he could see them dividing the spoil. He then recog- 
nised them as being the men he had helped the night 
before. After their departure he managed to get loose, 
and reported the case at Invercargill, but the men were 
never caught, and the next heard of them was in connec- 
tion with the murders on the West Coast. 

Garrett's band broke into Mills' gunsmith's shop in 
Dunedin and secured arms and ammunition. They 
camped on the road at Maungatua for a week and stuck 
up everybody that passed. They lay hid in a gully that 
is still called Garrett's Gully. Close by they dug a big 
hole. After sticking a party up they tied them to trees. 
A masked guard was left over them, and he said if they 
had to shoot any they would shoot the lot ; the hole was 
big enough for all. Among the stuck-up was a man from 
Popotunoa. Clapcott's manager, and when Garrett was 
captured this man's watch was found on him. Another 
of those stuck-up stayed the next night at the Buckeye 
Hotel, Outram, and during the evening he felt sure he 
recognised the man who Had been on guard over them. He 
kept looking at him until at last the man gave him a sign 
that he wanted to speak to him outside. They retired, 
and the suspected one said: "I see you know me. How 
much did you lose yesterday?" The man told the 
amount, and he handed it to him, saying: "Hold your 
tongue about the affair." The two then chummed 
together and went to Tuapeka, where they w r orked out a 
claim together. 

One of the richest diggings was on the Arrow River. 
The gold buyers made regular trips to the place, and 
Bracken was Acting Commissioner for the district. On 
one of his trips he asked Blatch to go with him up the 
river to settle some disputes. After the business was over 
they were going to the township when they came across 
six men working in a claim about twelve feet square. 
They could see the gold lying in the crevices of the rock. 
On seeing such a wash Bracken said : "Oh, my God ! Let 
me wash a dishful of that." One man scooped up some 
on a shovel, put it in a dish, and gave it to him. but. 
as he was not making a good job of it, the man took 
it from him and panned off fully an ounce of gold. They 
then showed a tin dish containing four pounds weight of 
gold for their afternoon T s work. 

of Dunedin and South Ota go. 265 

Before the Andersons left Tapanui there occurred 
what was known as the Blue Mountain rush. Some hun- 
dreds of diggers came from Tuapeka to Oliver's Station at 
the Molyneux, now known as the Upper Clydevale Stead- 
ing. Mr. Oliver was away from home, only Mrs. Oliver, 
the shepherd, and a lad being on the premises. Joseph 
Anderson says that these diggers behaved in a very gen- 
tlemanly manner. Those who could handle an oar took 
charge of the boat, while others assisted Mrs. Oliver in 
dealing out stores, and, as she had very little idea of the 
prices of these stores, the diggers fixed them themselves 
in a very liberal manner. Next morning they put up their 
swags and departed over the Blue Mountains to the Tapa- 
\ nui side, over an almost impassable track. On arriving 
at Tapanui they found the rush to be a hoax. "While the 
Andersons were in Tapanui another great rush took place, 
known as Sam Perkins' rush. Sam was an old whaler, 
who knew the country well, and offered for a considera- 
tion to take the diggers to a new goldfield, and he guided 
them through the Clutha district, on through Popotunoa 
Gorge in the direction of Mataura. The diggers began to 
get suspicions of Sain and watched him closely, and on 
his attempting to slip away from them made him a 
prisoner, giving him some very rough usage. In fact, 
there was a certainty of his being lynched if a party of 
mounted troopers had not followed up the rush, and 
forcibly took him from the diggers and placed him under 
arrest. This rush also proved to be a hoax. 

Of these rushes further particulars are given by Mr. 
Dickie, of Tuturau, and published in the "Mataura 
Ensign" loy H. Beattie : "In the month of November, 
1861, the rush to the Tuapeka and Waitahuna diggings 
was at its height. The fortnightly gold escorts had 
gradually taken more and more of the precious metal until 
the amount increased to 35,000 ounces a trip, when a 
weekly escort was instituted, the first one taking down 
30,000 ounces. Crowds were still rushing in, although the 
best ground was all taken up. The diggers had looked 
over the surrounding country and some said the Blue 
Mountains was a likely place for gold. A rumour spread 
that there were diggers getting good gold over there, and 
parties began to make their way over. One party took 
a bullock hide with them to make a boat to ferry across 
the Clutha, but it was capsized on the second trip across 
and at least one man Avas drowned. This was at the 

266 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Beaumont, and the diggers who had been streaming out in 
that direction for a couple of days turned back to Tua- 
peka, whence they made a fresh start, some going by 
Archibald's station, now Clydevale. others by way of the 
Clutha Ferry. The party I was working with had deter- 
mined not to leave our claim as we were getting a little 
gold, but on the third day we could stand it no longer, 
so we shouldered our swags and joined the throng. We 
got to the ferry the second night and camped in McNeil's 
Bush. The weather continued very stormy for several 
days, and. although it was summer time, there was a 
sprinkling of snow. The crowd increased daily, as a lot 
who could find no diggings and very little trace of gold 
on the Blue Mountain side were coming back. The 
weather cleared up on a Monday morning, and we decided 
to return to Tuapeka. I suppose about 200 of us were 
tuning dinner at a camping place near the top of Mount 
Stuart, when we spied a large crowd appearing over the 
hill and bearing down on us. One stalwart fellow had 
got a good lead, and when he came near enough w r e hailed 
him. asking 'What is up now?' 'Oh.' said he. 'it is all 
right this time. There's an old man back here who 
knows all about it and where the gold is,' and with that 
he pegged on. By the time we had swallowed our dinners 
and got our swags ready the crowd was on us. The man 
was no other than Sam Perkins, with a bodyguard of 
diggers, two of whom marched alongside of him with 
revolvers in their hands. No one. as far as we could learn. 
kneAv where the crowd was going, but someone had heard 
Sam say that 'he knew where there were lots of gold.' 
Of course, we joined the crowd, which by this time must 
have numbered well over 400. Before we reached the 
ferry we met a small party coming back from the Blue 
Mountains, and amongst them was a tall Highlandmaii 
who had been shepherding down about the Toi-toi* and 
knew Sam of old. He accosted him and asked. 'Where 
arc you going?' 'To Dunedin.' said Sam. 'Oh. that 
won't do. Sam: you are going straight away from 
Dunedin.' With that he caught Sam by the shoulders 
to make him tell where he was taking all these men. On 
Ihis Sam appealed to the guards by wanting to know 
if they were going to stand by and see an old man ill-use;!. 
Well, to be brief, when the bodyguard began nourishing 
their revolvers, the Highlandman let Sam go, but he stood 
out on a hillock and told the crowd 'that they would be 

of Hit tied in and South Ota go. 267 

vt-i-y foolish to follow the old man, 'as he pe the biggest 
- story-teller effer pe goin' in a two shoes.' The 
crowd thinned out after this, and I went no further. 
The party from Waitahuna had three drays with provi- 
sions and tools with them, and they stuck to Sam until 
they arrived at the Mataura. On the Saturday night 
they camped on what is now Bothwell Park farm on the 
ridge beyond the Maori Bush, Tuturau. The dray.s were 
blocked here, as there was no track across the gully 
beyond. Sam was asked if it was far to the diggings, 
and he replied that it was quite near. A council was held 
and it was decided that a selected party should go with 
Sam next morning and report upon the field, while the 
rest of the crowd should start and make a dray track 
across the gully, no claims to be recognised that were 
pegged out before Monday morning. Sam and his party 
started, but had not gone very far when in rounding the 
head of a gully one of the party remarked that it was a 
likely-looking place. 'Yes,' said Sam, 'it is a splendid 
gully.' and. he added, 'two men took several pounds' 
weight of gold out of here last winter.' Well, it was 
suggested that they should go and see the working. They 
went down, and there was not a digger's hole from the 
one end to the other. Sam knew he was in a bad fix, 
but whatever he w r as as :t story-teller, he was no coward, 
and when they threatened to shoot him. he opened out 
his blue shirt, bared his chest, and told them to fire away. 
They decided, however, to take him back to the drays 
and see what the crowd would do with him. After a lot 
of wrangling, it Avas agreed that he should have thirty 
lashes on the bare back, and that he should have the 
same every morning till they got back to Waitahuna. 
The lashes were duly administered by a person who was 
pressed into the job, and who was blamed for causing 
the Blue Mountain rush. Afterwards the whip was put 
into Sam's hands, and he was told to give the other 
fellow just as good as he had got. Sam was more than 
willing. 'Oh. the wretch, he well deserves it.' shouted 
Sam, as he flourished the whip and proceeded to business. 
Before Sam's second instalment was due Constable 
Fraser. of Invercargill, came along and took him out of 
the diggers' hands. The gully has always been known 
as 'Sam's Grief since that day. On the whole th? diggers 
behaved with great moderation, and I believe that the 
leaders and more respectable members of the crowd were 

268 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

rather pleased when the constable took charge of Sain. 
as some of the turbulent spirits had wanted to lynch him 
right away. In conclusion, I may say that a few months 
afterwards Sam was drowned in the Mataura River." 

In 1862, when Robert Grigor was up the River Clutha 
surveying near where Clydevale Punt is now. two large 
boats belonging to Hartley and Riley, the discoverer of 
the Dunstan Rush, capable of carrying about five tons, and 
looking like ship's boats, passed up, accompanied by about 
seventy men. These were being taken to the Dunstan 
Rush diggings by "Riley," the original discoverer, and 
in return they tracked up his boats for him. containing 
large quantities of flour and gin. These seventy men 
were the most wonderful crowd Grigor ever saw, quite 
different from the ordinary diggers. They seemed to be 
the derelicts of their class ragged, desperate, and torn; 
without swags they lay down on the gravel spit alongside 
his camp. They made a make-shift of boat sails for 
shelter. Later in the night he was roused up by unearthly 
noises and yells that sent a creepy feeling through him. 
Mr. Riley, having gone across to try to borrow or pur- 
chase a tracking line from the Archibalds on Clydevale 
Station, did not arrive till late in the night. During his 
absence these men broke into the gin, and by the time 
Riley got back they were simply maniacs. 

Riley was some time getting them in order, firing 
his pistol freely among them, taking care, as he told 
Grigor afterwards, not to wound any of them, and 
threatening them with neither rations nor gin on the 
journey to the diggings. 

The next day towards evening Grigor saw the boats 
pass Tuapeka Mouth on their arduous voyage. He heard 
afterwards they arrived safely at their destination near 
Cromwell, and that the boats were afterwards made into 
a punt. What became of that motley crowd, in which 
he thought all nations were represented white, black, 
brown, and whity brown no one knows. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 269 



AS stated by the early surveyors, signs were found 
by them that the Clutha River was liable to great 
floods, and their reports were time anil again 
proved by the unfortunate settlers to be perfectly true. 
There was at one time a very rich flat at the mouth of 
the Clutha, held together by flax roots. As the settle- 
ment increased the flax was destroyed, and an early flood 
washed the greater part of the flat away. 

The following account of the 1866 flood is taken 
from the "Bruce Herald": "On Wednesday, the 10th 
of January, 1866, the river commenced rising rapidly 
about 2 o'clock p.m., with every indication of a flood. 
At 3 o'clock it began to overflow the banks on the south 
side, taking its course through Battrick's paddock to- 
wards the Main Road. A number of persons began to 
collect near the Crown Hotel, some of the oldest settlers 
relating how high the water at the highest previous flood 
had risen. The highest within the remembrance of any- 
one was fifteen years before. Another flood, which 
occurred five years before, was also under discussion, and 
on the blacksmith's old shop were shown marks to which 
the water had risen, which appeared to a great many in- 
credible. The water continued to rise, and the Bank of 
Otago was the first to suffer from inundation. The 
manager entered the bank building at 6 o'clock, and 
placed the books, etc., in what he considered a safe place. 
The water was eight inches deep on the floor of the 
bank. The water by this time had found its way over the 
South Main Road between Stewart and Fraser's store 
and Hawkins' butcher's shop. All appeared to think 
that the principal danger was now over, as the water 
seemed to have a good fall through Mr. McNeil's field 
down to the reserve below. The shops belonging to Mr. 
Mason (shoemaker). Mr. Rankine (tailor), and Mr. T. 

270 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Crawford (draper) were now ]2 inches deep in water, 
and such was the sudden rise that the owners had not 
time to secure their furniture, and barely to move their 

"By 8 in the evening the water began to spread itself 
on the lower part of the reserve, and G. Coghill and family 
and Mrs. Kean and family removed to the house of J. 
McNeil, senr. He being one of the oldest residents in the 
ferry, quieted them for a time by showing them on the 
doorstep a mark which the water had never been known 
to exceed. The river overflowed its banks higher up. and 
a torrent came rolling through A. McNeil's paddock, 
covering most of the South Road and the greater part 
of the flat close to the ranges. By 1 o'clock on Thursday 
morning the whole of the road was covered, with the 
exception of a few yards opposite Battrick's Hotel, and 
at this time things looked very serious. Mr. Latimer, 
who lived on the reserve, had gone to the ferry for assist- 
ance, and from some cause had not returned. Mrs. 
Latimer, after moving money and other valuables as high 
as she could in the house, was standing up to the armpits 
in water holding her children out of harm's way. She 
had coo-eed for assistance till she was hoarse, and had 
resigned herself to die with her children, when she was 
rescued by P. Rankin, T. Crawford, W. Christie, and R. 
Smith, who took the ferry boat and pulled to her place. 
At 2 o'clock in the morning Mrs. Latimer and children, 
Mr. and Mrs. Christie and servant. Mr. E. Barr, Mr. Jen- 
kinson's two children and servant. Mrs. Melrose and 
family, Mrs. Latta and children, and Mr. G. Bain and 
family were conveyed in carts to the ranges, some only 
partially dressed. They were all generously received 
by J. and A. McNeil, who paid the greatest possible 
attention to the exiles. R. Smith, manager at the ferry, 
heard at daylight a coo-eeing from Jas. McNeil's, and. 
looking in the direction, saw McNeil waving his hands for 
assistance, when, with T. Crawford. Rankin, and another, 
he pulled down the boat, and took Mrs. Kean and family. 
Mr. and Mrs. Coghill and family, and Mr. and Mrs. Mc- 
Neil and servant to the New Market Hotel, w r here they suc- 
ceeded in getting one of the upper rooms in the house. 
and were made as comfortable as circumstances p<-rmitt<'d. 
Sergeant Cobden evidently thought himself safe from the 
flood, and stopped with his family in the house until the 
water covered the floor, when he succeeded in getting 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 271 

R. Barr's spring-cart part of the distance to his house, 
and with the assistance of Rankin and Crawford the 
children and Mrs. Cobden were got out safely. Mrs. 
Cobden, who had lately been confined, fainted during 
the time she was being carried to the cart. Hawson's 
house, being built on low ground, was quickly flooded. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hawson and family were in bed, and had 
just time to secure their own clothing and get the children 
out of the house when the chimney was washed down. 
The children, in their nightdresses, got shelter in the 
Crown Hotel, together with Mr. and Mrs. Cobdeu, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Swanston and family. Mrs. Provan 
had a narrow escape, her husband not being at home. 
She was advised to go to bed about 10 o'clock on the 
evening of the flood, and was assured there was no 
danger. At 6 o'clock she woke up, and, taking her baby 
in her arms, rushed out of the door, making for the road, 
but had it not been for assistance, she could not have 
gone against the current. She was assisted to Algie's 
house, where she and the baby had every attention. 
On Thursday forenoon, at about 11 o'clock, a signal was 
seen from the upper window of the New Market Hotel, 
when John McNeil's boat was manned and went to the 
place, when McNeil was directed to go to Couper- 
thwait's, on the north side, half a mile above the ferry, 
where the house was surrounded with water, and some- 
thing was seen moving on the roof. The crew at once 
pulled across the river to the house, and were glad to find 
that R. Paterson had been with his boat and taken the 
family to his house. After satisfying themselves that all 
was safe, they. returned to the ferry, leaving a fowl and 
the dog on the roof of the building. During Thursday 
a number of sheep were seen floating past the ferry, also 
fowls, chairs, tubs, chests, large trees, diggers' cradles, 
and straw, and about four in the afternoon something 
was seen floating down the river at a very rapid rate, with 
a boat in pursuit. The people at the ferry could not make 
out what it could be, and, not being able to go within a 
good distance of it, had come to the conclusion that it 
must be one of the punts used higher up the river that 
had broken away. About six o'clock the mystery was 
solved by Paterson and crew pulling up alongside Bat- 
1 rick's Hotel and stating that it was Pillans's Bridge ihat 
had been lifted bodily from its place and washed away, 
but that thev had secured it at a short distance down the 

272 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

river. Immediately after, another boat was seen 
approaching the hotel, and turned out to belong to Jones 
& Co., wood-cutters, on Manuka Island. 

"On being asked what could bring them to the ferry 
at such a time, they stated that they had had a chase after 
the bridge and had succeeded in making it fast near 
Paterson's Flat, and that, although they had been unfor- 
tunate in having thirty cords of firewood washed away, 
they anticipated a good sum from the Government for 
the trouble they had been at in securing the bridge. On 
Thursday night the flood was at its height, the oldest 
settlers never having seen the water as high within two 
feet before. Anyone acquainted with the ferry may judge 
when it is stated that there were three feet six inches of 
water in the Bank of Otago. The whole place had a 
miserable appearance, only about three houses in the place 
could be occupied the Crown Hotel, Miss Kussell's, Mr. 
Algie's, and the upper portion of Jopp's Hotel. The 
water was rushing in all directions, and the loss at the 
ferry was severely felt. J. McNeil's garden, one of the 
best in the district, was destroyed, as was Stewart and 
Eraser's store, which was also used as the Post Office. 
Jopp's loss was 150, the stock in the bar was lost, the 
furniture in the long room was floating about, and such 
was the depth of water in it that a person swam round 
it. Winchester, the contractor for the church, was a 
heavy loser, the whole of the timber and shingles being 
washed away, although a portion of the timber was after- 
wards recovered, some of it having lodged in McNeil's 
bush. His loss could not be less than 100. J. Wright, 
wheelwright, lost a considerable quantity of timber, the 
water rushing on him so suddenly that he had not time 
to save his tools. His loss was 200. J. Rattray, black- 
smith, was a heavy loser, but, however much sympathy 
was with him, no one would have been sorry if the flood 
had washed away the apology for a shop which he occu- 
pied, as he would then have been compelled to build more 
in conformity with the place and with the flourishing 
business he did. Bain and Sanderson took the precaution 
to secure their timber and other property on the premises, 
and were not great losers. Jenkinson's loss was 70. 
principally sugar, salt, and oats. Had due precaution 
been exercised his property in the store might have been 
saved, but the furniture in his house was much destroyed. 
Latta, brewer, was also a considerable loser, a floor of 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 273 

barley being destroyed and the kiln sunk through the 
ground giving way. 

"Mrs. R. McNeil and the farm labourers who lived 
on a liat about three miles above the ferry had to make 
for the ranges during the night, her homestead being 
surrounded by water. D. McNeil and family were more 
fortunate; they managed to get on the top of a straw 
stack, and there remained till the Hood abated. Hunter 
and Harvey had to leave their residences in the night and 
make for the ridges. The damage done to the jetty at 
the ferry and its approaches by the foundation being 
washed away stopped the transit of all vehicles, the 
coaches not being able to pass for several days. There 
were now ten loaded waggons and drays waiting on the 
north side of the ferry, and three on the south side. The 
damage to the road and ferry was estimated to cost 300 
to repair. On Friday, about two o'clock, the flood com- 
menced to subside. It was expected the water would fall 
rapidly, as was generally the case in all the great floods, 
but it lowered very slowly. People, however, began to 
have more confidence, and on Saturday afternoon the 
postal authorities managed to distribute the letters, while 
some of the owners were able to get into their homes. 
One house, when the owner entered, was not quite clear 
of water, and when the door was opened out floated the 
clock. The house had three feet of water inside, and 
everything seemed to be wedded to each other. The 
owner was advised to close the door and leave until the 
water had gone, which advice he reluctantly followed. 

"On Thursday afternoon a man attempted to get to 
the Ferry House with a loaf of bread under his arm, but 
he slipped into the current. The loaf was seen floating 
away on the surface of the water, the man had disap- 
peared, and it was thought he had got jammed under one 
of the buildings and drowned. After a time he was 
heard shouting for help, and on the boat getting to the 
place he was found hanging on to the rafters of the 
smithy, when he was released from his perilous position. 

"On Saturday, two brothers were walking along the 
road apparently in earnest conversation, when one sud- 
denly dropped over the head in water. A deep and dan- 
gerous chasm was made across the road opposite Bain and 
Sanderson's and the Bank of Otago. and a deep blind 
creek at each end cut off all communication between the 
ferry and the Crown Hotel, excepting with boats. Several 

274 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

plans were made to effect a passage. S. Shaw made a 
rope fast to himself, and throwing the other end to the 
crowd on the opposite bank gave a signal to be pulled 
across the chasm. He was pulled out in safety, and 
strange to say he neither lost his cap nor let go his hold 
of a tomahawk he had in his hand. After he was safely 
landed the crowed considered it was one of the best per- 
formances of the day. 

"Next morning (Tuesday, 16th), Mr. Small, the 
Government Road Inspector, was actively engaged in 
having the stages leading to the punt made passable, and 
he stated that the chasm in the road would be made safe 
for waggons, &c., to pass by next day. On Saturday, but 
for his presence, a great portion of the road would have 
been destroyed by persons trying to get across to their 
places of business, and it was gratifying to see that he 
did not stand on ceremony and red-tapeism, but at once 
entered into judicious arrangements to have the road and 
ferry made passable. The chain which connected the 
punt with the wire had been broken, and had not yet been 
repaired, so the manager at the ferry, R. Smith, refused 
to cross the punt with the connecting tackle, the anchor 
belonging to the punt not being forthcoming. Should 
the tackle have given way, there was nothing to save the 
punt from going down the river. The authorities should 
see that such an important appendage as the anchor 
should at all times be ready on the punt." 

The following account of Governor Sir George Grey's 
visit to the Clutha District is of special interest, as being 
the first visit of a Governor to the district. This account 
is also taken from the "Bruce Herald," published in 
March, 1867: 

"His Excellency the Governor arrived at the Clutha 
Ferry on Saturday afternoon, accompanied by the Hon. 
Major Richardson. Rev. M. Thatcher. Major Grey. Captain 
Hope, J. P. Maitland, Esq., and R. M. W. Christie, Esq. 
A large number of ladies and gentlemen were waiting on 
the jetty and on the bank of the river to receive His 
Excellency, the members of the Dalton Lodge of Odd- 
fellows being conspicuous amongst the company. On 
landing from the steamer "Tuapeka," he was loudly 
cheered by the assemblage. William Maitland. Esq., 
drove His Excellency in an open carriage to the Crown 
Hotel. A number of settlers was introduced to His 
Excellency, amongst others being James McNeil, sen.. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 275 

Esq., one of the oldest residents in the district, who met 
with a hearty reception i'rom His Excellency. After lunch 
His Excellency heard an address from the Oddfellows. 
His Excellency and suite then paid a visit to W. Christie, 
Esq.. at the Bank of Otago, Ltd. The members of the 
.Masonic Lodge assembled opposite the bank in uniform, 
and received His Excellency in true Masonic style, and 
walked in procession to the New Market Hotel, where a 
room had been fitted up with the emblems of Masonry, 
characteristic of that body. Much credit is due to W. G. 
M. Smith, of the Lodge, for the elegant manner in which 
the room was furnished, and the creditable way in which 
the proceedings were carried out. 

"An address was presented to His Excellency by the 
W.G.M. on behalf of the members of the Lodge. After 
the Governor had left the New Market Hotel, Mr. J. H. 
Jenkinson presented an address on behalf of the settlers 
of the district. His Excellency said he had not had time 
to consider the address, but would have a written answer 
sent in a few days. Three cheers were then given for the 
Governor, when, amidst the cheers of the assembly. His 
Excellency and suite proceeded on board the 'Tuapeka.' 
After he acknowledged the honour done to him, the vessel 
steamed down the river, and the Governor was landed 
at the residence of F. S. Pillans, Esq. On Monday morn- 
ing His Excellency proceeded to Port Molyneux in the 
'Tuapeka' steamer. After visiting the Taiaroa, he pro- 
ceeded on horseback to Major Richardson's, where he 
made a short stay. He then paid a visit to Mr. Peter 
Ayson, sen., Wharepa. About six o'clock p.m. he arrived 
at Clutha Ferry, accompanied by about fifty horsemen. 
In front of the Crown Hotel the scholars from the District 
School, under the superintendency of their teacher, Mr. 
Todd. had assembled. His Excellency halted in front of 
them, when they sang 'God Save the Queen.' thi com- 
pany uncovering. After a short address to the children, 
he proceeded to the steamer 'Tuapeka' amidst the 
plaudits of the company, and left for the residence of 
F. S. Pillans, Esq. At ten o'clock a.m. next day he w;is 
met by a large number of the yeomanry of the district 
and escorted to Lovell's Flat." 

"Monday, llth March, 1867. was a day long to be 
remembered in the South Clutha. It was seldom that 
any event occurred to break the quiet monotony of every- 
day life in the district. This was not owing to <iny want 

276 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

of natural advantages, for we venture to say that there 
are no districts in New Zealand for which Nature has 
done so much, the district being intersected by beautiful 
streams, reminding one (especially if he is a Scotsman) 
of the streams of his native land. 

"For a week before the event came off, it was known 
that Sir George Grey, the Governor of New Zealand, was 
to visit the district. The Governor left the residence of 
F. S. *Pillans, Esq., on Monday morning, the llth inst.. in 
the steamer 'Tuapeka. ' After a delightful sail down 
the Clutha. he visited the Clutha coal field, after which 
he returned to the 'Tuapeka,' and steamed down to 
Port Molyneux. On landing, he was saluted by hearty 
cheers from upwards of 200 people, who had assembled 
from the town and South Clutha. many of them being 
mounted, with the intention of forming an escort to con- 
duct His Excellency on his visit through the district. 
Before leaving the jetty His Excellency was presented 
with the following address : 

To His Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B.. 
Governor of Xew Zealand. 

May it please Your Excellency, 

We hail with the utmost satisfaction your Excellency's 
visit to this somewhat remote portion of your province, and 
avail ourselves of the opportunity thereby afforded of express- 
ing our warm affection and steadfast loyalty to the person and 
government of our Sovereign Lady the Queen, and to the 
person and government of your Excellency, as Her Majesty's 
Eepresentative in these parts of the Dominion. 

The magnificent river down which your Excellency has 
just sailed, the extensive coalfield just visited, the rich fields 
just passed, tell of the adaptation and capabilities of this 
district: capabilities which need but time and population for 
their full development. 

With the capabilities of Xew Zealand generally, your 
Excellency has long been familiar, and to these your Excellency 
has often given expression. We rejoice to learn that your 
Excellency's tour through the provinces has not failed to 
increase the favourable impression already formed regarding 
the capabilities of Xew Zealand, and to strengthen the hope 
to which your Excellency has often given utterance that a 
great future lies before this portion of Her Majesty's Empire. 

May a gracious Providence long spare your Excellency to 
help towards that future, and to witness Xew Zealand occupy- 
ing the position and exercising the influence of which your 
Excellency has so often expressed the fond anticipation. 

By appointment of settlers, 

Signed by G. Hay, J. Shaw, D. P. Steel, 
P. Bayley, J. W. Thomson, J. Paterson, 
and W. A. Bews. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 277 

The address was read by George Hay, Esq., as the 
oldest settler in the district, to whom the Governor inti- 
mated that a written reply would be communicated, but 
in the meantime he would express the satisfaction he 
felt with the reception he had received, and with all that 
he had witnessed of the districts through which he had 
passed. Several parties were then introduced to the 
Governor, among them being J. Shaw, Esq., D. P. Steel, 
Esq.. P. Borough, Esq., J. W. Thomson, Esq., Rev. W. 
Banuerman, D. Henderson, Esq., W. Brown, Esq., Mrs. 
Brown. Miss Shaw. Mrs. Cleveslay. Mrs. R. L. Begg, Mrs. 
Bannerman, Miss Lewis, and Miss Begg. On the jetty 
were assembled several Maoris, to whom the Governor 
addressed himself. One of the most interesting incidents 
connected with the visit of His Excellency to the Port 
was the presentation of Miss Helen Hay as the first 
female and Master James Hay as the first male child 
born in the district. His Excellency then rode to the 
residence of E F. Rich. Esq.. where luncheon was pro- 
vided for him. On entering the township he was met 
by an escort of about seventy horsemen, who accompanied 
him to the residence of Major Richardson. On his way 
thither he was met and saluted at various points by 
parties in holiday attire, who saluted the cavalcade en 
passant. Arches had been erected in various parts of his 
progress, those especially deserving of notice being 
at the store of W. Brown, Esq., at the house of 
D. P Steel, Esq., and that of W. Wilson, bootmaker. On 
arriving at Major Richardson's, His Excellency was 
saluted by several of the neighbouring proprietors, whose 
wives and children had assembled to welcome His Ex- 
cellency. On seeing them, His Excellency immediately 
dismounted, and had all introduced to him. Among those 
assembled at this point were Mrs. Bannerman and family. 
Mrs. Curtis and family, Mrs. Gifford and family, and Miss 
Ord. to all of whom the Governor addressed himself. 
Thereafter His Excellency and suite, accompanied by 
about twenty of the settlers, entered Willowmeade. where 
a sumptuous repast had been provided by. George Rich- 
ardson. Esq. While the parties with him were recruiting 
themselves with the good things provided, the cavalcade 
was not forgotten. Roast beef, fowls, with the needful 
to wash them down, were abundantly provided. Major 
Richardson himself especially attending to the wants of 
those who had shown their loyalty by turning out to 
attend His Excellency. 

278 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

During the Governor's stay he, accompanied by the 
Rev. W. Bannerman, found time to visit the grounds 
attached to Clutha Manse, and the romantic river Puerua 
that flows through the same; Avith these and the Scotch 
firs that beautify the manse garden. His Excellency ex- 
pressed the utmost satisfaction. 

On His Excellency's return to WilloAvmeade the 
escort mounted, and after again paying his devoirs to 
the ladies and handling the children, the Governor also 
mounted, and set off to Clutha Ferry, via Wharepa. where 
he intended visiting Peter Ayson. Esq., the first settler 
in that district. On arriving there, he for a brief time 
became an honoured guest. With true Highland hospi- 
tality, Mr. Ayson had left no effort untried to accord to 
his distinguished visitor a hearty and fitting welcome. A 
collation, at once elegant and substantial, was provided; 
family, friends, and neighbours were assembled in holiday 
costume. At the entrance gate a prettily conceived floral 
arch was erected, and over the house top the Red Cross 
Banner of England waved right royally. His Excellency 
was received by Mr. and Mrs. Ayson and family and the 
Rev. Mr. Waters. Luncheon was then partaken of. good 
cheer being also bounteously dispensed to all in attend- 
ance here as at the Major's. After a short rest the party 
proceeded to Balclutha, which was reached about dusk, 
thence taking the steamer "Tuapeka" to the residence 
of Mr. Pillans. and proceeding next morning to Toko- 

Although Sir George's progress through the country 
was hurried, and his opportunities for observation but 
necessarily fleeting, yet he seemed greatly impressed with 
the constantly recurring evidence of agricultural thrift 
and prosperity, and his impression of the loyalty and 
friendship of the people could not be otherwise than 
favourable, except so far perhaps that they became at 
times just a trifle too demonstrative in their display of 
welcome, and allowed their zeal to outrun the bounds of 
strict etiquette and due decorum. In the progress of the 
cavalcade there was no attempt at order, marshals and 
bugle men were non est. and each man rode as if trying 
the merits of his steed as a steeplechaser, rather than as 
a guard of Her Majesty's Representative. But Sir George 
was well mounted on Dr. Smith's celebrated horse, and 
steadily kept the lead, while the motley crowd of hot 
and dust-begrimed equestrians following in wild con- 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 279 

fusion, like Colonial huntsmen chasing an old man kan- 
garoo, found before the journey was ended that both 
themselves and steeds had quite enough of it. 


The following three addresses were presented to His 
Excellency Sir George Grey on the occasion of his visit : 

To His Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B.. 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over the Colony 
of New Zealand, and Vice-Admiral of the same. 

May it please Your Excellency, 

We, the brethren of the Clutha Lodge of Ancient Free 
and Accepted Masons, in common with the honourable repre- 
sentatives of the mystic tie throughout the Province, desire 
to approach your Excellency with assurance of attachment to 
Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen and our loyalty to Her 

We desire to join with the colonists generally in hailing 
with satisfaction your Excellency's visit to Otago, and pray 
that your Excellency may be long spared to see Otago prosper- 
ing, and the craft progressing with the prosperity. 

We pray that your Excellency, in your exalted position, 
may recognise our humble address, and accept our best wishes 
for your Excellency's future welfare, and our sympathy for 
your Excellency's trying position in conducting the war in the 
North Island to a successful and peaceful termination. 

On behalf of the officers and brethren of the Clutha Lodge, 
Balclutha, this 9th day of March, 1867, 

We have the honour to be, 

B. Smith, E.W.M.; Eobert Latta, S.W.; 
J. Gibson-Smith. J.W.; W. Christie, Trea- 
surer; ,T.. McNeil, S.D. 

To His Excellency Sir George Grey, 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Her 
Majesty 's Colony of New Zealand and its Dependencies, 
and Vice-Admiral of the same. 

We, the undersigned officers of the Loyal Dalton Lodge of 
the Manchester Unit}' Independent Order of Oddfellows' 
Friendly Society, on behalf of our brethren, beg most respect- 
fully to congratulate your Excellency on your visit to this 
portion of Otago, and to express our warm attachment to the 
Throne of our Gracious Sovereign Queen Victoria, and to your 
K. \rellency as her Bepresentative in this Colony. 

280 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

As a branch of an influential body, the objects of which 
are to relieve those of our Order in distress, we sincerely trust 
that your Excellency's presence on this occasion may have a 
tendency to further promote the objects we desire, and to unite 
us more in the bonds of goodfellowship aiid cLarity, and to 
maintain that loyalty to the Government under which we 

Accept the fervent wishes of our Order that you may live 
long to rule over a happy and deserving people. 

On behalf of the members of the Lodge, we have the 
honour to be your Excellency's obedient and humble servants, 

Hugh Bowen, P.G.M.; Peter Mason, G.M.; 
Wm. J. Cope, X.G.; Jno. McEwan, P.V.G.; 
Jno, Low, V.G. 

To His Excellency Sir George Grey, K.C.B., 

Governor of the Colony of Xew Zealand and its 
Dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same. 

May it please your Excellency, 

We, the Clutha settlers, in presenting this address to your 
Excellency, desire to testify our loyalty and affection to 
the Throne of which your Excellency is the Representative in 
this Colony. 

We gladly welcome your Excellency on this occasion, 
particularly as you have been so honourably connected with 
the past and present of Xew Zealand, and hope that your 
Excellency 's visit will be conducive to the future interests of 
this Province. 

\Y<> congratulate your Excellency's Government on the 
probable termination of the deadly strife carried on for some 
time between the Xative race and Europeans, and we feel 
assured that under your Excellency 's Government the honour 
of the British Flag and the Queen's prerogative will always 
be maintained with wisdom and benevolence. 

We congratulate your Excellency on the rapid progress 
which has been made in agricultural and other branches of 
material prosperity in this portion of the Province under your 
Excellency's administration. 

We beg to express our best wishes for your Excellency's 
personal welfare and happiness, and hope, under the blessing 
of God, that you may live long to enjoy all prosperity. 

On behalf of the members of the Clutha District, 
T have the honour to be, 

Your humble and faithful servant, 


of D uned in and South Otago. 281 


Into the abyss of the past 

Time cheeks each passing year; 

But while life lasts we'll ne'er forget 
To honour the Pioneers. 

They bade farewell to Britain's shore. 
Home, friends, and kindred dear, 

To settle 'neath bright Southern skies: 
Those brave old Pioneers. 

When o'er swift Clutha's golden stream 
They viewed the prospect drear. 

Bright Hope was then the beacon star 
Of the brave old Pioneers. 

With steadfast faith and strenuous toil, 
And hearts that knew no fear, 

They fought old Nature's untamed wilds: 
Those brave old Pioneers. 

And soon, o'er savage hills and dales, 

A wondrous change appears; 
Bright waving fields and happy homes 

Of the brave old Pioneers. 

But Father Time, on restless wing, 

Ne'er stays his swift career; 
While grim old Death has taken tell 

Of the brave old Pioneers. 

Yet, tho' they're passing, one by one. 

Their memory we'll revere, 
And blazon on the scroll of Fame 

The deeds of the Pioneers. 

A. W. 


Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 


SHIPS 1848-1860. 

Vessel. Date. 

"John Wickliffe" .... March 23rd, 1848 

"Philip Laing" April 15th, 1848 

"Victory" July 8th, 1848 

"Blundell" September 21st 1848 

"Bernieia" December 12th. 1848 

' ' Ajax " January 8th, 1849 

"Mary" April HtL. 1819 

"Mariner" June 5th, 1849 

"Larkins" September llth, 1849 

"Cornwall" September 23rd, 1849 

"Kelso" November 20th. 1849 

"Pekin" December 5th, 1849 

"Mooltan" December 26th. 1849 

' ' Lady Nugent " .... March 25th, 1850 

"Mariner" August 6th. 1850 

"Poictiers" September 4th. 1850 

October 24th. 1850 
December 27th. 1850 

'Phoabe Dunbar' 

'Titan" January 17th. 1851 

'Pioneer" January 28th, 1851 

' Cresswell " May 6th, 1851 

'Stately" August 7th, 1851 

'Dominion" September 28th, 1851 

'Clara" November 16th. 1851 

' Simlah " November 23rd! 1851 

'Columbus" February 7th, 1852 

'Maori" March 1st. 1852 

'Agra" May 4th, 1852 

'Persia" October 7th, 1852 

Slain 's Castle" .. .. November 9th. 1852 

' Stately " November 23rd, 1852 

'Tasmania" February 26th, 1853 

'Eoyal Albert" March 6th. 1853 

'Maori" July 20th, 1853 

'Rajah" October 8th. 1853 

'Carnatic" December 10th, 1853 

'Stately" February 5th. 1854 

'Clutha" February 22nd, 1854 

'Thetis" July 29th, 1854 

'Dolphin" November 8th. 1854 

'Ashmore" December 4th. 1854 

'Pudsey Dawson" .... December 12th, 1854 

'Simlah" April 9th. 1854 

'Gil Bias" September 3rd, 1854 

'Dunedin" January 23rd. 1856 

Isabella Hercus' 
' Southern Cross ' ' 
'Sir Edward Pa get 
' Melpomene " 

'Strathmore" October 2nd. 1856 

'Mariner" Januarv 14th. 1857 

February 1st. 1856 
February 26th. 1856 
August 15th, 1856 
August 26th. 1856 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 


Vessel. Date. 

'William & James" .. February 3rd, 1857 

'John Masterman" .. March 27th, 1857 

'Maori" April 16th, 1857 

'Dunedin" April 18th, 1857 

'Lord Hardinge" . . 
'Southern Cross" . 

September 21st, 1857 
November 14th, 1857 

'Bosworth" November 26th, 1857 

'George Canning" . . 
Strathallan " 
Eobert Henderson 

November 30th, 1857 
January 8th, 1858 
February 9th. 1858 

'Palmyra" February 14th, 1858 

April 3rd, 1858 
April 29th, 1858 

' Kockhampton ' ' 
' Strathfieldsaye : 

'Nourmahal" May 5th, 1858 

'Three Bells" July 13th, 1858 

'Jura" September 23rd, 1858 

'Lord Worsley," s.s. .. October 5th, 1858 

'Agra" October 27th, 1858 

'Eegina" November 3rd, 1858 

'Gloucester" December 28th, 1858 

' Melbourne " January 7th, 1859 

'Oriental" February 10th, 1859 

'Tamora" March 8th, 1859 

'Equator" March 21st. 1859 

'Mariner" June 2nd, 1859 

'Avondale" August 10th, 1859 

' Henbury " August 20th, 1859 

'Countess of Fife" .. September 7th, 1859 

' Alpine " September 12th, 1859 

'Sebastian" October 6th, 1859 

'Cheviot" November 29th, 1859 

'Sevilla" December 2nd, 1859 

'Bosworth" January 25th, 1860 

'Gala" February 22nd. 1860 

'Dunedin" April 19th. 1860 

'Storm Cloud" April 28th, 1860 

'Elizabeth'' June 9th. 1860 

; Ben Nevis" July 7th, 1860 

'Kinnaird" July 10th, 1860 

'Isabella Hamilton" .. July 14th, 1860 

'Pladda" August 20th, 1860 

'Robert Henderson" .. September 3rd, I860 

'Bruce" September 12th. 1860 

'Henrietta" September 24th, 1860 

'William Miles" .... October 1st, 1860 

'Evening Star" October 14th, 1860 

'Silistria" October 29th, 1860 

'Chili" December 2fitl>, 1860 

284 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 


IN 1847. 

The following sections were all selected on November 16th. 

George Koss and Andrew Mercer, Port Molyneux. Section 1, 
Block I.., Clntha; 50 acres. This section was recently purchased 
by Messrs. E. and J. Shiels, Port Molyneux, from the trustees in 
the estate of the late J. H. Jenkinsou. and adjoins the del Alex- 
andra Hotel. 

James Williamson. Section 4, Block XVII., Clutha; 50 acres. 
This is now part of the Otanomomo Estate, and not far from the 
present homestead. 

Frederick Ward, Inch Clutha. Sections 1 to 4, Block IV., Inch 
Clutha; 200 acres. The present owners of this property are 
Messrs. Andrew and William Smaill, Inch Clutha. 

Susan Frazer. Section 2, Block IV., South Tuakitoto; 50 
acres.. Xow occupied by Mr. Henry H. Frazer. 

Mary Frazer. Section 3, Block IV., South Tuakitoto; 50 acres. 
Now occupied by Mr. H. H. Frazer, Lakeside. 

William Westland. Section 8, Block IV., North Molyneux: 
50 acres. Now occupied by Michael Muir. near Kaitangata. 

John Brown and Sons. Section 3. Block I., South Molyneux; 
50 acres. This now belongs to the Otago Presbyterian Church 
Board of Property, Dunedin. 

John McPermid. Section 4, Block I., South Molyneux; 50 
acres. This is now occupied by Mr. W. Carrick, Port Molyneux. 

\V. 11. Cutten. Section 5, Block I., South Molyneux; 50 acres. 
Now owned by Mr. James Paterson, Port Molyneux. 

David Garrick. Section 1, Block II.; 50 acres. Part of this 
section and closed road are now occupied by Eliza McGregor, Port 
Molyneux, and is in the name of the trustees of the late J. H. 
Jenkinson, Port Molyneux. Part is owned by Mr. Fleming, of Bal- 
clutha, as a seaside residence. 

W. A. Mosley. Section 2, Block II., South Molyneux; 50 acres. 
This is in the occupation of Messrs. Bates, Kaka Point, Port Moly- 

Charles Smith. Section 3, Block II.; 50 acres. South Moly- 
neux. Part of this is now owned by Daniel Stewart, solicitor, 
Balclutha, as a seaside residence and grounds at Kaka Point. 

of Dnnedin and South Otago. 285 

IN 1848. 

,T. L. Baker. April 28: Sections 2 and 4, Block LTV.. Clutha; 
100 acres. Now held by Mr. Chas. Dallas. Te Houka. 

W. H. Valpy. April 28: Section 7, Block VIII., Inch Clutha; 
50 acres. Now owned by Mrs. W. S. Mosley, Inch Clutha. 

Howard and Heber Lakeman. May 2: Section 8, Block IV.; 50 
acres, Inch Clutha. Xow owned by Mr. Geo. Gilroy, Inch Clutha. 

P. M. and D. .T. Xapier. August 25: Section 1. Block XIII., 
Inch Clutha; 50 acres. Xow owned by Mr. William Wilson, Inch 

James McHardy. August 25: Sections 3 and 4, Block XIII., 
Inch Clutha; 100 acres. Xow held by Mr. William Wilson, Inch 

Thomas Eedpath. August 25: Section 9, Block XIIL, Inch 
Clutha; 50 acres. Xow occupied by Mr. J. Crawford Anderson. 
Thomas Reclpath also took up Section 11, Block XIIL, Inch Clutha; 
50 acres. Now owned by Mr. George Anderson, Inch Clutha. 

John Eamage. August 25: Section 12, Block XIIL, Inch 
Clutha; 50 acres. Part now owned by R. Greig and Co., chicory 
farm, and part by Mr. Geo. Anderson. Stirling. 

William Boswell (or Busnell). -August 25: Section 10, Block 
XII., North Molyneux; 50 acres. Part of this is now held by Mr. 
Joseph Smith, Stirling, and part by Mr. Frederick Harraway. Stir- 

VV. B. and A. D. Fuller. August 25: Section 4, Block V.," South 
Molyneux; 50 acres. Xow owned by Mr. William Hay, Hilly Park, 

William Chalmers. August 25: Section 8. Block LXXXL, 
Clutha; 50 acres. This is part of the Moa Hill Estate, now occu- 
pied by Mr. Gilbert Stewart, Wharepa. 

William Chalmers. August 25: Section 5, Block XIV., Clutha; 
50 acres. Xow occupied by Mr. David Dunn, Arikiki Bush, Puerua. 

Thomas Ferguson. October 13: Section 4, Block VIII, ; 50 
acres, Inch Clutha. Xow owned by Mrs. W. S. Mosley, Inch 

IN 1849. 

Robert Craig. January 5: Section 2, Block XIX.. Clutha; 50 
acres. Now owned by Mr. Irving Dent, farmer, Puerua. 

J. H. Stirling. January 5: Section 3, Block XIX., Clutha; 50 
Now owned by Miss Spiers, Puerua. 

286 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

J. and A. Barr. January 5: Section 8, Block V1IL, Inch 
Glutha; 50 acres. Now held by Mrs. W. S. Mosley, Inch Clutha. 

E. D. Smith. February 24: Section 9. Block XII. ; 50 acres, 
Inch Clutha. Xow divided into a township at Stirling Bridge, Inch 

C. Brotherston and May Taylor. March 23: Section 8, Block 
XXVIII., Clutha; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. James Lamond, 

David and William Laing. March 23: Section 7, Block IV., 
Inch Clutha; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. James Smaill, Inch Clutha. 
David and William Laiug also at same date took up Section 2, 
Block XIII., Inch Clutha. Now part occupied by Mr.. John Wil- 
locks, Inch Clutha. 

James Stevenson. March 23: Section 10, Block X.. Inch 
Clutha; 50 acres. Now held by E. E. Bowler's Trustees. Occupied 
by Mr. James, Inch Clutha. 

John Hutchinson. March 23: Section 4, Block V., North Moly- 
neux; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. Wm., Smaill, Summerhill, Kai- 

('. M. and W. G. Taylor. April 13: Section 6, Block LXXXL, 
Clutha; 50 acres. This is now part of the Moa Hill Estate, now 
held by Mr. Gilbert Stewart, Wharepa. 

James Smith. May 14: Section 4, Block IV., South Molyncux. 
Now held by Messrs. Shiels Bros., Port Molyueux., 

William ami Peter Smith. May 23: Section 11, Block X.. Inch 
Clutha; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. A. Eennie, Inch Clutha. 

F. S. Pillans. September 7: Section 12, Block X.; 50 acres, 
Inch Clutha. Now held by Mr. A. Eennie, Inch Clutha. 

Wm. Perkins. September 28: Section 11, Block XXI1L, Clutha; 
50 acres. Now owned by Mr. William John Murdoch, farmer, 

IN 1850. 

James and George Wallace. February 1: Section '2, Block 
XV., Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Lefevre 

T. B. Archibald. February 1: Section 6, Block XV.. Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Lefevre. 

Alex. Swan. February 1: Section 5, Block XXII T.., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now owned by Mr. Gillies McKenzie, 
Cheviot House, Puerua. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 287 

Thomas Trumble. March 28: Section 7, Block IV., North 
Molyneux Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. Michael 
Muir, "The Cask," Kaitangata. 

Samuel Blythe. August 28: Section 6, Block L., Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Now owned by Mr. Thomas Samuel Soper, 
farmer, Te Houka. 

William Currie. October 14: Section 10, Block XL, Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Xow held by Mr. Archibald N. 
Hislop, Inch Clutha. 

IN 1851. 

Edward Cockshott. June 10: Section 2, Block IV., South Moly- 
neux; 50 acres. Xow held by Messrs. Shiels Bros., Port Molyheux. 

Wilhain Kirkland. July 30: Section 8, Block XII., Inch-Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. This is now included in Mr. Archibald 
Anderson's Hermitage Estate, and Sections 5 to 8 are leased by 
Hislop, Boyd, and Harvey respectively. 

IN 1852. 

Stephen Phillips. October 18: Section 9, Block CL, Clutha 
Survey District, 50 acres. Part of late Peter Ayson 's Corydon 
Estate; now held by Mr. David Murray, Wharepa. 

IN 1853. 

Alex. Gordon and J. Boss. February 25, 1853, and March 9, 
1854) Section 23, Block II., Wharepa, 104 acres, 1 rood, 38 poles. 
(It will be seen that two dates are given for the taking up of this 
section.) This is now owned by Mr. William Ross, Wharepa Bush, 

Thomas Edmonston. April 30: Section 6, Block XIII., Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. Adam Bell, 
Inch Clutha. 

Thomas Edmonston. April 30: Section 8, Block XIII., Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. Adam Bell, 
Inch Clutha. 

IN 1854. 

Peter Ayson. March 9: Section 21, Block I., Wharepa; 81 
acres, 2 roods, 22 poles. This was held by the trustees in the 
estate of Peter Ayson, Corydon, until recently, when Mr. David 
Murray, Wharepa, purchased the estate. 

288 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

C. H. Kettle. April 11; Section 17. Block 11.. Wharepa; 83 
acres, 2 roods, 15 poles.. Xow owned by Mr. Cross, Kaihiku Bush, 

C. II. Street. May 4: Section 20. Block I., Wharepa Survey 
District; 83 acres, 2 roods, 28 poles. Now owned by Mr. John 
Gordon, farmer, Toiro. The residence of the late Job Dabinett, 
Wharepa Bush, was on this section. 

C. H. Kettle. May 6: Section 16, Block II., Wharepa; 83 
acres, 2 roods, 27 poles. Now owned by Mr. Cross. Kaihiku Bush. 

Adam Begg. May 10: Section 22, Block I., Wharepa; 83 acres, 
1 rood, 13 poles. The late Mr. Peter Ayson. Corydon, purchased 
this section, which is still known as Begg's Hill. Now held by 
Mr. D. Murray, Wharepa. 

John and James Somerville. May 10: Section 23. Block I., 
Wharepa; 99 acres, 3 roods, 27 poles. Now held by Mr. John 
Aitken Somerville, Waitepeka. 

Eobert Campbell. May 30: Section 20, Block II., Wharepa; 
77 acres, 3 roods, 37 poles. Part of Glenfalloch Estate; afterwards 
owned by Captain Melvill, W T harepa, and recently sold to W, S. 

James McNeil. June 5: Section 22, Block II.. Wharepa; 105 
acres, roods, 21 poles. Recently purchased by Mr. William Ross, 
Wharepa Bush, Toiro. 

Walter Mantell. June 30: Section 2, Block XVII., Clutha Sur- 
vey District; 50 acres. Now owned by Mr. Thomas Telford, 
Otanomomo Estate, Balclutha. 

John Shaw. July 28: Section 14, Block XXII., Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Now held by Mrs. Sarah Shaw, widow, Fine- 

IN 1856. 

John Bariv April 17: Sections 5 and 6, Block CIII.. Clutha 
Survey District; 100 acres. Now owned by Mr. Cross, Kaihiku 
Bush, and formerly known as "Craigielee. ' ' 

Joseph Smith. May 5: Section 8, Block XII., North Molyneux; 
50 acres. Part of Sectioii 8. Now held by Mr. Joseph Smith, 

C. H. Kettle. May 26: Section 4, Block CIII., Clutha Survey 
District: 50 acres. Now owned by Mr. Cross. Kaihiku Bush, 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 289 

Thomas Eedpath. June 17: Section 3, Block XVIL. Clutha 
Surve-y "District; 50 acres. Now included in Mr. T. Telf ord 's 
Otaiiomomo property, and included part of the Otanomomo Bush, 
ni-ar the present railway station on the estate. 

C. H. Street. June 18: Section 18, Block I., Wharepa Survey 
District; 15 acres. This is a section at the Wharepa Bush, formerly 
held by Mr. Job Dabinett. Now owned by Mr. John Gordon, Toiro. 

Kobert Sutherland. June 27: Section 30, Block I., Wharepa; 
88 acres, 2 roods, 11 poles. Now owned by Mrs.. George Turner, 
farmer, Puerua. 

Peter Ayson. June 27: Part Section 10, Block CL, Clutha 
Survey District; 31 acres, 2 roods. Part of the late Peter Ayson 's 
original Corydon Estate. Now owned by Mr. David Murray, 

John Dalziel. September 19: Section 7, Block CIIL, Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now owned by Mr. Robert Brownlie, 
Kaihiku Bush. 

James Brugh. September 26: Section 1, Block VI.,, South 
Molyueux; 50 acres. Occupied by Messrs. Shiels Bros. 

William Busnell (or Boswell). September 26: Section 9, Block 
XII., North Molyneux; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. Joseph Smith, 

E. L. Begg. October 30: Half of Sections 11 and 12, Block II., 
South Molyneux; 75 acres. Now owned by Mr. David Tilson, Port 

Arch. Anderson.. October 30: Section 10, Block XIII., Inch 
Clutha; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. George Anderson. 

J. B. Clarke. November 10: Section 6 and half of 7, Block 
VI., Clutha Survey District, 75 acres; also part 5 and part 7, Block 
XI., Clutha, 5 acres. Section 6 and half of 7, now part of Mr. 
Barker 's Waitutu Estate, Eomahapa. Part Section 5 and part of 7, 
Block XL, Clutha, now part of Mr. T. Telf ord 's Otanomomo Estate. 

James Frazer. November 18: Section 1, Block IV.., South Tua- 
kitoto; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. Henry H. Frazer, Kaitangata. 

George Hay. December 2: Half of Section 6, Block V., South 
Molyneux; 25 acres. Now owned by Mr. William Hay, Hilly Park, 

T. B. Gillies. December 2: Section 5, Block GIL, Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Part of the original "Eocklands" Estate, 
Wharepa, recently disposed of to Mr. Alex. Johnston, Wharepa. and 
now held by Benson. 

290 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Thomas Martin. December 20: Half of Section 5, Block L., 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Now owned by Mr. Thomas 
Samuel Soper, Te Houka. 

Andrew McNeil. December 29: Sections 15 and 17, Block 
XXXIII., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Part of the original 
"Invertiel" Estate; now owned by Mr. Richard Campbell, Inver- 
tiel, Balclutha. 

James Macandrew and Co. December 29: Half of Section 2, 

Block I., Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. This section lies near 

the Puerua bridge at Port Molyneux, and is now parti}- held by 

Mr. Barker, Waitutu, and part is cut up into allotments in the 
township of Port Molyneux. 

James Ormiston. December 29: Section 6, Block III., South 
Tuakitoto; 25 acres.. Now held by Mr. Henry H. Frazer, Kai- 

Andrew McNeil. December 29: Part Section 7, Block XIII., 
Inch Clutha; 10 acres. Now held by Mr. Alex. McLean, Inch 

W. A. Mosley. December 29: Section 9, Block VI [I., Inch 
Clutha; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. John Mosley, Inch Clutha. 

William Mitchell.. December 29: Section 1, Block III., Inch 
Clutha; 50 acres. Now held by Mr. Peter Rutherford, Inch Clutha. 

IN 1857. 

John Petchell. January 6: Section 2, Block XII., Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by George McDonald, Inch 

James McNeil. January 22: Section 3, Block OIL, Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by W. Ross, Wharepa. 

George McNeil. January 22: Sections 10 and 11, Block Oil., 
Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by William Martin 
Heckler, Wharepa. 

John McNeil.. January 22: Section 12, Block CIL, Clutha Sur- 
vey District; 50 acres. Now held by William Martin Heckler, 

Alexander McNeil. February 17: Section 2, Block XCIII., 
Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Part of the original Caldervan 
property, now held by Messrs. Johnston, Kaihiku. 

M. B. Power. April 1: Half of Section 9, Block XI.. Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by Archibald Hislop, 
Inch Clutha. 

of D lined in and South Otago. 291 

John Lovell. April 1: Section 1, Block I., South Tuakitoto 
Survey District; 10 acres. This is now part of Kaitangata Borough. 
This is the Lovell after whom Lovell 's Flat and Lovell 's Creek are 

John Ldvell. April 1: Section 5, Block II., North Molyneux 
Survey District; 50 acres. Xow held by William Smaill, Summer- 
hill, Kaitangata. 

J. L. C. Richardson (afterwards Sir John L. (.'. Richardson). 
April 13: Sections 10 and 12, Block XXVIII., Clutha Survey Dis- 
trict, 100 acres; and Section 2, Block XXIX., 50 acres. Also Sec- 
tion 39, Block L, Wharepa Survey District; 23 acres. Part of 
Willowmeade Estate, now held by James Lamond, Puerua. 

\V. A. Mosley. May 6: Half of Section 3, Block VIII., Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Xow held by Mrs. W. S. Mosley, 
Inch Clutha. 

Alex. McNeil. May 8: Section 4, Block XCIII., Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. This is part of the original Caldervan Estate, 
now held by Messrs. Johnston, Kaihiku, who recently purchased 
the property from the National Insurance Company, Dunedin. 

Thomas Redpath. May 19: Half of Section 11, Block XVI,, 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Part of Otanomomo Estate, now 
held by Thomas Telford, Otanomomo. 

John Ross. May 19: Section 2, Block CII., Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Now held by William Ross, Langwell, Toiro. 

John Shields. May 20: Section 1, Block XXIV., Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Part held by Robert Shields and part by Win. 

D. P. Steel. May 20: Section 6, Block XXIIL, Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Part of the original Cheviot House -Estate, 
now held by Gillies McKenzie, Puerua. 

John Shepherd. May 20: Half of Section 3 and Sections 4 to 
7, Block XII., Inch Clutha Survey District; 225 acres. Half of 
Section 3, now held by Peter Anderson, Inch Clutha, and 4 to 7 by 
William Weir, Inch Clutha. 

Henry Clapcott. May 28: Half of Section 3, Block XL, Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. This section must lie contiguous 
to the Sections 1, 2, and 4 held by Peter Anderson, and parts 1 and 
4 held by William Weir, but the present owner is not given in the 
information at our disposal at present. 

James Wright. June 15: Section 8, Block TIL, Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by James Kennedy, Inch 

292 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Trustees for Religious and Educational Purposes. June 19: 
Part Section 12, Block CL, Clutha Survey District; 11 acres. 2 
roods. Now held by Wharepa Deacon's Court. The site of the 
original Wharepa Church, opposite the Wharepa Cemetery. 

William Aitchison. June 23: Section 4, Block II.. North Moly- 
neux Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by William Smaill, 
Summerhill, Kaitangata. 

J. H. Perkins. June 24: Section 13, Block XXIV., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Part now held by William John Mur- 
doch, Puerua. 

John Shaw. June 26: Part Section 7, Block XIII., Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 5 acres. Held by McLean, Incn Clutha. 

John Shaw.r June 26: Section 13, Block XXIL, Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Now held by John Patrick Shaw. Finegai:<!. 
and occupied by John Dallas, Finegand, Balclutha. 

George Willcher. June 26: Section 13. Block III.. South Moly- 
neux; 50 acres. In Block III., South Molyneux, there is no Section 
13, but in Block II. there is a section adjoining the old Molyneux 
township at the Pilot Station, now owned by Mr. David Tilson. 
This is likely to be the section Willcher took up, though he was 
living then and until he left for the Home Country at the site of 
the present recreation reserve at Willcher Bay. 

Thomas Eedpath. July 15: Sections 1 and 3, Block XXI., 
Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by Thomas Telford. 
Otanomomo Estate. 

James Dunn. July 16: Half of Section 7, Block XIV.. Clutha 
Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by Mrs. Annie Mclntyre 
Ogilvie, Bomahapa. 

William Willox (? Willocks). August 8: Half of Section 5, 
Block XIII., Inch Clutha Survey District; 12 acres. roods, 24 
poles. Now held by Adam Bell, Inch Clutha. 

William Davey and E. Bowler. August 12: Sections 5 and 6, 
Block XL, Inch Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by 
Mrs. John Hastings, Inch Clutha. 

C. H. Kettle. August 13: Sections 18 and 19. Block II. , 
Wharepa Survey District; 193 acres, 1 rood, 24 poles. Now held 
by W. E.. Cross. 

James Wright. August 15: Section 6, Block III., Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by James Kennedy, Inch 

of Dunedin and South Otago. -93 

Thomas Tolmie. August 24: Section 36, Block I., Wharepa 
Survey District; 56 acres, 38 poles. Xow owned by Catherine 
Tolmie, widow of the late Thomas Tolmie. 

James Brydone (or Bryden). August 29, 1857, and January 8, 
3858: Section 28, Block 1., Wharepa Survey District; 135 acres, 1 
rood, 37 poles. Xow held by Henry Sandford, Toiro. 

Kobert Campbell. September 18, 1857, and November 16, 1859: 
Section 2 of 5, Block II., 4 acres, 2 roods, 8 poles; also Sections 3 
of 6, and 2 of 7, Block II., 66 acres, 2 roods, 1 pole, Wharepa Survey 
District. Part of Glenfalloch Estate held by Captain Melvill, 
Wharepa, and recently purchased by W. S., Thomson. 

Henry Clapcott. September 22: Half of Section 9, Block XI., 
Inch Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Xow held by Archibald 
Hi si op, Inch Clutha. 

T. B. Gillies. October 2: Section 21, Block II., Wharepa Sur- 
vey District; 34 acres, 2 roods. Part of the Eocklands Farm held 
by Alex. Johnston, who recently sold to Benson. 

John Petchell. October 16: Section 1, Block XII., Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Xow held by George McDonald. Inch 

William Aitchison. October 16: Section 1, Block [V.. Xorth 
Molyneux Survey District; 50 acres. This section is still held by 
William Aitchison. 

D. P. Steel. October 20: Half of Section 9, Block XXIIL, 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Part of Cheviot House Estate, 
now held bv" Gillies McKenzie, Puerua. 

James Eobertson. October 26, 1857, and April 25, 1859: Sec- 
tions 34 and 35, Block I., Wharepa Survey District; 132 acres, 
roods, 15 poles. Xow held by William, Mary, Peter, and James 
Robertson, Puerua. 

William Willox (Willocks). October 31: Section 10, Block 
XIII., Xorth Molyneux; 50 acres. Xow held by John Willocks, 
Inch Clutha. 

John Shaw.. Xovember 11: Section 15 and half of 16. Block 
XXII., Clutha Survey District; 75 acres. Xow held by Mrs. Sarah 
Shaw, Finegand. 

Dr. Henry Manning. Xovember 12: Section 31, Block I., 
Wharepa Survey District: 56 acres, 2 roods, 24 poles. Eecently 
purchased from Kobert Gilfillan by Henry Robinson, Waitepeka, 
Toiro P.O. 

294 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

David Dunii. November 19: Half of Section 6 and Section 8, 
Block X., Clutha Survey District; 75 acres. Now held by David 
Dunn, Puerua. 

J. B. Clarke.. December 11: Part Section 12, Block XX.. Clutha 
Survey District; 10 acres. Part of Otanomomo Estate, now held 
by Thomas Telford, Otanomomo. 

P. G. and W. M. Laing. December 15: Section 7, Block 
LXXXL, Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Part of Moa Hill 
Estate; part held by Gilbert Stewart, W hare pa, and part by 
Jonathan W. Newson. Wharepa. 

Thomas Marsh. December 22: Section 5, Block 111.. Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by John Rutherford, 
Inch Clutha. 

IN 1858. 

Thomas Burns and E. McGlashan. January 14: Section 41, 
Block I., Wharepa; 31 acres. roods, 15 poles. Now held by the 
Otago Presbyterian Church Board of Property, Dunedin. This is 
the section on which the Puerua Manse now stands. 

Andrew McNeil. January 16: Half of Section 14, Block 
XXXIII., Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Part of ths Invertiel 
Estate, now held by Richard Campbell, Invertiel, Balclutha. 

W. A. Mosley. January 20: Half of Section 3. Block VIII., 
Inch Clutha; 25 acres. Now held by Mrs. W. S. Mosley, Inch 

James McNeil. January 23: Sections 12 and 15. Block 
XXXVI., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by R. Wil- 
son, Blairdale, Balclutha. 

Robert McNeil. January 23: Sections 13 and 14, Block 
XXXVI., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by R. 
Wilson, Blairdale, Balclutha. 

James Brydon. January 28, 1858, and May 20. 1859: Section 
]9, Block I., Wharepa Survey District; 20 acres. Now held by 
Henry Sandford, Toiro. 

James Maitland. February 15: Sections 1, 2, and 3. Block X.. 
North Molyneux; 150 acres. Now held by J. F. Mitchell, Stirling. 

Andrew Smaill. February 15: Sections 1 and 2, Block VI., 
Inch Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by sons of 
Andrew Smaill. 

John Darling. February 15: Sections 5 and 6, Block IV., Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by Alexander Barclay. 

of Dunedin and South Of ago. 

Peter VVhalan. February 15: Section 15. Block XLIIL, Clutha 
Survey District: 50 acres. Now held by Thomas Samuel Soper, 
Te Houka. 

Peter Ayson.. February 16: Sections 8 (50 acres) and part of 
10 (17 acres, roods, 30 poles). Block CL, Clutha Survey District; 
67 acres, roods, 30 poles. Part of Corydon Estate, now held by 
David Murray, \Vharepa. 

C. H. Street. February 17: Sections 11, part 10, half of 12, 
and part 12, Block CI., Clutha Survey District; 93 acres, 3 roods, 
10 poles. Now held by John Gordon, Toiro. 

William. Young. March 30: Section 27, Block I., Wharepa Sur- 
vey District; 57 acres, 1 rood, 37 poles. Eecently purchased from 
Samuel Young by William McHauly. Waitepeka. and now H. 

W. A. Mosley. April 15: Section 8. Block VII., Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Joseph Mosley, Inch 

Gordon and Eoss. April 17: Section 1, Block CIL, Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by William Eoss. Langwell, 

Andrew McNeil. April 19: Half of Section 18, Block XXXIII., 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Part of thf Invertiel Estate, 
now held by Eichard Campbell, Invertiel, Balclutha. 

B. L. Begg. April 23: Half of Section 13, Block I.. South 
Molyneux Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by James Paterson, 
Port Molyneux. and occupied by James Murray, Port Molyneux. 

John Barr, Junr., May 28: Section 4, Block XXXIII., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. This is a section at the Kakapuaka 
township, and was part of the Waitepeka Estate before being sub- 
divided into sections. 

John Barr, Junr. June 14: Section 5, Block XXXV.. Clutha 
survey District; 50 acres. Now part of the Borough of Balclutha. 

George Grey. June 16: Sections 8 and 9, Block XIIL, North 
Molyneux Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by J. C'rawford 
Anderson, Stirling. 

Eobert Carrick. July 15: Section 10 and part 11, Block II., 
South Molyneux Survey District; 75 acres. Part of Section 11 is 
now held by David Tilson, Port Molyneux. and part by Adam 
Paterson, Port Molyneux, who also holds Section 10. 

Janet Dalziol. July 15: Half of Section 12, Block A'., South 
Molyneux Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by Jas, B. Tait. 

296 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

Davy and Bowler. July 15: Half of section 3, Block XL, Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Present holder of section not 

Thomas Redpath. July 15: Section 1, Block XVII., Clutha 
Survey District, 50 acres; and halt' of 11, Block XX., 25 acres, 
Clutha. Now part of Otanomomo Estate, held by Thomas Telford, 
Otanomomo, Balclutha. 

Edward Peters. July 15: Half of Section 18 and half of 19, 
Block XXXni., Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Part of the 
Invertiel Estate, now held by Richard Campbell, Invertiel, Bal- 

Duncan. McNeil. July 15: Sections 7 and 9, Block XLIIL, 
Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by R. Wilson, Blair- 
liale, Balclutha. 

W. A. Mosley. July 16: Half of Section 6 and half of 5, Block 
VL, Inch Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Also Section 2, Block 
VIII., 50 acres. Half of 5 is now held by James Smaill, Inch 
Clutha. The present holder of half of 6 is not clearly stated. 
Most probably it is the same holder as half of 5. 

John Somerville. July 16: Section 24, Block I., Wharepa Sur- 
vey District; 115 acres, 3 roods, 11 poles. Now held by John Aitken 

W. A. Mosley. July 19: Section 7, Block VII., Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Joseph Mosley. Inch 

Job Dabinett. August 16: Section 2, Block LVIII., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by John Gordon, Toiro. 

Frederick Twiss. August 16: Sections 1, 2, and 3, Block VII., 
North Tuakitoto Survey District, 150 acres; and on September 15 
and November 22, half of Section 3, Block VIIL, 25 acres. Now 
held by Jasper Clark, Lovell's Flat. 

W. A. Mosley. August 17: Section 1, Block VIIL, Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Mrs. W. S., Mosley, Inch 

Francis Barker. August 17: Half of Section 5, Block VI., Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by James Smaill. Inch 

John Shaw. August 17: Part Section 9, Block XXIL, Clutha 
Survey District; 30 acres. Now held by John Patrick Shaw, and 
occupied by John Dallas, Finegand, Balclutha. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 297 

Andrew Chapman;- September 16: Sections 2 and half of 3, 
Block IV., North Molynenx Survey District; 75 acres. Section 2 
is now held by William Aitchison, Kaitangata, and half of 3 is now 
Granton township. Borough of Kaitangata. 

William Mitchell. September 23: Half of Section 2, Block III., 
Inch Clutha Survey District; 25 acres., Xow held by Peter Ruther- 
ford, Matau. 

William Mitchell. September 16: Section 1, Block I., Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Peter and John 
Rutherford. Matau. 

J. II. Perkins. September 24: Sections 6 and 10, Block XXIV., 
Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by William John 
Murdoch, Pnerua. 

George Grey. October 6: Half of Section 7, Block XIIL, North 
Molyneux Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by J. Crawford 
Anderson, Stirling. 

Andrew McNeil. October 15: Half of Section 19, Block 
XXXTII.s Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Part of the original 
Invertiel property, now held by Richard Campbell, Invertiel. Bal- 

James McNeil. October 15: Sections 6 and 7, Block XXXV., 
Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. This is now part of the Borough 
of Balclutha. 

George McNeil. October 15: Section 1, Block CIII., Clutha 
Survey District; .50 acres. Now held by William Martin Heckler, 

William Smith. October 18: Half of Section 6, Block XIII.. 
North Molyneux Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by J. Craw- 
ford Anderson, Stirling. 

G. H. Maitland. November 13: Section 5, Block V.. North 
Molyneux Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Alexander 
Blackie, Kaitangata. 

Thomas Martin., November 15: Half of Section 5, Block L., 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Part of the original Te Houka 
Estate, now held by Thomas Samuel Soper, Te Houka. 

Andrew McNeil. November 15: Half of Section 9 and half of 
14, Block XXX111.. Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Now part of 
Invertiel Estate, held by Richard Campbell, Invertiel, Balclutha. 

J. L. C. Richardson. November 20: Half of Section 4. Block 
XXIX.. Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Part of the Willowmeade 
Estate, now held by James Lamond, Puerua. 

298 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

John Geggie. December 15: Section 38. Block I., Wharepa 
Survey District; 142 acres, 3 roods, 35 poles. Part held by John 
Geggie, jun.., Puerua, and part by Alex. Petrie, Puerua, now by W. 
Dalgleish. Geggie has recently sold to Frater. 

Andrew McNeil. December 15: Sections 11 and 13, Block 
XXXIII., and Section 8, Block XXXV., Clntha Survey District; 150 
acres. Part Section 11 now included in Invertiel Estate, held by 
Richard Campbell. Section 8, Block XXXV., now part of Borough 
of Balclutha. Part of Section 11 is in the Rosebank Estate. 

John Shaw. December 15: Part Section 11, Block XVII., 
Clutha Survey District; 17 acres, 3 roods. Part of the Finegand 
Estate, now held by John Patrick Shaw, and occupied by John 
Dallas, Finegand, Balclutha. 

Dr. Henry Manning. December 15: Section 32, Block, I.. 
Wharepa Survey District; 56 acres, 29 poles. Now held by Henry 
Robinson, Toiro. who recently purchased from Robert Gilfillan. 

John Somerville. December 17, 1858. and December 23. 1859: 
Section 26, Block I., Wharepa Survey District; 20 acres. This 
section is in the Wharepa Bush, adjoining William Young's first 
selection, and is now held by John Aitken Somerville. Waitepeka. 

D. P. Steel. December 17: Section 10, Block XXIH., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Part of the Cheviot House Est.-.te, now 
held by Gillies McKenzie, Puerua. 

Andrew Mercer. December 17: Section 7. Block XXIII., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Part of the Cheviot House Estate, now 
held by Gillies McKenzie, Puerua. 

IN 1859. 

John McNeil. January 17 and June 15: Sections f 1 and 10, 
Block XXXA"., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by 
Mrs. William Tosh, Balclutha. 

John Shields. January 17: Section 3. Block XXIV.. Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Robert Shields, Puerua. 

Andrew McNeil. January 17: Section 11. Block XXII., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Part of Finegand Estate, now occupied 
by John Dallas. Balclutha. 

W. J. Dare. January 19, May 17 and 19. July 18, September 
26: Sections 6 and 8. Block XXIX., Clutha Survey Distiict, 100 
acres; and Sections 5 and 7, Block XXVII., 100 acres. Held 
by John Geggie. Puerua. who has sold to one Frater. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 299 

James Arson. January 24: Section 33, Block I., Wharepa 
Survey District: 112 acres, 1 rood, 2 poles. Held by estate of the 
late James Aysou. Kakapuaka. and now owned by Harry Bobinson, 

Arthur and T. S. Eoscoe. January 29 and March 3: Section 37, 
Block I., Wharepa Survey District; 117 acres, 3 roods, 18 poles. 
Xuw held by Alex. Petrie. Puerua. and occupied by Wm. Dalgleish. 

James Somerville. -February 16: Sections 4 and 6, Block 
XLfV., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres., Now held by Bobert 
Somerville. Waitepeka. 

James Somerville. February 16, and September 23: Section 25, 
Block I.. Wharepa Survey District; 95 acres, 1 rood, 27 poles. Now 
held by Kobert Somerville, Waitepeka. 

Alexander Ayson. February 17: Section 24, Block II., Wharepa 
Survey District; 112 acres, roods, 20 poles. Part of the original 
Markhill Estate. Now held by Glenfalloch Estate. 

John Petchell. February 17, April 16, and June 17. Sections 
8, 4. 2, and 3, Block X., Inch Clutha Survey District; 200 acres. 
Xow held by Mary Barron. and occupied by Frank Perniskie. Inch 

John Healey. February 23: Sections 5 and 9 to 12. Block 
LXXXL. Clutha Survey District; 250 acres. Part of Moa Hill 
Estate, now held by Gilbert Stewart, Wharepa, 

James Johnstone. March 15 and June 15: Sections C and half 
ot s. Block XV., Clutha Survey District; 75 acres. Xow held by 

Charles Lamont (? Lamond). March 15 and June 15: Sections 
i) and half of 10. Block XXXVIL, Clutha Survey District; 75 acres. 
Xow held by William Blaikie. 

John Lovell. March 15: Half of Section 4, Block IL. South 
Tu.-ikitoto Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by English Church, 

John Ormiston. March 15: Sections 2. 3. and 4, Block II., 
South Taakitoto Survey District; 150 acres. Now held by Thomas 
and George Frazer. Kaitangata. 

William Sutherland. March 15: Section 29. Block L, Wharepa 
Survey District; 55 acres, 3 roods, 11 poles. Now held by Catherine 
Sutherland, widow, Balclutha, and occupied by Mrs. George Turner, 

William Ferguson. March 15: Section 1, Block X.. Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 5u :u-res. Xow held by James Lawson. Inch 

300 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

William Mitchell. March 16: Half of Section 2, Block III., 
Inch Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Xow held by Peter Ruther- 
ford, Inch Clutha. 

Peter Dunu. March 16: Half of Section 5, Block XIX..; 25 
acres. Xow held by Miss Spiers, Puerua. 

Robert Robsoii. March 17: Sections 1 to 4, Block LXIV., 
Clutha Survey District, 200 acres; and Sections 1 to 5, Block LXXI., 
Clutha Survey District, 250 acres. Parts 3 and 4, Block LXXI., 
held by John Barclay, Te Houka. Sections 1 to 4, Block LXIV., 
and 1 to 5, Block LXXI., held by Alexander Cockburn, Te Houka. 
This was the original Whitelea Estate. 

J. L. C. Richardson. March 28 and August 16; Half of Section 
4 and half of 3, Block XXIX., Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. 
Part of Willowmeade Estate, now held by James Laniond, Puerua. 

Thomas Somerville. April 15 and November 18: Sections 6, 8, 
and 10, Block XXXVIIL, Clutha Survey District; 150 acres. Xow 
held by John Inglis Morton, Waitepeka. 

Alex. Mutch. April 15: Section 4, Block XIX., Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Now held by Irving Dent, Puerua. 

T. H. Meeking. April -15 and August 2: Half of Section 9 and 
Sections 10 and 11, Block CIIL, Clutha Survey District, 125 acres; 
and Sections 2 and 3, Block CIV., Clutha Survey District, 100 acre?. 
Now held by Messrs. Roberts Bros., Kaihiku. 

Roto Tikororo. April 15: Section 5, Block II. , Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by William Mulrine, Inch 

T. B. Gillies. April 15: Sections 6 to 7, Block VI., Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 100 acres. Part now held by Oswald Mosley, Inch 

Robert Grigor. April 15: Section 13, Block XIII., Inch Clutba 
Survey District: 50 acres. Now held by R.. Greig & Co., Dunedin, 
and adjoining the Chicory Mills, Inch Clutha. 

William Smith. April 15: Half of Section 5 and Section 7, 
Block XII., North Molyneux Survey District; 125 acres. Now 
held by W r illiam Smith, Stirling. 

James Brugh. April 23, September 30, and November 21: 
Sections 1 and 3, Block IV., 100 acres; and half of 11, Block V., 
25 acres, and half of 3, Block VI., 25 acres. South Molyneux 
Survey District. Now held by Shiels Bros., Port Molyneux. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 301 

Arch. Anderson. April 29: Sections 1 to 8, Block X., Sections 

1 to 8, Block XL. and Sections 5 to 8, Block XII.,, South Tualdtoto 
Survey District. 1,000 acres; and Sections 1 to 5, Block XIII., 
Xorth Molyneux Survey District, 250 acres; and Sections 1 to 5, 
Block XIV., Xorth Molyneux Survey District, 250 acres. Held by 
estate of Archibald Anderson, Hermitage, Stirling. 

Thomas Redpath. May 16: Section 6, Block XVII., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Xow part of Otanomomo Estate. 

Thomas Redmayne. May 16: Section 9. Block L, Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Xow held by W. G. Steele. Inch Clutha. 

Thomas Marsh. May 16: Half of Section 4, Block III., Inch 
Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by John Rutherford. 
Inch Clutha. 

John Shepherd. May 16: Sections 2 and 3, Block L, 100 acres; 
and Sections l', 2, and 4, .Block XL, 150 acres; and half of Section 3, 
Block XII., 25 acres, Inch Clutha Survey District. Sections 2 and 
3 are now held by Peter and John Rutherford. Inch Clutha, and 
Sections 1, 2, and 4, and half of 3, by Peter Anderson, Inch Clutha. 

William Aitchison. May 16: Section 6, Block V., Xorth Moly- 
neux Survey pistrict; 50 acres. Xow held by Alexander Blackie, 

Edmund Bowler. May 16, and October 18: Sections 10, 11, 12, 
8, and 9, Block IX., Inch Clutha Survey District, 250 acres; and 
Sections 7 and 8, Block XL, 100 acres. Xow held by E. R, Bowler's 
Trustees, and occupied by James Kirkness and Mr., James, Inch 

George Grey. May 17: Half of Section 6 and half of 7, Block 
XIIL, Xorth Molyneux Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by 
J. Crawford Anderson, Stirling. 

John Jones. May 20: Sections 5 to 10, Block V.. Inch Clutha 
Survey District; 300 acres. Now held by James Bell, Inch Clutha. 

David Girard. May 20: Section 12, Block XCIX.. and Section 
2, Block C., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. On part of Section 
12, now held by Jonathan Telford, Waiwera, Girard erected the 
first hotel in the Waiwera District. Part of Section 12 and Section 

2 are held by James Telford, and occupied by John R. Bower, 

John Jones. May 20: Half of Section 4, half of 5, and half of 
6, Block IX., Clutha Survey District; 75 acres. Now held by Chas. 
Farquhar Shaw. Dunedin. and occupied by William Griffiths, River- 
side, Balclntha. 

3(U Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

('. II. Kettle. May 21, and June 18: Sections 2 and 3 and 8, 
Block (JIIL, Clutha Survey District; 150 acres. Sections 2 and 3 
now held b\ W. Cross, Kaihiku, and Section 8 by Kobert Brownlie, 

David Forsyth. June 12 and 15: Half of Section 4, Block II.., 
North Tuakitoto Survey District, 25 acres; and Sections 1 and 2 
and half of 3, Block VI., 125 acres. Now held by Samuel Hagen, 
Lovell 's Flat. 

Alex., Petrie. June 15: Section 2, Block XXXVI.I., Clutha 
Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by Alex. Petrie, Puerua, and 
occupied by William Dalgleish, Puerua. 

R. L. Begg. June 15: Half of Section (i, and half of 7, Block 
I., South Molyneux. Sections 6 and part 7 are now held by David 
Tilson, Port Molyneux, and part 7 by James Paterson, storekeeper. 
Port Molyneux. 

James Maitland. June 15: Sections 7 to 10 and 1 to 8, Block 
VI., North Molyneux Survey District; 600 acres. Part of the 
original Crescent Estate. Held by R. Hawker, John Lowery, 
Charles Smaill, and John Bell, all of Stirling. 

Joseph Maitland. June 15: Half of Section 1, and Sections 2 
and .5, Block V., North Molyneux Survey District; 125 acres. Part 
now held by Robina Anderson and part by William Kelly. Kai- 

Frederick Twiss. Tune 15, and October 19: Half of Section 2. 
Block VIII., North Tuakitoto Survey District, 25 acres; and half 
of Section 4, Block VIII., 25 acres. Now held by Jasper Clarke, 
Lovell's Flat. 

John Dunbar. June 15: Half of Section 4, Block II., North 
Tuakitoto Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by David Bryce. 
Lovell's Flat. 

William Begg. June 15: Section .'5 and half of 4, Block III., 
Inch Clutha Survey District; 75 acres. Now held by William 
Begg, per W. L. Riddell, Inch Clutha. 

Thomas Martin. June 15: Half of Section 7 and Section 8, 
Block L., 75 acres, and Sections 5. 6, 7, 8, and part 9, Block LVL, 
Clutha Survey District, 255 acres. Now held by George Patrick, 
Te Houka. 

Daniel Ross. June 21: Sections 3 and 5, Block LXV.. Clutha 
Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by Mrs. Margaret Riddell, 
and occupied by W. Riddell, Wharepa. 

John Shaw. June 23: Half of Section 7, and half of 8, Block 
IX., Clutha Survey District: 50 acres. Part of Finegand Estate, 
now occupied by William Griffiths. 

of Diuiedin and South Otago. 303 

James Nicol. July 15: Sections 6, 8, 10, and 12, Block 
LXXXIL, Clutha Survey District; 200 acres. Part Section 12 held 
by James Nicol, Sydney, and occupied by Robert Sutherland, jun., 
Kaihiku., Sections 6, 8, 10, and part 12, held by R. and R. Suther- 
land, Kaihiku, being part of original Douglas Place Estate. Kaihiku. 

David Dunn. July 15: Half of Section 10, Block X.. Clutha 
Survey District; 25 acres. Held by David Dunn, Puerua. 

J. S. Douglas. August 16: Sections 4 to 8, Block XL, and 
Sections 6 to 8, Block XIV., North Molyneux Survey District; 400 
acres. Sections 4 to 8, Block XL, now held by James Raitt, Stir- 
ling; and Sections 6 to 8 by J. F. Mitchell, Stirling. 

Alex. McNeil. September 15, and November 16: Sections 2 
and 4, Block LXXXIX.,, 100 acres, and Sections 1, 3, and 5, Block 
XCIIL, Clutha Survey District, 250 acres; and Section 12, Block 
CIV., Clutha Survey District, 50 acres; and Section 1 of 5, Block 
III.. Wharepa Survey District, 100 acres. Part of the original 
Caldervan Estate, now held by Messrs. Johnston, Kaihiku. 

Richard Burns. September 15: Sections 2 and 4, Block 
LXXXIIL, Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by Mar- 
garet K. Dickie and John Dickie, Kaihiku. 

\V. R. Perkins. September 29, and December 16: Section 12, 
Block XIX., and Section 1, Block XX., Clutha Survey District; 
100 acres. Part of the Ch<>etwood Estate, now held by Estate of 
William Banks. Recently cut up.. 

Robert Christie. October 6 and December 31: Section 10, 
Block XVIIL, Clutha Survey District, 50 acres; and half of Section 
9, Block XX1IL, Clutha Survey District, 25 acres. Now held by 
Mrs. Robert S. McKenzie, Puerua. 

W. W. Waite. October 6: Section 6, Block CIL, Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Part of the original Rocklands Estate. IIH<I 
by Alex. Johnston, Wharepa, who recently sold to one Benson. 

Adam Sutherland. October 18: Section 1 of 12, Block I., 
Wharepa Survey District; 50 acres. Now held by John Sutherland, 

W. A. Bews and A. K. Oswin. October 18: Sections 2. 4, and 6,' 
Block LXV., Clutha Survey District, 150 acres; and Sections 1 to 6, 
Block LXXTIL, Clutha Survey District, 300 acres; and Sections 7, 
8, and 9, Block CTL, Wharepa Survey District, 150 acres. Part of 
the original Rocklands Kstate, now held by William Marshall, 
Wharepa, and Sections 7, 8, and 9, by Benson, Wharepa. 

Walter Nicol. October IS: Sections 7 and 9, Block iA'XXVI., 
f'lutha Survey District. Part of the original Douglas Place Estate, 
Kaihiku, now held by Robert Sutherland, Kaihiku. 

304 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

A. K. Livingstone. October ]8, and November 17: Sections 7 
and 9, and half of 5, Block LVIIL, Clutha Survey District; 125 
acres. Held by T. Riddell. Wharepa, formerly held by D. Munro, 
Balelutha. Eecently sold to Wilson Bros. 

D. P. Milligan. October 18, and December 21: Sections 4 and 
6, and half of 8, Block LVIIL, Clutha Survey District; 325 acres. 
Now held by John Gordon, Toiro. 

George Poison. October 18, and November 16: Sections 1 and 
3, Block LVIII., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Part of Cory- 
don Estate, parts 1 and 3 now held by Eobert Ayson, Toiro. 

J. E. Elder. October 19: Sections 1 to 4, Block LXXXV., 
Clutha Survey District; 200 acres. Part of the Moa Hill Estate, 
now held by Gilbert Stewart, Wharepa. 

Thomas Martin. October 19: Sections 11, 13, and 14, Block 
XLIIL, Clutha Survey District; 150 acres. Part now held by 
William Eenton, Te Houka, teacher, and occupied by Ealph Benton, 
Te Houka, and part by T. S. Soper. Te Houka. being part of 
Martin's original Te Houka Estate. 

John Dunn. October 20: Section 1, Block XV., Clutha Survey 
District; 50 acres. Now held by Lefevre. 

D. P. Steel. October 20: Sections 8 and 12, Block XXIIL, 
Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Part of Underwood Estate, 
now held by William Morton and Sons, Puerua.. 

John Shaw. October 24: Sections 4, 5, 6, 7. 8, and 10. Block 
XXII., Clutha Survey District; 300 acres. Part of Finegand Estate, 
now occupied by John Dallas, Balelutha. 

John Shaw. November 9: Half of Sections 7, 8, 9, 
10, and 11, Block XIIL, Clutha Survey District; 125 acres. Now 
held by Charles Farquhar Shaw, Dunedin, and occupied by Mr. 
Hall, Eiverside, Balelutha. 

John Shaw. November 9: Section 11, Block XVII.. Clutha 
Survey District; 26 acres. Now held by Mrs. Sarah Shaw, Fine- 
gand, Balelutha. 

William France ("W T illy Frank"). November 11: Section 12, 
Block XIV., Clutha Survey District; 50 acres. Held by Alexander 
McVicar, Puerua, recently sold to W. A. Smith. 

Makariri. November 17: Half of Section 6, Block II.. Clutha 
Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by Benjamin Taylor, Eatanui. 
Occupied by F. Plew. 

Eaketapu. November 17: Half of Section 5, Block II.. Clutha 
Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by Andrew Melville, Port 

of Diinedin and South Otago. 305 

William Somerville. November 21: Sections 1, 3, 5. 7, 9, and 
11, Block XLIV., Clutha Survey District; 400 acres. Now held by 
Marian Somerville, Anderson's Bay, and occupied by J. A. Somer- 
ville, Waitepeka. 

George Somerville.. November 25: Sections 2 and 4, Block 
XXX VIII.. Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now held by John 
Inglis Morton, Waitepeka. 

J. H. Perkins. December 3: Section 12, Block XXIV., and 
Section 2, Block XXV., Clutha Survey District; 100 acres. Now 
held by John Mercer, Waitepeka. 

James Eobertson. December 20: Sections 3 of 10 and 3 of 11, 
Block I., W r harepa Survey District; 30 acres. Now held by Peter 
Eobertaon, Toiro. 

W. A. Mosley. December 21: Half of Section 5, Block VIII.., 
Inch Clutha Survey District; 25 acres. Now held by Mrs. W. S. 
Mosley, Inch Clutha. 

306 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 


ADAM, JAMES, born at Aberdeen, came out in the "Philip 
Laing, '' 184S.. Having been precentor of the Free West Church 
in his native city, he naturally became leader of the psalmody 
in the First Church of his new home. A couple of days after 
the selection of town land he was given a lease of the section 
on which the Grand Hotel stands, corner of High and Princes 
Streets, at 4 per annum. There was a beautiful clump of 
maples on the section, and by cutting down those out of line, 
and topping the remainder, he had the studs for his house 
ready erected. The roof was thatched with long grass from 
the swamp, and the cabin was made so cosy-looking that his 
family were delighted with their new abode. Here his eldest 
son Alexander was born, the first child born among the immi- 
grants after landing. At the land sale, however, his section 
was bought over his head, and so he lost his valuable corner. 
After other preliminary work he acquired a farm at Anderson 's 
Bay, running across the sandhills, planned the saw and flour 
mills for Mr., Valpy, and built barges, boats, houses, and a 
ship; M.P.C., 1856, representing Dunedin for four years, then 
Anderson's Bay and Green Island; sent Home as immigration 
agent in 1857, and was the means of inducing 4,000 people 
to come out; was afterwards sent by the Taieri settlers to 
Auckland, and then to Great Britain and Ireland as immigra- 
tion agent, resulting in the acquisition of 60,000 people to the 
colony; sold his Anderson's Bay property in 1859, and settled 
at "Bon Accord,'' Tokomairiro; M.P.C. for Tokomairiro, 1864, 
and member of the Paterson Ministry. 

AITCHESON, WILLIAM, born Edinburgh, 1832; arrived " Mool- 
tan, " 1849; farming Clutha, but went to Australian goldfields; 
returned 1857;, took up land Kaitangata. On his land first coal 
discovered in district. 

ANDERSON, ARCHIBALD, came from Wellington (1840) in 1842, 
bringing 30 cows, 2 horses, 500 ewes. Settled at Blueskin, then 
at Saddle Hill; had a wholesale store at Wise's Corner, acting 
as postmaster. Removed to Inch Clutha, and then to Stirling. 
Member first Provincial Council, continuing a member for 
seven years. Together with Mr. Shaw, often walked from 
Clutha to Dunedin and back to attend meetings. 

ANDERSON, JOHN, sponsor Anderson 's Bay, arrived Wellington 
in ' ' Oriental, ' ' January 30th, 1840. Mrs. Anderson, daughter 
John Allan, sen. s arrived at Nelson with her parents in 1842. 
Messrs. Anderson and Alexander McKay, with their wives, 
arrived at Port Chalmers on January 30th, 1844, from Nelson. 
Lived at the Bay two years, hence the name. Moved to 
Pelichet Bay, thence to Taieri, Tapanui, and finally Waiwera, 
where the family are large landowners. On their arrival the 
only inhabitants of Dunedin were two sailors. Charlie McGuire 
and his mato, engaged in hunting wild pigs. Their second son 
was born at Dunedin on December 10th, 1846. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 307 

AYSOX, ALEXANDER, born at Glenshee, educated himself for 
teaching. Some time in charge of Free Church School at 
Urquhart, Elginshire; came out under engagement to Provin- 
cial Government, landing February 26th, 1856, in the 
"Southern Cross." First teacher in Tokomairiro School, then 
at Fairfax. After conducting this school ten years, com- 
menced farming in Wharepa District. Was subsequently in 
charge of Waihola Gorge School for six years, thence trans- 
ferred to Southbridge. Elder of Presbyterian Church. 

AYSOX, PETEK, born Cray, Perthshire, June 14th, 1807, carpenter 
by trade, arrived in "Royal Albert,'' March llth, 1853. At 
Disruption he took a leading part in getting Free Church 
erected at Glenshee, being an elder till he left for Otago. 
Worked at his trade for a time, then took up land at Wharepa 
Bush, where he died January 7th, 1897. Was a successful 
breeder of merino sheep, and was a valued member of Road 
Board and School Committee. 

AYSOX*, PETER, son, came out with his parents. Settled in 
Clutha in 1863, holding with his brother lease of Finegand 
Estate for twenty-one years. For fifteen years managed 
Corydon, his father's farm at Wharepa. Six years member 
Clutha County Council, and elder Wharepa Church. 

AYSOX*, JAMES, acquired knowledge of farming in Perthshire. 
After shepherding for a time, took up land at Tokomairiro, 
then at Wharepa, and ultimately at Kakapuaka, Waitepeka; 
elder of Wharepa Church. 

among the first to take up land at Puerua. settling there in 
the early 'fifties. During the first great flood it is recorded 
that the brothers Archibald paddled their boat from the Puerua 
stream to Kaitangata and back. Eventually took up a larger 
selection at Pomahaka, Thomas returned to Scotland, and 
Archibald with his family removed to New South Wales, tak- 
ing up land for the purpose of orange growing. Andrew died 
at Awakiki Bush, Puerua. 

BAXXERMAX, MRS., is a native of Monkton Manse. Ayrshire, 
Scotland, rmd the second daughter of the Rev. Thomas Burns, 
D.D. She was educated in Ayr, at a private seminary kept 
by a lady. She came out on board the barque "Philip 
Laing, " landing in Otago on the loth April, 1848. She 
married the Rev. William Bannerman, residing in the manse 
at Puerua for many years, and undergoing all the phases of 
life ihat fall to the lot of an early settler in the wilderness, 
and bringing up a numerous family, who are all married 
except two. On her husband retiring from the active work 
of the ministry, she came with him to reside in Roslyn, and 
resides there at the present day. The eldest son, Mr. William 
Bannerman, is accountant in the Bank of New Zealand at 
Invercargill ; the second son, Mr. Thomas Burns Bannerman. is 
;icting as a missionary: the eldest girl is Mrs. John M. Begg, of 
Hillend; the next is Mrs. Spencer Richards, whose husband 
is accountant at Messrs. A. and T. Inglis. Dunedin; the third 
is Mrs. J. A. Somerville. wife of a farmer at Waitepeka; and 
the youngest is Mrs. Wilson, of Dunedin. 

308 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

BARE, JOHN, came out with his parents in the "Philip Laing. " 
Had first punt over Clutha River at Balclutha. Was a large 
land owner at Balclutha, and had a farm at Te Houka. Died 

BARR, JOHN, " Craigielee, " born at Paisley in 1818, was engaged 
in shipbuilding on the Clyde. Arrived in Otago in 1854; in- 
augurated Burns Club, was laureate to the Caledonian Society, 
and a volume of his poems was published in 1860. 

BEGG, ALEXANDER S., arrived in brig "Thomas and Henry," 
1856. Started saw and flour mills at Clutha; was connected 
with flax industry, and one of the proprietors of the Glen 
twine mills, Romahapa. 

BOWER, DAVID, born Inverness May, 1819, passenger by "Philip 
Laing." Engaged in gardening pursuits at Pelichet Bay, but 
took to farming at Clutha. Married Jane Cuddy. Died May 
29th, 1897. 

BOWER, HUGH, born Inverness-shire February 12. 1830; arrived 
by "Larkins, " September 11, 1849; was at first engaged at 
bush work, and subsequently farming. 

BOWER, JOSEPH, born Edinburgh. October 22, 1835: arrived 
"Larkins," 1849; engaged farming. 

BROWN, ALEXANDER, born Morayshire; arrived by "Eden." 
1850; resided first Anderson's Bay, then Tokomairiro. 

BROWN, GEORGE, with Mrs, Brown and family of six, came 
out in the "Eden," 1850, to join their eldest son, James Elder 
Brown. Settled at Anderson's Bay, and he and his sous built 
a threshing machine in 1852 for the Rev. Thomas Burns. Con- 
tinued making winnowing machines and other implements, 
when he and J. E. Brown took up Elderslee, Tokomairiro. 
Was elder in Established Church in Scotland, and came out at 
the Disruption in 1843. Joined First Church Session 1851, 
and Tokomairiro Session 1857. Mrs. Brow:i died October, 1878, 
aged 83; and Mr. Brown, July, 1882, aged 85. 

BROWN, J. ELDER, son, arrived by "Ajax." January. 1849. 
Erected sawmill at Water of Leith for Mr. Valpy, and worked 
it for twenty months. Out of friendship for Mr. Blackie, re- 
lieved him of the school on the latter 's health failing. The 
threshing machine mentioned above was entirely made of 
native materials, Mr. Robert Cramond doing the blacksmithing 
work. It threshed the first crop of wheat of any considerable 
extent grown in the district. A model of the machine made 
by Mr. J. E. Brown is in the Museum, having been shown 
at the Exhibition of 1889-90. Assisted to erect Peter McGill's 
flourmill, set going in October, 1857. Sold half-acre on Main 
South Road to W. H. Mansfortl, who put up a store, the be- 
ginning of the township of Milton. Same year surveyed twenty- 
five acres into town lots for Mr. McGill, being one of the 
earliest subdivisions deposited with the Registrar of Deeds, 
Dunedin. Such rapid progress was made that Milton was de- 
clared an incorporated town in 1866, Mr. Brown being Mayor 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 309 

for first three years. Following Mr. Charles O'Xeill's lead, 
Mr. Brown executed all the surveys and engineering work for 
fourteen years, besides having a considerable private practice. 
Chairman of School Committee for four years, and a Justice 
over twenty-eight years. 

CAEEICK, EOBEET, born Glasgow; arrived "Philip Laing?' 
1848; shepherd; on coasting boat; visited Australian colonies; 
returned, engaged farming pursuits; killed in Port Molyneux 

CAMPBELL, EOBEET, born September, 1814, at Eenton, Car- 
dross, Dumbartonshire; in 1848 emigrated to New Zealand in 
"Ajax"'; was employed by Mr. Kettle on survey for some 
time; bought land on west side of harbour, and lived there 
for several years. In 1856 bought eighty acres at Kaihiku, 
which it took five days to reach. Increased his holding, and 
named it Glenfalloeh, after the village at the head of Loch 
Lomond. Things prospered with him, and in 1880 made a trip 
to Scotland with Mrs. Campbell; left her in Scotland, and 
returned to Xew Zealand, making a second trip in 1882. On 
his return built a residence at St. Clair, where he died. 

CHBISTIE, EOBEET, born Perthshire; arrived "Eajah," 1853; 
farming at East Taieri and Puerua; died 1910. 

CHALMEBS. THOMAS, settled South Clutha; "Bobert Hender- 
son"; married Miss Sophia Careless, who arrived 1854. 

CLAPCOTT, HENEY. arrived "Carnatie" December, 1852; had 
been educated for church, but took up run Popotunoa Gorge; 
subsequently connected with Government Life Insurance De- 
partment as agent and lecturer; died in September, 1897. 

CLAEK. HEXBY, born in Berwickshire; was present at First Free 
Church Assembly in Tannahill 's Hall, and came out in the 
"Blundell," 1848. Built his whare where the Crown Hotel 
now stands; also owned ten-acre section at Mornington. En- 
gaged in building, his partner being Garvey, and subsequently 
Win. Langlands. Clarke street ^mis-spelt, however) is called 
after him. Farmed at Tokomairiro for twenty years, and has 
lived altogether forty years at Clarksville. When the "Little 
Enemy, ' ' or English party, wished all Maoris to have votes, 
Captain Cargill selected Messrs. Clark and Xichol to serve 
notices on the natives objecting to their voting. This was a 
big undertaking, but it was successfully carried out. Elected 
M.P.C. for Tokomairiro, 1864, then for Matau, and was a 
member till the abolition; member and Chairman of Bruce 
County Council since its start; member of Education Board 
since its start (1877). and Chairman twice; member of High 
Schools' Board of Governors and other public offices. 

CEA\VFOED, ELIZABETH (nee Fleming); arrived "Palmyra," 
1858; married John Crawford. 

310 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

CRAWFORD, JOHX; arrived "Robert Henderson." 185*; settled 
Tokomairiro District, Olutka, in 1862; resides there nt present. 

CHALMEES. XATHAXIEL, witnessed the small beginnings of the 
earliest days of settlement in Otago and Southland. He was 
born at Rothesay, in Scotland, but received his education 
at the Bluecoat School in London, subsequently entering a 
shipbroker's office in Liverpool. He emigrated to New Zea- 
land, arriving at Port Chalmers by the ship "Ajax" on 
January 7th, 1849. With his brother he took up land at 
Glenomaru, in the Clutha District, and continued pioneering 
operations until 1852, when both brothers went to the Vic- 
torian diggings. The other brother remained in Melbourne, 
but Xathaniel came back to southern Xew Zealand in July, 
1853, and made his way overland to his old home on the C'lutha. 
In September of 1853 deceased made an exploring trip 
through Otago that has seldom been equalled for thi? amount 
of new ground traversed. Accompanied by two Maoris, he 
went up the Waimea Plains, never previously trodden by a 
white foot, and via the Xokomai to the Kawarau. and on to 
Lake Hawea and Wanaka, returning by the Molyneux River 
to civilisation. In June, 1858, Mr. Chalmers went to reside 
at the Hokonui Run. which had formerly belonged to Mr. 
McXab, and named the property "Croydon."' a name which 
the district bears to this day. In 1861 he sold the Croydon 
Run to Messrs. Hill Bros., and removed to Invercargill. He 
was elected to the first Provincial Council of Southland, and 
was appointed Provincial Treasurer. During the absence of 
Dr. Menzies he occasionally acted as Deputy Superintendent. 
In consequence of bad health he left Invercargill in 1864, and 
thereafter resided on the Moa Flat Station until 1SGS, when 
his adventurous nature led him to Fiji, where he was in turn 
a cotton planter, sugar grower, and stipendiary magistrate. 

DABIXETT, JOB, born near Taunton, Somersetshire, England; 
arrived Otago 1856. "Isabella Hercus. " Settled at Wharepa. 
Made w r ooden plough and set wooden harrows. In 1887 settled 
in Owaka. where, in 1896, he died; aged 76 years. 

DALGLEISH, WILLIAM, born Moffat, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in 
1833. Mrs. Dalgleish (nee Pagan), also native of Dumfries- 
shire. Married at Dumfries, April 7th. 1857. Arrived Otago 
same year in ship "Bosworth.'' Mr.. Dalgleish was engaged 
as shepherd by "XV m. Gordon Rich, of Wairuna Estate, in 
December, 1857. Took up land at Waitepeka. where he died in 

DALZIEL, JOHX, arrived Wellington. 1854, in "Thomas and 
Henry"; came to Otago early in 1855. Was engaged as shep- 
herd by Mr. C. H. Kettle for his Kaihiku Run, wages being 
60 a year. Afterwards engaged farming at Kaihiku. Was 
first in that district to fence off farm to keep sheep. Sold out 
to James Brownlie, and shifted to Balclutha. In 1862 his father 
was killed in Kaihiku Bush by tree falling on him. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 311 

DALLAS, WILLIAM, born Kincarclineshire, Scotland. Worked in 
tow and jute mills, Dundee, for seven years. Married in 1858 
TO Mary Kerr, and in same year emigrated to Otago in ship 
"Jura." Took up land in 1863 at Te Houka. Was member 
of first Te Houka Road Board, then District Valuer for Clutha, 
Bruce, Tuapeka, and Taieri Counties^ Member of Land Board, 
and one of Otago School Commissioners. Chairman of Clutha 
County Council for seven or eight years. 

DALRYMPLE, MISS, the originator of the Girls' High School 
movement in Dunedin, and to whose exertions the School owes 
its existence. Began her campaign in 1864, but it was not till 
1871 that the School was opened. Miss Dalrymple's portrait is 
hung in the class room. She resides in the Xorth Island. 

DAWSOX, WILLIAM, arrived ship "Phoebe Dunbar," 1850; re- 
sided Green Island; worked Horseshoe Bush, then Inch Clutha, 
to which place Mr. Dawson and wife walked; for ploughing 
used horses, which Mr. Dawson led while Mrs. Dawson held 
plough handles; was first settler at Wangaloa; removed to farm 
at Woodlands; then Tapanui. Has been member of Road 
Boards, Southland.. 

DUNX. DAVID, born at Auchterarder; arrived by ship "Rajah," 
1853; settled in Clutha District. Mrs. Dunn arrived in 
"Simla," 1851. 

DUTHIE, JANE MARTIX, born Moneymore, January 5, 1815; 
landed Wellington "Lady Nugent," 1841; Otago February, 
1846. Settled Tokomairiro, 1852. Only two or three European 
women Otago when Mrs. Duthie arrived; only six settlers 
Tokomairiro when she went there with her husband. 

DUTHIE, ALEXANDER, born at Montrose, 1818; came from Wel- 
lington (1841) with the first survey party under Mr. Kettle 
in 1846. Helped to build the first jetty, the piles being 
dragged by bullocks from Pine Hill. Settled in Tokomairiro 
in 1852. Mrs. Duthie came with her husband from Wellington, 
the other members of the party being Mr. and Mrs. Kettle 
and Messrs. E. and R. Martin. Mr. Duthie died in January. 
1863. and Mrs. Duthie in 1897. 

FIXX. JOHN, born St. John's. N.A., 1837. Came from Auckland 
(1852) by schooner "Ellen," 1853. Engaged seafaring; lived 
at Balclutha. Found body of Wilson, murdered by Fratson. 
Was first boatman on Molyneux River. 

FRAZER, JAMES, born Inverness, February. 1808; arrived "Ber- 
nicia.'' December 2, 1848; engaged farming Halfway Bush, 
then at Tuakitoto, where he remained till his death. Was 
member Tuakitoto Road Board. 

FRAZKR. .1AMKS. born Inverness, December 2, 1847; arrived with 
parents in "Bernicia." December 2, 1848; engaged farming, 
building, in Kaitangat:i, Tuakitoto, and Colyton Districts. 

312 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

FULLEB, ALFEED D., one of the first party of Clutha settlers, 
Went round the coast to Willsher Bay, having a very rough 
experience, and selected land at the site of the Komahapa 
of the present day. While absent killing pigs for winter 
provisions, their house was burnt, blankets, food, clothing all 
being destroyed. He afterwards owned the Popotunoa Bun, 
and subsequently went Home. 

GEGGIE, JOHN, "Mont Belle Vue," Puerua, arrived in "Strath- 
more,'' 1856; settled in Puerua three years later. Took active 
interest in church and school matters; was deacon in Puerua 
Church, and an elder in the Wharepa Church, holding the latter 
oflice till his death in 1904, in the eightieth year of his age. 

GILFILLAX, JAMES, arrived "Blundell," 1848. Carpenter by 
trade. Settled at Blanket Bay, then shifted to Sawyer 's Bay. 
Engaged pit-sawing anc 1 carpentering work. Contractor for 
first inanse, Port ChaJmers. Removed to Wharepa; engaged 

GILLIES, JOHX, was born at Eothesay, Island of Bute, Scotland, 
in 1802, his father being a small crofter and hand-loom weaver. 
He entered a writer's (lawyer's) office, and on the death of 
his master was appointed to the office of town clerk in 1826. 
On receiving that appointment, he married Isabella Lillie, 
whose forefathers were of Huguenot descent, being among the 
refugees from France on the Eevocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. The issue of the marriage was six sons and three 
daughters, all born in Eothesay. Mr. Gillies, while holding the 
office of town clerk (which he did till he left Scotland), prac- 
tised his profession as a lawyer, and under him his eldest son, 
Thomas Bannatyne, received his legal training. In 1843, when 
the Disruption of the Church of Scotland took place, he took 
a prominent part in that movement in his native town, and, 
being an elder in the Church, was summoned to appear before 
the Presbytery of Dunoon "for following divisive courses in 
separating from the Church of Scotland. ' ' The original 
summons is preserved as an heirloom. In 1851 John Lillie 
Gillies went to Australia. The father, being a strong Free 
Kirk man, and mainly on account of the religious and educa- 
tional provisions made in connection with the settlement of 
Otago, decided to emigrate to New Zealand. In 1852, with 
his wife, four sons, two daughters, and one daughter-in-law 
(Mrs. T. B. Gillies), he sailed in the "Slains Castle." On 
arrival in Dunedin he purchased a ten-acre section and house 
at Halfway Bush, where he resided for many years. He also 
purchased a farm in Tokomairiro Plain, but never himself 
resided there, it being carried on by some of his sons. After 
a time he took up his profession in Dunedin, in partnership 
with Mr. John Hyde Harris, and was succeeded therein by 
his son Thomas Bannatyne, on his relinquishing his farm at 
Wharepa. For some time Mr. Gillies held the position of 
Eesident Magistrate and Sheriff, and finally that of Eegistrar 
of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. He took a deep interest 
in Church and State. He was a member of the old Provincial 
Council of Otago, and held the office of Speaker in that body. 

of D lined in and South Otago. 313 

He was one of the founders of Knox Church, and till his 
death its Session Clerk. He liked to hear the church bells on 
Sabbath Day, and was donor of the one which hangs in Milton 
Church steeple, and also that at West Taieri. He died in 
1872. his Avife and all the members of his family surviving 

menced his legal career, joining Mr. J. H. Harris. In 1860 
was elected to the General Assembly for Dunedin; was Attor- 
ney-General in 1862; Postmaster-General and Secretary for 
Lands in 1863-64; and in 1872 Treasurer in the short-lived 
Stafford Ministry.. In 1865 he removed to Auckland, and heul 
office as Superintendent from 1869 till 1873. He strongly 
opposed the Public Works policy of Sir Julius Vogel. In 1875 
he was elevated to the bench, and discharged the duties of 
the position in a singularly able manner until his death, July 
26, 1889. 

GILLIES, EGBERT, son, one of the founders of the firm of Gillies 
& Street. Was a man of considerable scientific attainments, 
a surveyor by profession, an active politician, and possessed 
good business qualities. Died in the prime of life, shortly 
after being elected M.H.R. for Bruce. 

GILLIES, J. L.. son, landed in Adelaide in 1851, and after 
obtaining Victorian experience came on to Dunedin in the 
"Gil Bias," 1855. Commenced farming at Tokomairiro, had 
a spell at digging at Gabriel's in 1861, elected M.P.C. for 
Tokomairiro same year, holding office as Treasurer, but resign- 
ing, in 1864: again elected in 186!', and became a non-official 
member of the Executive; was elected Speaker in 1871; was 
Speaker for a second term, retaining the position till the 
abolition of the Provinces; was elected M.H.R.. for Waikouaiti 
in 1873; was appointed secretary of the Otago Harbour Board 
in 1857. dying in harness in 1897. Was for some years member 
of" the Union Street School Committee, rendered good service 
to the Kaitangata Relief Fun 1, the Exhibition of 1865, and the 
Mining Conference in 1870; while he was chairman of the 
Commission appointed to :lraw up basis of union between 
Otago and Southland. 

GILLIES, EEV. WILLIAM, son, while a lad attained considerable 
proficiency in pioneering work at Tokomairiro, being famed, 
not only for stock riding and "bullock punching,'' but also 
for ploughing. Mr. Gillies was, however, destined for something 
better than this, and in 1858 he sailed for the Old Laud with 
;i view of getting a University education and being trained for 
the ministry. After some years' study he was licensed as a 
preacher of the Gospel by the Presbytery of London, and 
landed once more in Otago in June, 1864, accompanied by his 
wife. He was settled at West Taieri in January, 1865, leaving 
ten years later for Timaru. While in Otago he was Clerk of 
the Presbytery of Dunedin, and held a similar position in 
Timaru for eighteen years. The present brick church at West 
Taieri was built during his second year's ministry there, and 

314 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

at a corresponding period at Timarn a handsome concrete 
church was erected, a large and comfortable brick manse 
following in due course. Took the chief part in promoting the 
High School for boys and girls in Timaru; Chairman of Board 
during the first four years of its existence. Removed to 
Tauranga, Xorth Island, where he died. 

GORDON, ALEXANDER, born at Dalchearn, Strath of Kildonan, 
Sutherlandshire, Scotland; lived in Caithness for nineteen 
years. Arrived Otago "Clara," 1851; worked for A. J. Burns, 
then shepherding for Meredith on Popotunoa Run. Manager 
of Moa Flat for some years. First scab inspector in Wharepa. 
Took up land in front of Wharepa Bush, where he died. 

GR1GOR, ALEXANDER, born Cromarty. 1831, came in the " Three 
Bells," 1858; teacher in. Clutha District on arrival. Retired 
to Toiro, where he died. 

GRIGOR, ROBERT, born Edinburgh, 1841, came in ' ' Three Bells, ' ' 
joined the survey service in 1861, and has followed the pro- 
fession ever since. Mayor of Balclutha, J.P., and Returning 
Officer for Clutha. 

HARDY, JOHN, arrived by barque "Dunedin, '' 1856; took up land 
on Tokomairiro Plain; was architect and surveyor; built the 
first English Church at Milton; built first ferry house at Moly- 
neux; was M.P.C. for Tokomairiro; Provincial Treasurer and 
Secretary, 1863. Gabriel Read from his employ went on pros- 
pecting tour; was one of the first on Gabriel's. 

HAY. GEORGE, born Banffshire, 1819, arrived in "Ajax," 1849. 
The family were taken by boat to Willcher Bay; after working 
for settlers for three years, took up land; father and sons 
went to tho Gabriel rush, getting 500 a-piece in six months; 
bought more land in the Molyneux, dying in 1876. Member 
of Road Board and School Committees, and office-bearer in 
Presbyterian Church. 

HAY, JOHN, came with his parents in the " Ajax. " Entered 
survey service in 1867 as cadet at age of 19; District Surveyor 
for Southland. 1873; Chief Surveyor for Otago, 1897. 

HAY. WILLIAM, came out with his parents, a boy of ten. After 
his father's death continued to work the old farm. Member 
South Molyneux Road Board; member Clutha County Council, 
thrice Chairman; member School Committee; office-bearer Pres- 
byterian Church; member Clutha River Board, and a J.P. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hay (nee Miss Jenkinson) have six sons and five 
daughters living. 

JENKINSON. J. HARTLEY, born Halifax, Yorkshire, came out in 
"Blundell. " Was jetty keeper for some years; member of 
Town Board, 1861-2; ultimately settled at Port Molyneux; 
member Clutha County Council, chairman on several occasions; 
member Port Molyneux Road Board. School and Licensing 
Committees, being chairman of each at various times. Sons. 
Messrs Sidney H. Jenkinson (sub-editor "Melbourne Argus"), 
Hon. J. E. Jenkinson, M.L.C., G. H. Jenkinson. stock inspector; 
two daughters. 

q/ Dunedin and South Otago. 315 

JOHNSTON, ADAM DICKSON, taught at Wakari School, 1858-64, 
when he settled at Kaihiku and Chatton. Prominent breeder 
merino ?heep: elder Presbyterian Church, Died 1894, aged 66. 

JOHNSTON. ALEXANDER, and Mrs. Johnston, arrived "Jura"'; 
resident at Puerua for number of years. 

JOHNSTON. JOHN, born Moffat, Dumfriesshire; arrived "Royal 
Albert," 1858; settled first Green Island, subsequently Kaihiku. 

KETTLE, CHARLES HENRY, born at Dover, 1821. When 18 
took part in founding Wellington settlement, joining survey 
staff there; went Home, and was appointed on Otago settlement 
survey staff, and on arrival was made C'hief Surveyor; married 
Miss Amelia Omer, who came out with him in "Mary 
Catherine'' to Wellington; retained his appointment till the 
Company handed over settlement; appointed Government Sur- 
veyor and Registrar of Deeds; for some years followed pastoral 
pursuits, and finally appointed Provincial Auditor in 1862; 
represented the province in General Assembly, 1861-62, his 
useful career being cut short by death in the prime of manhood, 
June 5th, 1862. Was one of the founders of Young Men 's 
Christian Association, and an earnest Sunday-school worker. 
Of nine children, Mrs. Macassey was the first white girl born 
in Dunedin, Mrs. John Roberts was the first child christened 
by Dr. Burns in the settlement, and Judge Kettle is the first 
native-born judge. 

LAMOXD, JOHN, native of Perthshire, Scotland. Emigrated to 
Otago in 1857 in "Robert Henderson,'' arriving in February, 
1S58. Engaged as shepherd by James Smith, of Greenfield 
Station. Remained there for three years, and then bought a 
section at Waitepeka. where he lived till his death. 

LOVELL. JOHN, arrived by ship "Tasmania,'' 1853. bringing his 
parents and family with him. Took up land at Sawyer's Bay. 
then a sheep station (1854) at Kaitangata, Lovell 's Flat being 
called after him. His son was the first to discover coal in th 
locality, and took a bag to Dunedin to Captain Cargill. This 
son was afterwards drowned crossing the Molyneux. Went 
Home and bought .in estate in Sussex, but returned to Otago 
in 1864, residing in Dunedin until his death. March llth, 1897, 
aged 87. 

MAITLAND. JAMES PTLLANS. took up land on the Molyneux 
along with his brothers in the early 'fifties, carrying on farming 
and wool-growing for a number of years; was appointed R.M. 
for Clutha and Tokomairiro Districts in 1862, and in 1876 was 
given charge of the Lands Department as C'hief Commissioner, 

MANNING, DR. HEXRV. surgeon of "John Wickliffe," born at 
London. 1815, came out to Nelson in 1840 with immigrants; 
returned Home and came to Otago in tho "Wickliffe," remain- 
ing in Dunedin several years; again went Home, returning and 
practising in Dunedin till ho removed to Wharepa, where he 
died in 1884. Was exceedingly r'ond of sport, and won the first 
horse race in the settlement on his horse "Harrv. " 

316 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

MARTIN, EDWARD, born in Moneyinore, Limerick, arrived Wel- 
lington, 1841, bringing bis orphan brothers and sisters with 
him. Came to Otago with Mr. Kettle's survey party, 1846; 
settled in Tokomairiro, 1852; sold his first selection at the end 
of sixteen years, and bought the property he called Mcmeymore, 
where he died in 1888. Mrs. Martin (nee Annie Reid) came 
in "Pekin," 1849. 

MERCER, ANDREW, born Dtmfermline, and came out in "Philip 
Laing" in 1848. Tn conjunction with his partner, Mr. George 
Ross, bought land before leaving Scotland; started storekeep- 
mg, but in 1851 settled on his Clutha section, resuming business 
in Dunedin as grocer in 1860; retired in 18SO, going to live at 
Portobello, then in Dunedin; member City Council for seven 
or eight years, and Mayor in 1874-5; J.P. since 1872.. 

MOFFAT, WILLIAM, native of Peebleshire, Scotland; arrived 
Otago, 1858, by "Three Bells." Lived in North-East Valley, 
where he managed a dairy farm for Mr., Tohn r Reid. At the 
end of eighteen months shifted to Moa Hill as manager for 
Mr. John Healey. Afterwards engaged farming on his own 
account. Bought Mr. Kettle's farm at Kaihiku Buh. Died 
in 1891. 

MOSLEY, WILLIAM ALFRED, born Radford, 1817; came out in 
"John Wickliffe"; took up land at Halfway Bush: removed 
to Port Molyneux in 1852, settling next year in Inch Clutha. 
Member of various local bodies, and elected M.P.C. Died 1889, 
leaving fifteen of a family. 

MUNRO, GEORGE, native of Sutherlandshire, Scotland. Arrived 
in Otago in 1858 in "Palmyra. " Stonemason by trade. Em- 
ployed by Bortou and McMaster to build stone houses at 
Maerewhenua Station. Returned to Dunedin in I860; then 
in 1861 settled at Whnrepa, where he built the first stone 
house in the Clutha. Presented the site of the present Wharepa 
Church to the congregation. 

McNEIL, Mrs.. MARGARET BLAIR (nee McDonald); arrived 
with her parents in the "Simla," 1851. Married 1S59, and 
settled with her husband in Clutha. Mrs. Whelan (Waihola) 
and Mrs. Charles Morgan (Taieri Beach) sisters. 

McNEIL, JAMES, born Dumbartonshire, 1799; arrived in " Mool- 
tan, ' ' 1849, a son having preceded him in 1848. Settled at 
Blanket Bay, but removed to the Clutha, starting a ferry and 
rearing cattle. Died 1875. 

McNETL, JOHN, born Dumbartonshire; came in "Mooltan"; 
settled in Clntha, 1852; was first Mayor of Balclutha; M.P.C. 
for Clutha last ten sessions; first Chairman Clutha County 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 317 

NICOL, WALTER, native of Inverleithen, Peebleshire. Scotland. 
Arrived in Otago in 1858 in "Three Bells." Carpentering 
was his trade, and for many years he followed that trade 
both in Dunedin and Clutha. Helped to build first bridge over 
Mataura River and the Accommodation House there. In 1860 
* was engaged building additions to school residence. \Vharepa, 
and in 1863 the Crown Hotel, Balclutha. In 1864 married 
Miss MacDonald. and some years afterwards engaged farming 
at Kaihiku.. 

PATERSON, JAMES, and Mrs. Paterson and family, arrived 
"Jura"; resident Port Molyneux. 

PERKINS. W. R.. born Manchester; arrived "Mooltan," 1849; 
father died of cholera on board, leaving six of a family; built 
first stone house Otago; drove first trap from Dunedin to In- 
vercargill; ran first excursion steamer from Invercargill to 
Stewart Island; has had more than fair share of adventures; 
went to live in Invercargill. 

PETRIE, ALEXANDER, born at Keith Hall. Aberdeenshire, Scot- 
land, in 1837. At the age of 19 years left for New Zealand 
in 1856 in the " Strathmore. " Worked at Taieri and on Clyde- 
vale Station till 1858. when he went with Murison Bros, to 
look for a run. Was the first white man to set foot on the 
Maniototo Plain. Had a spell at the diggings, where he did 
well. Was engaged waggoning on the roads; then took to 
farming and dealing ir- horses and cattle, and had also an 
interest in sawmilling. Leased his farm to W. Dalgleish, and 
now lives retired at Waitepeka. 

PILLANS, FRANCIS SCOTT, born Fifeshire; came out in the 
"Mooltan," 1849. thirteen or fourteen people dying of cholera 
on the voyage. Took up land at Inch Clutha, he and Mr. 
Ferguson being among the first settlers in the district, Mr. 
Redpath preceding them. The original section bought is still 
in the family. For many years M.L.C.. resigning in 1871. and 
dying December 12th, 18*89*; aged 80. 

QUERTIER, A., born in Island of Guernsey; arrived with his wife 
by "Kinnaird," July 7, 1860; brought Guernsey cattle, 
descendants of which he has now; took flour to Dunstan rush; 
settled at Clutha in 1863; sold out after eighteen years, and 
went to Mataura. where he now resides. 

REDPATH, THOMAS, came in "Ajax." 1849; settled in Clutha 
District; erected a receiving store for goods in 1856, all the 
wool from the country districts round passing through it. via 
river mouth, to Dunedin. Died 1862. 

Bengal, 1810; entered the East India Company's service. 1830, 
and had a distinguished military career of twenty-two years. 
Arrived in Otago by the "Strathmore," 1856, settling in the 
Molyneux District; elected M.P.C.. and unanimously chosen 
Speaker; elected Superintendent 1861; re-elected to the 
Council; elected M.H.R. for Dunedin 1861, and subsequently 

318 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

member for Taranaki; was member of the Stafford Govern- 
ment; elevated to the Upper House, and appointed Speaker; 
succeeded Dr. Burns as < 'hancellor of the University, being in 
turn succeeded by Judge Chapman. He was a man of noble 
disposition, was the firmest and most enlightened friend of 
education; one of the first to move in the direction of higher 
education for women; foremost in philanthropic movements; 
was revered and honoured by people of every degree. Mid had 
every quality that endears man to his fellow-men. Died in 
Dunedin December 6, 1878. His son, Mr. George Eichardson, 
still resides in Dunedin. 

filDDELL, 'THOMAS, born at Bonar Bridge, Scotland. Emigrated 
to Australia, but, not liking the place, came to Otago in 1858 
in the s.s. "Queen." Settled at Oamaru, where he was 
shepherding for Hon. M. Holmes on the Awamoa Estate. 
Married in Oamaru. Shifted to Wharepa, buying his brother- 
in-law's farm. Shortly after his death Mrs. Eiddell shifted 
to Balclutha. 

KOBEETS, JAMES, and Mrs. Eoberts arrived "Jura." 1858; resi- 
dent Kaihiku; natives of Linlithgow, Scotland. 

EOBSOX, EOBEET, born at Howick; came out via Wellington in 
1851. Managed the Horseshoe Bush Station, Waihola, for seven 
years, and then took up land at Te Houka, being the second 
settler in the district. Lived on ' ' Whiteloa ' ' till his death, 
twenty-eight years afterwards; was noted for his Lincoln and 
merino sheep and thoroughbred horses, winning many prizes; 
secured the highest prize for grains ever offered in Xew 
Zealand 30 and a gold medal for best 500 bushels malting 
barley; member of Eoad Board; took prominent part in Church 
affairs. Family of seAen, of whom only one son and one 
daughter are now alive. 

EOBSON, WALTEE, son, occupied the home farm for four years, 
then removed to Hawke's Bay. Xow resides at Howick, Auck- 
laud. Christina Eobson, his sister, married Mr. James Ayson, 
"Finegand, " Balclutha, now of Albert Downs, Kaihiku. 

EOBEBTSOX, JAMES, born at Strathardle, 1813; came out in 
the "Southern Cross," 1856; first employment after landing 
was cutting wheat with a sickle at Grant's Braes; took up 
land at Wharepa. Mrs. Bobertson came out with her husband. 

SAUXDEBS, SIMOX. native of Aberdeen, came from Melbourne 
in 1861. Took up land in Owaka in 1865, where he stayed for 
three years. Went back to sea; never heard of again, ship 
foundering with all on board. 

SHAW, JOHN, born Perthshire; studied law at Glasgow Uni- 
versity; came out in the "Maori," 1852, settling at Clutha; 
sister accompanied him. Died at "Finegand," 1894. For some 
years represented Clutha in Provincial Council. Settled on 
the south bank of the Molyneux Biver. Besides his freehold 
had a run extending to Wharepa Bush. Mr. Shaw and his 
sister were remarkable for their liberality and hospitality. 
After his sister's death Mr. Shaw married; two sons ami two 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 319 

SHEPHERD, JOHN, first policeman in Otago; born at Skeen; 
came out with his wife in the "Ajax"; was employed in the 
Clutha District till 1854, when he was appointed chief con- 
stable at Dunedin; resigned in 1861 in consequence of the in- 
rush of people as a result of the discovery of gold, and retired 
to his farm at Clutha, dying there 1866. One daughter. 

SHIELS, JAMES, arrived in "Jura," and after working in Dun- 
edin for five years too!; up land at Port Molyueux, where he 
still lives. Four sons, one daughter. 

SMAILL, ANDREW, born in Edinburgh, 1815; came out in 
"Strathallau, " 1858. Took up land at Inch Clutha, and 
farmed it till his death, September 4th, 1880; was a deacon 
of the Presbyterian Church for many years; member of Road 
Board for lengthened period. 

SMITH. JAMES GREENFIELD, left Greenock in barque "New 
Zealand," arriving at Nelson November, 1842; came to Otago 
in May, 1848, and opened a shop in partnership with Mr. James 
Allan at what was afterwards known as Bullen 's Corner. Hav- 
ing sawed timber for their bakehouse at Port Chalmers, they 
rafted it up the harbour, supplementing it with some from 
Anderson's Bay; purchased in 1851 their first lambs from 
Mr. Jones, sending them out to Hopehill, East Taieri. The 
partnership was dissolved in 1851, Mr. Smith taking over the 
farm and Mr. Allan the business. Mr. Smith next went to 
Tokoinairiro, where he grew the first crop of wheat harvested 
in the district, selling it at 13/- per bushel, delivered at the 
head of Waihola Lake: carted goods to the Clutha, drove 
cattle with Mr. Allan fiom Rivertcn, and rode from Nelson to 
Dunedin, after paying a visit to his friends there; then 
bought several acres of land at Tokomairiro, and* in conjunc- 
tion with Messrs. Alex. Duthie, E. Martin, R. Martin, Chrystal, 
Dewe. Poppelwell, R.. Murray. \V. Black, J. L. Gillies, and 
H. Clark made a passable road to Lake Waihola for the 
public good; in 1859-61 was in partnership with Mr. John 
Martin in a run at Tuapeka, but the discovery of gold com- 
pelled them to sell out; drove his sheep to the adjoining run, 
which was afterwards declared a hundred, bought the freehold 
of an extensive area of the hundred, which he so vastly 
improved that it justly bears the Dame of ''Greenfield," and 
which was recently purchased by the Government. 

SMITH, WILLIAM, born Glentanner, 1814; came out in "Lar- 
kins"; resided on his suburban land at North-East Valley for 
seven years; removed to North Clutha in 1X57; M.P.C. *1856, 
and an elder of First Church in the early 'fifties. He took up 
a farm in Kuri Bush in 1853, but entered the employment of 
Mr. Reynolds in Dunedin. 

SMITH, PETER, born Aboyne, Aberdeenshire: arrived by " Lar- 
kiiis. " 1849; settled Ch.tha District. 

HOMERY1LLE, MRS. JAMES (nee Begg) is a native of Liberton, 
Midlothian, and arrived in Otago per the ship "Blinulell, " in 
September, 1848; lived in her father's house at Anderson's 
Bay; married in Otago, and had five children; removed to 
Waitepeka with her husband. 

320 Reminiscences of the Early Settlement 

SOMERV1LLE, JAMES, born Edgehead. parish of Cranston, Mid- 
lothian, Scotland, in 1830; arrived Otago "Blundell," 1848. 
Farming at Anderson's Bay; ultimately settled at Waitepeka, 
where, in conjunction with his brothers, entered into business as 
storekeepers and millers., Took active interest in Church 
matters in both Wharepa and Puerua congregations, in latter 
of which he was an honoured elder. Died 1910. 

SOMEEVILLE, JOHN, born at Edgehill, 1828; came out with his 
parents in the "Blundell"; commenced farming at Anderson's 
Bay, but settled at Waitepeka; clerk and engineer to the 
Wharepa Road Board; clerk School Committee, and twice a 
member of Clutha County Council; was collector of the 
unpopular poll-tax imposed in the early 'fifties in the Clutha 
District for educational purposes; engaged storekeeping. Two 
sons, four daughters. Died 1904. 

SOMERV1LLE, MRS. JOHN (nee Brown); arrived "Eden." 1850, 
with her parents, Mr. and Mrs.. George Brown. 

STEEL, D. P., arrived 18.~1. and was one of the first settlers on 
the Taieri Plain. Settled at Puerua early in the 'fifties, naming 
his propertv "Underwood.'' Died in Victoria two vears ago. 
M.P.C. 1860-64. 

STREET, CHARLES H., of well-known firm Gillies and Street, of 
early days; arrived "Maori" on her second trip; took up land 
in Wharepa District, but afterwards went to Auckland, where 
he died. 

SUTHERLAND, MRS. ROBERT, born Caithness; arrived "Clara," 
1851; 1-856, Waitepeka. Family five. 

SUTHERLAND, ROBERT, arrived "Rajah." 1853; Waitepeka, 
1856. First shoemaker in district; first to grow famous 
Sutherland oats. " 

TOLMIE, THOMAS, born Cador, Nairnshire. Scotland; arrived 
"Thomas and Henry," 1855; settled in Clntha District; car- 
penter by trade; built first manse at Puerua.. Died in 1900; 
aged 72 years. 

TWISS, FREDERIC, born Cambridge; emigrated Victoria 1851; 
returned England 1857; married same year; came New Zealand 
"Nourmahal, " May, 1858; first white couple settled LovelPs 
Flat; left Lo veil's Flat 1871; settled for seven years North 
Branch; resides Milton. 

WILLOCKS, W'lLLIAM. born at Brechin, 1822; came out in the 
ship "Mariner." 1850; started building at Port Chalmers, 
afterwards carrying on his trade on the site of Messrs. 
Scoullar and Chisholm's premises. Settled in the Clutha Dis- 
trict in 1854. A son (Mr. James Willocks, Stirling) and 
daughter (Mrs. A. Landells, Dunedin) came out with their 
parents, and two sons were born in the Colony. 

of Dunedin and South Otago. 

WEIGHT, JOHiN, native of Pluscardin. Morayshire, Scotland. In 
1859 married Miss G rigor, and left for New Zealand the day 
after the wedding, arriving in 1860 in ship "Gala. r ' Resided 
in Wharepa District for 42 years. Took an active interest in 
Church and school matters. Was for many years a respected 
elder of the Wharepa Church. 

YOUNG. WILLIAM, arrived by ship "Mary." 1849. accompanied 
by his wife and two children, one of whom was Mr. Samuel 
Young. Tuapeka West. Was an elder of First Church for many 






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